Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Qualitative Research Related Abstracts

30 Pregnancy through the Lens of Iranian Women with HIV: A Qualitative

Authors: Zahra BehboodiI-Moghadam, Zohre Khalajinia, Ali Reza Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Minoo Mohraz


The purpose of our study was to explore and describe the experiences of pregnant women with HIV in Iran. A qualitative exploratory study with conventional content analysis was used. Twelve pregnant women with HIV who referred to perinatal care at the Imam Khomeini Hospital Behavioral Diseases Consultation: Center in Tehran were recruited to participate in in-depth interviews. The average age of the participants was 32.5 years. Four main themes were extracted from the data: “fear and hope, “stigma and discrimination, “marital life stability” and “trust”. The findings reveal the pregnant women living with HIV are vulnerable and need professional support. Improving the knowledge of healthcare professionals especially midwifes on pregnancy complications for women with HIV is crucial in order to provide high-quality care to pregnant women with HIV-positive.

Keywords: HIV, pregnancy, Content Analysis, Qualitative Research, Experiences, Iran

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29 Police Mothers at Home: Police Work and Danger-Protection Parenting Practices

Authors: Debra Langan, Tricia Agocs, Carrie B. Sanders


Studies of the challenges faced by women in policing have paid little attention to the specific experiences of Policewomen who are mothers. Guided by critical theorizing on the gendered nature of the police culture and domestic labor, 16 police officer mothers in Ontario, Canada, were interviewed. Our qualitative analyses explore their experiences of the “lion’s share” of domestic labor; the organizational, cultural, and operational features of policing; and the challenges of child care, and examine how these combine to foster particular stresses. In contrast to intensive mothering approaches that rely on the advice of external experts, our participants work to protect children by carefully constructing stories and asking questions that are based on their own on-the-job experiences with dangerous and/or abhorrent situations. As such, they engage in danger-protection parenting practices to prevent their children from becoming victims or offenders. Our research extends the theorizing on intensive/extensive mothering practices, builds on the scholarship on policing, and adds to the literature on women in nonstandard occupations. This sociological analysis of police mothers’ experiences and practices underscores the importance of understanding and working to change the social contexts, at work and at home, that compromise the well-being of police mothers and other emergency-response workers.

Keywords: Qualitative Research, Parenting, Mothers, policewomen, danger

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28 Voices and Pictures from an Online Course and a Face to Face Course

Authors: Eti Gilad, Shosh Millet


In light of the technological development and its introduction into the field of education, an online course was designed in parallel to the 'conventional' course for teaching the ''Qualitative Research Methods''. This course aimed to characterize learning-teaching processes in a 'Qualitative Research Methods' course studied in two different frameworks. Moreover its objective was to explore the difference between the culture of a physical learning environment and that of online learning. The research monitored four learner groups, a total of 72 students, for two years, two groups from the two course frameworks each year. The courses were obligatory for M.Ed. students at an academic college of education and were given by one female-lecturer. The research was conducted in the qualitative method as a case study in order to attain insights about occurrences in the actual contexts and sites in which they transpire. The research tools were open-ended questionnaire and reflections in the form of vignettes (meaningful short pictures) to all students as well as an interview with the lecturer. The tools facilitated not only triangulation but also collecting data consisting of voices and pictures of teaching and learning. The most prominent findings are: differences between the two courses in the change features of the learning environment culture for the acquisition of contents and qualitative research tools. They were manifested by teaching methods, illustration aids, lecturer's profile and students' profile.

Keywords: Qualitative Research, face to face course, online course, vignettes

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27 The Significance of Picture Mining in the Fashion and Design as a New Research Method

Authors: Katsue Edo, Yu Hiroi


T Increasing attention has been paid to using pictures and photographs in research since the beginning of the 21th century in social sciences. Meanwhile we have been studying the usefulness of Picture mining, which is one of the new ways for a these picture using researches. Picture Mining is an explorative research analysis method that takes useful information from pictures, photographs and static or moving images. It is often compared with the methods of text mining. The Picture Mining concept includes observational research in the broad sense, because it also aims to analyze moving images (Ochihara and Edo 2013). In the recent literature, studies and reports using pictures are increasing due to the environmental changes. These are identified as technological and social changes (Edo 2013). Low price digital cameras and i-phones, high information transmission speed, low costs for information transferring and high performance and resolution of the cameras of mobile phones have changed the photographing behavior of people. Consequently, there is less resistance in taking and processing photographs for most of the people in the developing countries. In these studies, this method of collecting data from respondents is often called as ‘participant-generated photography’ or ‘respondent-generated visual imagery’, which focuses on the collection of data and its analysis (Pauwels 2011, Snyder 2012). But there are few systematical and conceptual studies that supports it significance of these methods. We have discussed in the recent years to conceptualize these picture using research methods and formalize theoretical findings (Edo et. al. 2014). We have identified the most efficient fields of Picture mining in the following areas inductively and in case studies; 1) Research in Consumer and Customer Lifestyles. 2) New Product Development. 3) Research in Fashion and Design. Though we have found that it will be useful in these fields and areas, we must verify these assumptions. In this study we will focus on the field of fashion and design, to determine whether picture mining methods are really reliable in this area. In order to do so we have conducted an empirical research of the respondents’ attitudes and behavior concerning pictures and photographs. We compared the attitudes and behavior of pictures toward fashion to meals, and found out that taking pictures of fashion is not as easy as taking meals and food. Respondents do not often take pictures of fashion and upload their pictures online, such as Facebook and Instagram, compared to meals and food because of the difficulty of taking them. We concluded that we should be more careful in analyzing pictures in the fashion area for there still might be some kind of bias existing even if the environment of pictures have drastically changed in these years.

Keywords: Qualitative Research, Empirical Research, fashion and design, Picture Mining

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26 There's No End in Sight: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Quality of Life in Burning Syndrome Sufferers

Authors: S. Curtin, A. Trace, R. McGrath, C. McCreary


Introduction: Although, in relation to Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS), much energy has been expended on its definition and etiology, it still remains a contentious issue. There is agreement on the symptoms, but on little else; and approaches to treatment vary widely. However, it has been established that the condition has a detrimental effect on the sufferer’s quality of life. Much research focus has been put on the physical impact of the syndrome. Recently, some literature has turned the focus to social, functional, and psychological factors. However, there is very little qualitative research on how burning mouth syndrome affects the lives of sufferer’s and the present study seeks to remedy this. Method: The study recruited five male participants who took part in semi-structured interviews lasting between 30 and 50 minutes. Data was analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Results: The study identified four super-ordinate themes: Lack of Control due to Uncertainty about Condition; Disruption to Internal Sense of Self; Negative Future Expectation due to Chronic Symptoms; and Sense of BMS as an Intrusive Force. Aspects of these themes reflect areas of reduction in quality of life. Conclusion: BMS damages an individual’s quality of life in ways that have not been reflected in self-report surveys of health-related quality of life. The condition has serious implications for the individual's sense of self, identity, and future. The study recommends that further qualitative research be carried out in this area. Also, the use of therapeutic interventions with sufferers from BMS is recommended, which would help not only sufferers but best practice in relation to their treatment.

Keywords: Quality of Life, Qualitative Research, burning mouth syndrome, interpretative phenomenological analysis

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25 Social Space or the Art of Belonging: The Socio-Spatial Approach in the Field of Residential Facilities for Persons with Disabilities

Authors: Sarah Reker


The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) provides the basis of this study. For all countries which have ratified the convention since its entry into force in 2007, the effective implementation of the requirements often leads to considerable challenges. Furthermore, missing indicators make it difficult to measure progress. Therefore, the aim of the research project is to contribute to analyze the consequences of the implementation process on the inclusion and exclusion conditions for people with disabilities in Germany. Disabled People’s Organisations and other associations consider the social space to be relevant for the successful implementation of the CRPD. Against this background, the research project wants to focus on the relationship between a barrier-free access to the social space and the “full and effective participation and inclusion” (Art. 3) of persons with disabilities. The theoretical basis of the study is the sociological theory of social space (“Sozialraumtheorie”).

Keywords: Qualitative Research, decentralisation, residential facilities, social space

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24 Learning through Reflective Practice of Nursing Students in the Delivery Room: A Qualitative Research

Authors: Sumitta Sawangtook, Peeranan Wisanskoonwong


Practicum in Midwifery II is the subject that affects most students to be stressed and anxious because they lack of experiences and self-confidence in delivery baby. This study is a qualitative research. That research objectives were (1) to study learning through reflective practice of nursing students (2) to explain the effects of learning through reflective practice of nursing students in the delivery room. The selected key informant method was criterion-based selection. Thirty-two of fourth-year nursing students in Kuakarun Faculty of nursing who practiced in Delivery room at Taksin Hospital in academic year 2014 were selected. Data collection was data triangulation which consisted of in-depth interview, group discussion and reading students’ reflective practice journal. The research instruments were students’ reflective practice journal, semi-structured questionnaires for in-depth interview, group discussion. Data analysis was thematic analysis. The research result found that: The learning method through reflective practice of nursing students in the delivery room were (1) reflective practice journal (2) dialogue (3) critical thinking and problem solving (4) incident analysis (5) self-criticism (6) observation and evaluation of practice. There were eight issues that students learned through their reflective practice were that (1) students' ethics and morality. (2) students' knowledge and comprehension (3) creative thinking of students (4) communications and collaboration (5) experiential learning of students (6) students’memories and impressions (7) students’experience in delivery baby (8) self-learning of students. Learning through reflective practice supported students’ awareness in improving knowledge and learning continuously and systematically. It helped to adjust the attitude to learning and leadership to be careful which help develop their skills, including critical thinking and understand themselves and understand others. Recommendation for applying research results: midwifery and nursing lecturers can apply these results to be a guide for development their clinical teaching in delivery rooms and other wards.

Keywords: Learning, Qualitative Research, birth, reflection

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23 Depth of Field: Photographs, Narrative and Reflective Learning Resource for Health Professions Educators

Authors: Gabrielle Brand, Christopher Etherton-Beer


The learning landscape of higher education environment is changing, with an increased focus over the past decade on how educators might begin to cultivate reflective skills in health professions students. In addition, changing professional requirements demand that health professionals are adequately prepared to practice in today’s complex Australian health care systems, including responding to changing demographics of population ageing. To counteract a widespread perception of health professions students’ disinterest in caring for older persons, the authors will report on an exploratory, mixed method research study that used photographs, narrative and small group work to enhance medical and nursing students’ reflective learning experience. An innovative photo-elicitation technique and reflective questioning prompts were used to increase engagement, and challenge students to consider new perspectives (around ageing) by constructing shared storylines in small groups. The qualitative themes revealed how photographs, narratives and small group work created learning spaces for reflection whereby students could safely explore their own personal and professional values, beliefs and perspectives around ageing. By providing the space for reflection, the students reported how they found connection and meaning in their own learning through a process of self-exploration that often challenged their assumptions of both older people and themselves as future health professionals. By integrating cognitive and affective elements into the learning process, this research demonstrates the importance of embedding visual methodologies that enhance reflection and transformative learning. The findings highlight the importance of integrating the arts into predominantly empirically driven health professional curricula and can be used as a catalyst for individual and/or collective reflection which can potentially enhance empathy, insight and understanding of the lived experiences of older patients. Based on these findings, the authors have developed ‘Depth of Field: Exploring Ageing’ an innovative, interprofessional, digital reflective learning resource that uses Prezi Inc. software (storytelling tool that presents ideas on a virtual canvas) to enhance students’ reflective capacity in the higher education environment.

Keywords: Qualitative Research, Narrative, Reflective learning, photo-elicitation

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22 Everyday Interactions among Imprisoned Sex Offenders: A Qualitative Study within the 'Due Palazzi' Prison in Padua

Authors: Matteo Mazzucato, Elena Faccio, Antonio Iudici


Prison is a social reality constructed by everyday interactions between an inmate, other social actors (cellmates, prison officers, educationalists and psychologists or other detainees) and the external world which participates in this complex construction through the social discourses on prison reality and its problems. Being a detainee means performing a self dealing with processes of stereotypization, attribution of a social role and prejudices assigned by various interlocutors and depending on what kind of crime one has been convicted of. Among all inmates, sex offenders are the ones who risk more to be socially condemned beyond a legal sentence since they have committed one of the most hated and disapproved crime. Regarding this, prison has to be considered as a critical context in which all community expectations and beliefs are converged: for common sense, rapists and child molesters are dangerous people who have to be stigmatized, punished and isolated. Furthermore, other detainees share a code of conduct by which the ‘sex offender’ is collocated at the lowest level of the social hierarchy of the prison. The penitentiary administration too defines this kind of detainee as a ‘vulnerable person to protect’ while prison staff considers him as a particular inmate who has to be treated and definitely changed. Considering all the complexities connected with being imprisoned as a sex offender, our research aimed at exploring how people convicted of sex crimes are called upon to manage all these hetero-narrations about their selves. Set this goal, textual data retrieved from this qualitative research show that sex offenders tend to not face the stigma assigned to them. They are rather used to minimize the story telling about their selves and costruct alternative biographies to be shared with other inmates. Managing narrations about their selves in this way permits to distance them from all the threats perceived living together with other detainees but it blocks sex offenders’ ri-signification of their offences during prison treatment. Given these results, prison administration should develop activities in order to create fields of interaction between detainees where experiencing new versions of their selves spendable even in external social situations. Regarding this it’s important to re-consider prison as part of the community and the sex offenders as a member of it.

Keywords: Interactions, Qualitative Research, prison reality, sex offender

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21 Being Second Parents: A Qualitative Research on Perceptions, Emotions, and Experiences of Adolescents towards Their Siblings with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Christi Conde, Claudia Macias, Bianca Sornillo


The effects of having a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) extends to the family specifically, to the typically developing siblings. Provided that Filipino values involve close family-ties and family-centeredness, this study is interested in exploring the experiences of Filipino adolescents as a sibling of those diagnosed with ASD. A total of eleven (11) Filipino individuals, 3 males and 8 females, ages 11-24 years old, participated in the study – 6 of them were interviewed while the rest partook in a ginabayang talakayan (a variation of a focus group discussion). The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results showed 5 major themes: (1) the individual has mixed emotions and perceptions towards sibling, (2) the individual experiences differential treatment from parents, (3) the individual has responsibilities towards sibling, (4) the individual experiences personal growth, and (5) the individual is adjusting to the unfavorable effects of having sibling with ASD. Another emerging theme is an interplay between acceptance of one’s sibling, and one’s emotions and perceptions. It was also observed that there were more positive changes than negative within the individual. Having a lifetime responsibility towards sibling was also evident. Differences across ages involve the depth of awareness of the sibling’s condition and its implications. Acknowledgement of future responsibilities was evident regardless of age.

Keywords: Adolescents, Qualitative Research, Emotions, Experiences, perceptions, siblings with ASD

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20 Qualitative Research on German Household Practices to Ease the Risk of Poverty

Authors: Marie Boost


Despite activation policies, forced personal initiative to step out of unemployment and a general prosper economic situation, poverty and financial hardship constitute a crucial role in the daily lives of many families in Germany. In 2015, ~16 million persons (20.2%) of the German population are at risk of poverty or social exclusion. This is illustrated by an unemployment rate of 13.3% in the research area, located in East Germany. Despite this high amount of persons living in vulnerable households, we know little about how they manage to stabilize their lives or even overcome poverty – apart from solely relying on welfare state benefits or entering in a stable, well-paid job. Most of them are struggling in precarious living circumstances, switching from one or several short-term, low-paid jobs into self-employment or unemployment, sometimes accompanied by welfare state benefits. Hence, insecurity and uncertain future expectation form a crucial part of their lives. Within the EU-funded project “RESCuE”, resilient practices of vulnerable households were investigated in nine European countries. Approximately, 15 expert interviews with policy makers, representatives from welfare state agencies, NGOs and charity organizations and 25 household interviews have been conducted within each country. It aims to find out more about the chances and conditions of social resilience. The research is based on the triangulation of biographical narrative interviews, followed by participatory photo interviews, asking the household members to portray their typical everyday life. The presentation is focusing on the explanatory strength of this mixed-methods approach in order to show the potential of household practices to overcome financial hardship. The methodological combination allows an in-depth analysis of the families and households everyday living circumstances, including their poverty and employment situation, whether formal and informal. Active household budgeting practices, such as saving and consumption practices are based on subsistence or Do-It-Yourself work. Especially due to the photo-interviews, the importance of inherent cultural and tacit knowledge becomes obvious as it pictures their typical practices, like cultivation and gathering fruits and vegetables or going fishing. One of the central findings is the multiple purposes of these practices. They contribute to ease financial burden through consumption reduction and strengthen social ties, as they are mostly conducted with close friends or family members. In general, non-commodified practices are found to be re-commodified and to contribute to ease financial hardship, e.g. by the use of commons, barter trade or simple mutual exchange (gift exchange). These practices can substitute external purchases and reduce expenses or even generate a small income. Mixing different income sources are found to be the most likely way out of poverty within the context of a precarious labor market. But these resilient household practices take its toll as they are highly preconditioned, and many persons put themselves into risk of overstressing themselves. Thus, the potentials and risks of resilient household practices are reflected in the presentation.

Keywords: Resilience, Qualitative Research, Labor Market, consumption practices

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19 The Analysis of Secondary Case Studies as a Starting Point for Grounded Theory Studies: An Example from the Enterprise Software Industry

Authors: Orestis Terzidis, Abilio Avila


A fundamental principle of Grounded Theory (GT) is to prevent the formation of preconceived theories. This implies the need to start a research study with an open mind and to avoid being absorbed by the existing literature. However, to start a new study without an understanding of the research domain and its context can be extremely challenging. This paper presents a research approach that simultaneously supports a researcher to identify and to focus on critical areas of a research project and prevent the formation of prejudiced concepts by the current body of literature. This approach comprises of four stages: Selection of secondary case studies, analysis of secondary case studies, development of an initial conceptual framework, development of an initial interview guide. The analysis of secondary case studies as a starting point for a research project allows a researcher to create a first understanding of a research area based on real-world cases without being influenced by the existing body of theory. It enables a researcher to develop through a structured course of actions a firm guide that establishes a solid starting point for further investigations. Thus, the described approach may have significant implications for GT researchers who aim to start a study within a given research area.

Keywords: Qualitative Research, Secondary Data Analysis, Grounded theory, interview guide, secondary case studies

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18 Ways to Sustaining Self-Care of Thai Community Women to Achieve Future Healthy Aging

Authors: Manee Arpanantikul, Pennapa Unsanit, Dolrat Rujiwatthanakorn, Aporacha Lumdubwong


In order to continuously perform self-care based on the sufficiency economy philosophy for the length of women’s lives is not easy. However, there are different ways that women can use to carry out self-care activities regularly. Some women individually perform self-care while others perform self-care in groups. Little is known about ways to sustaining self-care of women based on the fundamental principle of Thai culture. The purpose of this study was to investigate ways to sustaining self-care based on the sufficiency economy philosophy of Thai middle-aged women living in the community in order to achieve future healthy aging. This study employed a qualitative research design. Twenty women who were willing to participate in this study were recruited. Data collection were conducted through in-depth interviews with tape recording, doing field notes, and observation. All interviews were transcribed verbatim, and data were analyzed by using content analysis. The findings showed ways to sustaining self-care of Thai community women to achieve future healthy aging consisting of 7 themes: 1) having determination, 2) having a model, 3) developing a leader, 4) carrying on performing activities, 5) setting up rules, 6) building self-care culture, and 7) developing a self-care group/network. The findings of this study suggested that in order to achieve self-care sustainability women should get to know themselves, have intention and belief, together with having the power of community and support. Therefore, having self-care constantly will prevent disease and promote healthy in women’s lives.

Keywords: Qualitative Research, sufficiency economy philosophy, Thai middle-aged women, ways to sustaining self-care

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17 Empirical Study of Health Behaviors of Employees in Information Technology and Business Process Outsourcing

Authors: Yogesh Pawar


The purpose of this paper is to investigate the behaviors of information technology (IT) and business process outsourcing (BPO) employees in relation to diet, exercise, sleep, stress, and social habits. This was a qualitative research study, using in-depth,semi-structured interviews. Descriptive data were collected from a two-stage purposive sample of 28 IT-BPO employees from two IT companies and one BPOs in Pune. The majority of interviewees reported having an unhealthy diet and/or sedentary lifestyle. Lack of time due to demanding work schedules was the largest barrier to diet and exercise. Given the qualitative study design and limited sampling frame, results may not be generalizable. However, the qualitative data suggests that Pune’s young IT-BPO employees may be at greater risk of lifestyle-related diseases than the general population. The data also suggests that interventions incorporating social influence may be a promising solution, particularly at international call centers. The results from this study provide qualitative insight on the motives for health behaviors of IT-BPO employees, as well as the barriers and facilitators for leading a healthy lifestyle in this industry. The findings provide the framework for future workplace wellness interventions.

Keywords: Information Technology, Exercise, Wellness, Qualitative Research

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16 Exploring Spiritual Needs of Taiwanese Inpatients with Advanced Cancer and Their Family Caregivers

Authors: Szu Mei Hsiao


This study explores the spiritual needs of inpatients with advanced cancer and their family caregivers in one southern regional teaching hospital in Taiwan and elucidates the differences and similarities of spiritual needs between them. Little research reports the different phases of spiritual needs and the potential impact of Chinese cultural values on the spiritual needs. Qualitative inquiry was used. Twenty-one patients with advanced cancer and twenty-two family caregivers were recruited. During hospitalization, all participants identified spiritual needs both the palliative phase and the dying phase: (a) the need to foster faith/confidence and hope for medicine and/or God; (b) to understand the meaning and values of life; (c) to experience more reciprocal human love and forgiveness; and (d) to obey God’s/Heaven will. Furthermore, the differences of spiritual needs between patients with advanced cancer and their family caregivers are as follows: (a) family caregivers emphasized the need to inform relatives and say goodbye in order to die peacefully; (b) patients highlighted a need to maintain a certain physical appearance in order to preserve their dignity; nurture one’s willpower; learn about the experiences of cancer survivors; and identify one’s own life experience for understanding the meaning and values of life. Moreover, the dissimilarity of spiritual needs is that the patients pointed out the need to understand God’s will during the palliative treatment phase. However, the family caregivers identified the need to forgive each other, and inform relatives and say goodbye to patients in the dying phase. This research has shown that the needs of meaning/values of life and facing death peacefully are different between two groups. Health professionals will be encouraged to detect and to develop individualized care strategies to meet spiritual needs.

Keywords: Qualitative Research, Chinese culture, family caregivers, advanced cancer, spiritual needs

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15 A Comparative Study of Social Entrepreneurship Centers in Universities of the World

Authors: Farnoosh Alami, Nazgol Azimi


Universities have recently paid much attention to the subject of social entrepreneurship. As a result, many of the highly ranked universities have established centers in this regard. The present research aims to investigate vision and mission of social entrepreneurship centers of the best universities ranked under 50 by Shanghai List 2013. It tries to find the common goals and features of their mission, vision, and activities which lead to their present success. This investigation is based on the web content of the first top 10 universities; among which six had social entrepreneurship centers. This is a qualitative research, and the findings are based on content analysis of documents. The findings confirm that education, research, talent development, innovative solutions, and supporting social innovation, are shared in the vision of these centers. In regard to their missions, social participation, networking, and leader education are the most shared features. Their common activities are focused on five categories of education, research, support, promotion, and networking.

Keywords: Qualitative Research, comparative study, social entrepreneurship centers, universities in the world

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14 Developing an Intervention Program to Promote Healthy Eating in a Catering System Based on Qualitative Research Results

Authors: O. Katz-Shufan, T. Simon-Tuval, L. Sabag, L. Granek, D. R. Shahar


Meals provided at catering systems are a common source of workers' nutrition and were found as contributing high amounts calories and fat. Thus, eating daily catering food can lead to overweight and chronic diseases. On the other hand, the institutional dining room may be an ideal environment for implementation of intervention programs that promote healthy eating. This may improve diners' lifestyle and reduce their prevalence of overweight, obesity and chronic diseases. The significance of this study is in developing an intervention program based on the diners’ dietary habits, preferences and their attitudes towards various intervention programs. In addition, a successful catering-based intervention program may have a significant effect simultaneously on a large group of diners, leading to improved nutrition, healthier lifestyle, and disease-prevention on a large scale. In order to develop the intervention program, we conducted a qualitative study. We interviewed 13 diners who eat regularly at catering systems, using a semi-structured interview. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and then analyzed by the thematic method, which identifies, analyzes and reports themes within the data. The interviews revealed several major themes, including expectation of diners to be provided with healthy food choices; their request for nutrition-expert involvement in planning the meals; the diners' feel that there is a conflict between sensory attractiveness of the food and its' nutritional quality. In the context of the catering-based intervention programs, the diners prefer scientific and clear messages focusing on labeling healthy dishes only, as opposed to the labeling of unhealthy dishes; they were interested in a nutritional education program to accompany the intervention program. Based on these findings, we have developed an intervention program that includes: changes in food served such as replacing several menu items and nutritional improvement of some of the recipes; as well as, environmental changes such as changing the location of some food items presented on the buffet, placing positive nutritional labels on healthy dishes and an ongoing healthy nutrition campaign, all accompanied by a nutrition education program. The intervention program is currently being tested for its impact on health outcomes and its cost-effectiveness.

Keywords: Public Health, Intervention, Qualitative Research, Nutrition policy, catering system, food services

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13 The Spiritual Distress of Women Coping with the End of Life and Death of Their Spouses

Authors: Szu-Mei Hsiao


Many nurses have concerns about the difficulties of providing spiritual care for ethnic-Chinese patients and family members within their cultural context. This is due to a lack of knowledge and training. Most family caregivers are female. There has been little research exploring the potential impact of Chinese cultural values on the spiritual distress of couple dyadic participants in Taiwan. This study explores the spiritual issues of Taiwanese women coping with their husband’s advanced cancer during palliative care to death. Qualitative multiple case studies were used. Data was collected through participant observation and in-depth face-to-face interviews. Transcribed interview data was analyzed by using qualitative content analysis. Three couples were recruited from a community-based rural hospital in Taiwan where the husbands were hospitalized in a medical ward. Four spiritual distress themes emerged from the analysis: (1) A personal conflict in trying to come to terms with love and forgiveness; the inability to forgive their husband’s mistakes; and, lack of their family’s love and support. (2) A feeling of hopelessness due to advanced cancer, such as a feeling of disappointment in their destiny and karma, including expressing doubt on survival. (3) A feeling of uncertainty in facing death peacefully, such as fear of facing the unknown world; and, (4) A feeling of doubt causing them to question the meaning and values in their lives. This research has shown that caregivers needed family support, friends, social welfare, and the help of their religion to meet their spiritual needs in coping within the final stages of life and death. The findings of this study could assist health professionals to detect the spiritual distress of ethnic-Chinese patients and caregivers in the context of their cultural or religious background as early as possible.

Keywords: Qualitative Research, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, advanced cancer, spiritual distress

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12 Education for Sustainable Development Pedagogies: Examining the Influences of Context on South African Natural Sciences and Technology Teaching and Learning

Authors: A. U. Ugwu


Post-Apartheid South African education system had witnessed waves of curriculum reforms. Accordingly, there have been evidences of responsiveness towards local and global challenges of sustainable development over the past decade. In other words, the curriculum shows sensitivity towards issues of Sustainable Development (SD). Moreover, the paradigm of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) was introduced by the UNESCO in year 2015. The SDGs paradigm is essentially a vision towards actualizing sustainability in all aspects of the global society. Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in retrospect entails teaching and learning to actualize the intended UNESCO 2030 SDGs. This paper explores how teaching and learning of ESD can be improved, by drawing from local context of the South African schooling system. Preservice natural sciences and technology teachers in their 2nd to 4th years of study at a university’s college of education in South Africa were contacted as participants of the study. Using qualitative case study research design, the study drew from the views and experiences of five (5) purposively selected participants from a broader study, aiming to closely understating how ESD is implemented pedagogically in teaching and learning. The inquiry employed questionnaires and a focus group discussion as qualitative data generation tools. A qualitative data analysis of generated data was carried out using content and thematic analysis, underpinned by interpretive paradigm. The result of analyzed data, suggests that ESD pedagogy at the location where this research was conducted is largely influenced by contextual factors. Furthermore, the result of the study shows that there is a critical need to employ/adopt local experiences or occurrences while teaching sustainable development. Certain pedagogical approaches such as the use of videos relative to local context should also be considered in order to achieve a more realistic application. The paper recommends that educational institutions through teaching and learning should implement ESD by drawing on local contexts and problems, thereby foregrounding constructivism, appreciating and fostering students' prior knowledge and lived experiences.

Keywords: Qualitative Research, Education for Sustainable Development, Sustainable Development Goals, context, natural sciences and technology preservice teachers

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11 Social Representations: Unplanned and Unwanted Pregnancy in Adolescents from Leon-Mexico

Authors: Alejandra Sierra, Maria de los Angeles Covarrubias, Guillermo Julian Gonzalez, Noe Alfaro


The objective of this study was to identify the cultural dimensions of the terms unplanned pregnancy and unwanted pregnancy built by adolescent women, through the focus of the social representations. Two associative methods were used: free listings and the paired comparison. 72 female students between the ages of 15 and 19 were interviewed, from the downtown area of Leon Guanajuato, Mexico. Words related to inducer terms were classified into five thematic categories: facilitators, consequences, reactions, expectations, and lexicon. The results showed that the social representations of unplanned pregnancy highlighted elements related to economic difficulties and negative emotional aspects, while unwanted pregnancy was associated with negative emotional aspects such as anger, anxiety, and sadness. The meanings each person attributes to terms related to pregnancy are culturally constructed and differ between populations; therefore, more attention should be paid to understanding the cultural meanings and attitudes of people in fertility decision-making, including also the views of adolescent men and other types of population, stratified by age groups and social conditions.

Keywords: Adolescent, Qualitative Research, unplanned pregnancy, unwanted pregnancy

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10 Exploring Students' Understanding about Bullying in Private Colleges in Rawalpindi, Pakistan

Authors: Alveena Khan


The objective of this research is to explore students’ understanding about bullying and different bullying types. Nowadays bullying is considered as an important social issue around the world because it has long lasting effects on students’ lives. Sometimes due to bullying students commit suicide, they lose confidence and become isolated. This research used qualitative research approach. In order to generate data, triangulation was considered for the verification and reliability of the generated data. Semi-structured interview, non-participant observation, and case studies were conducted. This research focused on five major private colleges and 20 students (both female and male) participated in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. The data generated included approximately 45 hours of total interviews. Thematic analysis was used for data analysis and followed grounded theory to generate themes. The findings of the research highlights that bullying does prevail in studied private colleges, mostly in the form of verbal and physical bullying. No specific gender difference was found in experiencing verbal and physical bullying. Furthermore, from students’ point of view, college administrators are responsible to deal with bullying. The researcher suggests that there must be a proper check and balance system and anti-bullying programs should be held in colleges to create a protective and healthy environment in which students do not face bullying.

Keywords: Qualitative Research, Bullying, college student, physical and verbal bullying

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9 A Qualitative South African Study on Exploration of the Moral Identity of Nurses

Authors: Yolanda Havenga


Being a competent nurse requires clinical, general, and moral competencies. Moral competence is a culmination of moral perceptions, moral judgment, moral behaviour, and moral identity. Moral identity is the values, images, and fundamental principles held in the collective minds and memories of nurses about what it means to be a ‘good nurse’. It is important to explore and describe South African nurses’ moral identities and excavate the post-colonial counter-narrative to nurses moral identities as a better understanding of these identities will enable means to positively address nurses’ moral behaviours. This study explored the moral identity of nurses within the South African context. A qualitative approach was followed triangulating with phenomenological and narrative designs with the same purposively sampled group of professional nurses. In-depth interviews were conducted until saturation of data occurred about the sampled nurses lived experiences of being a nurse in South Africa. They were probed about their core personal-, social-, and professional values. Data were analysed based on the steps used by Colaizzi. These nurses were then asked to write a narrative telling a personal story that portrayed a significant time in their professional career that defines their identity as a nurse. This data were analysed using a critical narrative approach and findings of the two sets of data were merged. Ethical approval was obtained and approval from all relevant gate keepers. In the findings, themes emerged related to personal, social and professional values, images and fundamental principles of being a nurse within the South African context. The findings of this study will inform a future national study including a representative sample of South African nurses.

Keywords: Qualitative Research, Nurses, moral behaviour, moral identity

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8 Helping the Helper: Impact of Teaching Assistantship Program among Psychology Alumni

Authors: Clarissa Delariarte


With the aim of helping the poorest of the poor achieve quality education, Psychology students supported and served as teacher assistants to its Early Childhood Education Center in two barangays since the program began in 1999. Making use of qualitative approach, the impact of the program to 29 alumni who served as teacher assistants between 2000-2014 was assessed. Results show that the impact to the alumni is in cognitive as well as social-emotional in terms of feelings of deep satisfaction and sense of volunteerism which is being carried out in their respective workspaces. They also expressed positive feelings of inspiration, gratefulness and happiness. A wider perspective in life, being confident, creative and resourceful was also articulated as concrete impacts. It is concluded that the program had an impact on helping the helper and is a concrete manifestation of the academe being successful in its commitment of forming individuals into becoming integrated and compassionate in the service of the Church and Society. It implies that more opportunities of helping others be provided to students since, in the final analysis, is actually an opportunity of helping the helper be of better service to others.

Keywords: Applied Psychology, Qualitative Research, quality education, life skill

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7 Parents of Kids with Type 1 Diabetes Sleep with Open Eyes

Authors: Samereh Abdoli, Amit Vora, Anusha Vora


Aim: To qualitatively investigate diabetes burnout in parents of children with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) who shared their experiences through YouTube videos in order to inform future interventions and improve diabetes practice. Methods: A qualitative descriptive approach was used to explore YouTube videos. Of the 568 videos that were identified, only 9 videos met the inclusion criteria of the study. Results: After the videos were transcribed and analyzed using qualitative content analysis, it was revealed that parents shared common concerns and experiences and they translated into three main themes: I do not ever get a break, I am exhausted, I can’t burn out, and I just need a break Conclusion: All in all, the literature revealed that there are negative psychosocial outcomes associated with caring for a child with T1D, but there is a lack of information on diabetes burnout and how parents’ well-being are affected. Reports of self-neglect and sleep deprivation only confirm the need for intervention for parents of children with T1D. The hope with this study is that burnout can be recognized early on and appropriate interventions put in place to help parents cope with the stressors of caring for a child with a chronic disease.

Keywords: Qualitative Research, Parents, type 1 diabetes, Diabetes burnout

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6 The Descriptions of vBloggers with Type 1 Diabetes about Overcoming Diabetes Burnout

Authors: Samereh Abdoli, Amit Vora, Anusha Vora


Background: Diabetes burnout is one of the most common contributors to decreased quality of life, poor psychosocial well-being, and increased morbidity, mortality and diabetes cost. While the term diabetes burnout is widely accepted particularly in type 1 diabetes (T1D), the state of the science on diabetes burnout is lacking a systematic approach to overcome diabetes burnout. Objective: The study aimed to explore the strategies to overcome burnout by integrating the voices of individuals with T1D. Methods: In this study, we applied a descriptive qualitative design using YouTube videos produced by individuals with T1D. Seven YouTube videos (Austria= 1, U.S=6) with the highest rate of views which met the inclusion criteria were analyzed using a qualitative content analysis approach. Results: Participants verbalized overcoming diabetes burnout as a 'difficult hole to climb out of' which make them empowered. Themes that describes their strategies to overcome burnout in T1D, in general, include; 'make plan and take action', 'start with small steps', 'ask for help', 'get engage in diabetes community' and 'do not be perfect'. Future Work: These findings can begin the examination of different strategies to overcome diabetes burnout, which may change the course of action for diabetes care and management to improve quality of diabetes care and quality of life.

Keywords: Qualitative Research, type 1 diabetes, Diabetes burnout, YouTube videos

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5 Dangerous Words: A Moral Economy of HIV/AIDS in Swaziland

Authors: Robin Root


A fundamental premise of medical anthropology is that clinical phenomena are simultaneously cultural, political, and economic: none more so than the linked acronyms HIV/AIDS. For the medical researcher, HIV/AIDS signals an epidemiological pandemic and a pathophysiology. For persons diagnosed with an HIV-related condition, the acronym often conjures dread, too often marking and marginalizing the afflicted irretrievably. Critical medical anthropology is uniquely equipped to theorize the linkages that bind individual and social wellbeing to global structural and culture-specific phenomena. This paper reports findings from an anthropological study of HIV/AIDS in Swaziland, site of the highest HIV prevalence in the world. The project, initiated in 2005, has documented experiences of HIV/AIDS, religiosity, and treatment and care as well as drought and famine. Drawing on interviews with Swazi religious and traditional leaders about their experiences of leadership amidst worsening economic conditions, environmental degradation, and an ongoing global health crisis, the paper provides uncommon insights for global health practitioners whose singular paradigm for designing and delivering interventions is biomedically-based. In contrast, this paper details the role of local leaders in mediating extreme social suffering and resilience in ways that medical science cannot model but which radically impact how sickness is experienced and health services are delivered and accessed. Two concepts help to organize the paper’s argument. First, a ‘moral economy of language’ is central to showing up the implicit ‘technologies of knowledge’ that inhere in scientific and religious discourses of HIV/AIDS; people draw upon these discourses strategically to navigate highly vulnerable conditions. Second, Paulo Freire’s ethnographic focus on a culture’s 'dangerous words' opens up for examination how ‘sex’ is dangerous for religion and ‘god’ is dangerous for science. The paper interrogates hegemonic and ‘lived’ discourses, both biomedical and religious, and contributes to an important literature on the moral economies of health, a framework of explication and, importantly, action appropriate to a wide-range of contemporary global health phenomena. The paper concludes by asserting that it is imperative that global health planners reflect upon and ‘check’ their hegemonic policy platforms by, one, collaborating with local authoritative agents of ‘what sickness means and how it is best treated,’ and, two, taking account of the structural barriers to achieving good health.

Keywords: Biomedicine, Religion, HIV/AIDS, Qualitative Research, Africa

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4 Medical Error: Concept and Description According to Brazilian Physicians

Authors: Vitor S. Mendonca, Maria Luisa S. Schmidt


The Brazilian medical profession is viewed as being error-free, so healthcare professionals who commit an error are condemned there. Medical errors occur frequently in the Brazilian healthcare system, so identifying better options for handling this issue has become of interest primarily for physicians. The purpose of this study is to better understand the tensions involved in the fear of making an error due to the harm and risk this would represent for those involved. A qualitative study was performed by means of the narratives of the lived experiences of ten acting physicians in the State of Sao Paulo. The concept and characterization of errors were discussed, together with the fear of making an error, the near misses or error in itself, how to deal with errors and what to do to avoid them. The analysis indicates an excessive pressure in the medical profession for error-free practices, with a well-established physician-patient relationship to facilitate the management of medical errors. The error occurs, but a lack of information and discussion often leads to its concealment due to fear or possible judgment by society or peers. The establishment of programs that encourage appropriate medical conduct in the event of an error requires coherent answers for humanization in Brazilian medical science. It is necessary to improve the discussion about medical errors and disseminate models of communication and notification of errors in Brazil.

Keywords: Qualitative Research, Narrative, medical error, physician-patient relationship

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3 Selection of Qualitative Research Strategy for Bullying and Harassment in Sport

Authors: J. Vveinhardt, V. B. Fominiene, L. Jeseviciute-Ufartiene


Relevance of Research: Qualitative research is still regarded as highly subjective and not sufficiently scientific in order to achieve objective research results. However, it is agreed that a qualitative study allows revealing the hidden motives of the research participants, creating new theories, and highlighting the field of problem. There is enough research done to reveal these qualitative research aspects. However, each research area has its own specificity, and sport is unique due to the image of its participants, who are understood as strong and invincible. Therefore, a sport participant might have personal issues to recognize himself as a victim in the context of bullying and harassment. Accordingly, researcher has a dilemma in general making to speak a victim in sport. Thus, ethical aspects of qualitative research become relevant. The plenty fields of sport make a problem determining the sample size of research. Thus, the corresponding problem of this research is which and why qualitative research strategies are the most suitable revealing the phenomenon of bullying and harassment in sport. Object of research is qualitative research strategy for bullying and harassment in sport. Purpose of the research is to analyze strategies of qualitative research selecting suitable one for bullying and harassment in sport. Methods of research were scientific research analyses of qualitative research application for bullying and harassment research. Research Results: Four mane strategies are applied in the qualitative research; inductive, deductive, retroductive, and abductive. Inductive and deductive strategies are commonly used researching bullying and harassment in sport. The inductive strategy is applied as quantitative research in order to reveal and describe the prevalence of bullying and harassment in sport. The deductive strategy is used through qualitative methods in order to explain the causes of bullying and harassment and to predict the actions of the participants of bullying and harassment in sport and the possible consequences of these actions. The most commonly used qualitative method for the research of bullying and harassment in sports is semi-structured interviews in speech and in written. However, these methods may restrict the openness of the participants in the study when recording on the dictator or collecting incomplete answers when the participant in the survey responds in writing because it is not possible to refine the answers. Qualitative researches are more prevalent in terms of technology-defined research data. For example, focus group research in a closed forum allows participants freely interact with each other because of the confidentiality of the selected participants in the study. The moderator can purposefully formulate and submit problem-solving questions to the participants. Hence, the application of intelligent technology through in-depth qualitative research can help discover new and specific information on bullying and harassment in sport. Acknowledgement: This research is funded by the European Social Fund according to the activity ‘Improvement of researchers’ qualification by implementing world-class R&D projects of Measure No. 09.3.3-LMT-K-712.

Keywords: Sport, Qualitative Research, Bullying, Narrative, focus group, harassment

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2 Mothers’ Experiences of Continuing Their Pregnancy after Prenatally Receiving a Diagnosis of Down Syndrome

Authors: Sevinj Asgarova


Within the last few decades, major advances in the field of prenatal testing have transpired yet little research regarding the experiences of mothers who chose to continue their pregnancies after prenatally receiving a diagnosis of Down Syndrome (DS) has been undertaken. Using social constructionism and interpretive description, this retrospective research study explores this topic from the point of view of the mothers involved and provides insight as to how the experience could be improved. Using purposive sampling, 23 mothers were recruited from British Columbia (n=11) and Ontario (n=12) in Canada. Data retrieved through semi-structured in-depth interviews were analyzed using inductive, constant comparative analysis, the major analytical techniques of interpretive description. Four primary phases emerged from the data analysis 1) healthcare professional-mothers communications, 2) initial emotional response, 3) subsequent decision-making and 4) an adjustment and reorganization of lifestyle to the preparation for the birth of the child. This study validates the individualized and contextualized nature of mothers’ decisions as influenced by multiple factors, with moral values/spiritual beliefs being significant. The mothers’ ability to cope was affected by the information communicated to them about their unborn baby’s diagnosis and the manner in which that information was delivered to them. Mothers used emotional coping strategies, dependent upon support from partners, family, and friends, as well as from other families who have children with DS. Additionally, they employed practical coping strategies, such as engaging in healthcare planning, seeking relevant information, and reimagining and reorganizing their lifestyle. Over time many families gained a sense of control over their situation and readjusted to the preparation for the birth of the child. Many mothers expressed the importance of maintaining positivity and hopefulness with respect to positive outcomes and opportunities for their children. The comprehensive information generated through this study will also provide healthcare professionals with relevant information to assist them in understanding the informational and emotional needs of these mothers. This should lead to an improvement in their practice and enhance their ability to intervene appropriately and effectively, better offering improved support to parents dealing with a diagnosis of DS for their child.

Keywords: Decision Making, Disability, Social Justice, Social Change, Qualitative Research, inequalities, down syndrome, Prenatal Care, continuing affected pregnancy, eugenic social attitudes, life change events, prenatal testing

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1 “Chasing Hope”: Parents’ Perspectives on Complementary and Alternative Interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorder Children in Kazakhstan

Authors: Sofiya An, Akbota Kanderzhanova, Assel Akhmetova, Faye Foster, Chee K. Chan


Healthcare, education and social support for children with autism in Kazakhstan has been evolving and transforming over the last three decades. There is still limited knowledge of the use of complementary and alternative medicine by families caring for autistic children in this post-Soviet region. An exploratory qualitative focus group study of Kazakhstani families was carried out to capture and understand their experiences of using complementary and alternative (CAM) medicine. A total of six focus groups were conducted in five cities across the country including Nur-Sultan, Almaty, Kyzylorda, Karaganda and Taraz. The perceived factors driving the availability, choice, and use of complementary and alternative medicine by families of autistic children in the country were distilled and evaluated. The data collected was analyzed using a framework analysis and themes and subthemes were developed. Two major themes stood out. The first was the “unmet needs”, which relates to the predisposing factors that motivate parents to CAM uptake, and the second was the “chasing hope”, which relates to the enabling factors that facilitate parents’ uptake of CAM. Fear of missing out (FOMO) is a latent underlying motivation underscoring these two themes as well. Parents of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) children in Kazakhstan have to deal with many challenges when seeking treatment for their children with ASD. They are prepared and resort to try out whatever CAM interventions available. The motivation and rationale of choice of use is driven by the lack of options and the hope of any potential positive outcome rather than from rational decisions based on efficacy or the evidence-based data of CAM. Parents get desperate and are willing to try CAM regardless of and independent of their cultural and belief systems and they do not want to miss out just in case it might work. This study also gives an international and cross-cultural perspective on the motives, choice and practice of parents with ASD children using CAM in Kazakhstan, a Central Asian country.

Keywords: Qualitative Research, Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Autism spectrum disorder, Central Asia, Cross-Cultural Perspective

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