Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Qualitative Related Abstracts

27 Why Trust Matters for Women Entrepreneurs: Insights from Malaysia

Authors: Suraini Mohd Rhouse, Noor Lela Ahmad, Nek Kamal Yeop Yunus, Rosfizah Md Taib


This article aims to explore the importance of trust to women entrepreneurs. In particular, the research uses a social constructionist lens to examine ways in which women entrepreneurs construct trust in relation to their various stakeholders. A semi-structured interview was used to gather the data. The findings suggest women highlight the importance of trust in order to establish customer satisfaction that can further develop customer loyalty. In addition, aspect of trust with the employees is seen as vital for building organizational commitment to the business organization. Women also see the trust dimension in terms of their relationships with financial providers in order to gain approval for financial resources. This article contributes to the literature on the value of trust to women’s business environments.

Keywords: Trust, Qualitative, social constructionist, women entrepreneurship

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26 On-Line Consumer Comments (E-Wom): A Case Qualitative Analysis on Resort Hotel Consumers

Authors: Yasin Bilim, Alaaddin Başoda


The recent growth of internet applications on hospitality and tourism provokes on-line consumer comments and reviews. Many researchers and practitioners have named this enormous potential as “e-WOM (electronic word of mouth)”. Travel comments are important experiential information for the potential travellers. Many researches have been conducted to analyse the effects of e-WOM on hotel consumers. Broadly quantitative methods have been used for analysing online comments. But, a few studies have mentioned about the positive practical aspects of the comments for hotel marketers. The study aims to show different usage and effects of hotel consumers’ comments. As qualitative analysis method, grounded theory, content and discourse analysis, were used. The data based on the 10 resort hotel consumers’ on-line comments. Results show that consumers tend to write comments about service person, rooms, food services and pool in their online space. These indicators can be used by hotel marketers as a marketing information tool.

Keywords: Qualitative, comments, E-WOM, hotel consumer

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25 Analysis of Methodological Issues in the Study of Digital Library Services: A Case Study of Nigeria University Systems

Authors: Abdulmumin Isah


Over the years, researchers have employed different approaches in the study of usage of library services in the traditional library system, such approaches have provided explanations on the users’ perception, attitude, and usage of library services. Findings of such studies which often employed survey research approach have guided librarians and library stakeholders in their drive to improve library services to patrons. However, with the advent of digital library services, librarians and information science researchers have been experiencing methodological issues in the study of digital library services. While some quantitative approaches have been employed to understand adoption and usage of digital library services, conflicting results from such studies have increased the need to employ qualitative approaches. The appropriateness of the qualitative approaches has also been questioned. This study intends to review methodological approaches in the studies of digital libraries and provides a framework for the selection of appropriate research approach for the study of digital libraries using Nigerian university systems as case study.

Keywords: Quantitative, Digital Library, Qualitative, Methodological issues, Nigeria, university library, research approaches

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24 Health Seeking Manners of Road Traffic Accident Victims: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Mohammad Mahbub Alam Talukder, Shahnewaz, Hasanat-E-Rabbi, Mohammed Nazrul Islam


Road traffic accident is a global problem which is severe in the developing countries like Bangladesh. In consequence, in developing countries road trauma has now been recognized as an increasing public health hazards and economic burning issue. And after road traffic accidents the lack of management and economic costs related with health seeking behavior have a disproportionate impact on lower income groups, thus contributing to the persistence of poverty in conjunction with disability. This cross sectional study, carried out during July 2012 to June 2013, aimed to explore health seeking decision and culture of handling the road traffic accident related victims, as taken from experiences of the poor disabled people of slum dwellers of Dhaka city. The present study has been designed based on qualitative techniques such as in-depth interview and case studies. Additionally, a survey questionnaire was used to collect the demographic characteristics of the study population (n=150) and to select participants purposely for in-depth interview (n=50) and case study (n=30). Content analysis of qualitative data was done through theme coding and matrix analysis of case study was done to use relevant verbatim. Most of the time the health seeking decision totally depended on the surrounded people of the accidental place, their knowledge, awareness and remaining facility and capacity regarding proper management of the victims. However, most of the cases the victims did not get any early treatment and it took 2-12 hours to get even the first aid because of distance, shortage of money, lack of availability of getting the aid, lack of mass awareness etc. Under the reality of discriminated and unaffordable health service provision better treatment could not turn out due to economic inability of the poor victims. To avoid the severe trauma, treatment delay must be reduced by providing first aid within very short time and to do so, mass awareness campaign is necessary for handing the victims. Moreover, necessary measures should be taken to ensure cost free health service provision to treat the chronic disabled condition of the road traffic accident related poor victims.

Keywords: Qualitative, Injury, slum, accident, disabled

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23 Construction of India’s Largest Blast Furnace (4554 cum) Foundation at JSPL, Angul, Odisha: A Qualitative Approach

Authors: N. S. S. Rao, Tapan Kumar Das, Latiful Pasha


Tata Projects Limited (TPL) located in Hyderabad, India has taken up the challenging venture of executing the entire civil works for India’s largest Blast Furnace with a capacity of 4554 cum at Jindal Steel and Power Limited (JSPL), Angul, Odisha, India. The following write-up briefly elaborates the various steps and methodologies involved in the construction of the foundation for this India’s largest blast furnace.

Keywords: Construction, Qualitative, approach, blast furnace

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22 Critical Success Factors of OCOP Business Model in Pattani Province Thailand: A Qualitative Approach

Authors: Poonsook Thatchaopas, Nik Kamariah Nikmat, Nattakarn Eakuru


Since 2003, the Thai Government has implemented several initiatives to encourage and incubate entrepreneurial skills and motivation among her citizens. One of the initiatives is the “One College One Product” business model or well known as ‘OCOP’, launched by the Vocational Education Commission to encourage partnership between college students to choose at least one product for business venture. In line with this mission, several business enterprises were established such as food products, restaurants, spa, Thai massage, minimart, computer maintenance, karaoke centre, internet café, mini theater etc. Currently, these business incubator projects can be observed at 404 vocational colleges and 21 incubation centres to encourage entrepreneurial small and medium enterprise (SME) development. However, the number of successful OCOP projects is still minimal. Out of the 404 individual OCOP projects at Vocational Colleges around Thailand, very few became successful. The objective of this paper is to identify the critical success factors needed to be a successful OCOP business entrepreneur. This study uses qualitative method by interviewing business partners of an OCOP business called Crispy Roti Krua Acheeva Brand (CRKAB). It is a snack food company that is developed at Pattani Vocational College in South Thailand. This project was initiated by three female entrepreneurs who were alumni student cum owners of the CRKAB. The finding shows that the main critical success factors are self-confidence, creativity or innovativeness, knowledge, skills and perseverance. Additionally, they reiterated that the keys to business success are product quality, perceived price, promotion, branding, new packaging to increase sales and continuous developments. The results implies for a student business SME to be successful, the company should have credible partners and effective marketing plan.

Keywords: Qualitative, Food industry, Thailand, Student Entrepreneurship, business incubator

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21 Managment Skills and Values of School Aministrator Public Secondary School Division of Leyte Area IV: Enchancement Model

Authors: Jenney Perez Bacalla


The study was conducted to assess the five (5) identified school administrators of the identified secondary schools in terms of professional characteristics, management skills and values patterns in the Division of Leyte Area IV for a proposed enhancement model for school administrators. The study utilized the qualitative method. There were two (2) groups of respondents: the teachers and the school administrators. The teachers perceived the management skills of the school administrators in their technical and conceptual skills and values in planning and organizing work, allocating and using of funds, submitting reports, decision-making, leading people, public relations and community involvement and other value development. It was found out in the study that most of the school administrators’ management skills were very well manifested. Their value patterns were also very well manifested. Most of them had earned master’s degree and with a unit in doctoral and five (5) years and above in service as a school administrator. Most administrators were performing and successfully execute the planning, organizing and utilizing funds and they were able to lead their subordinates. In planning, it shows that administrators studied the future and arrange the plan. Administrators also were able to manage, maintained the good environment wherein individual work together. School administrators were creating an environment conducive to learning. The school administrator is manifesting the desirable practices in school management. In terms of their educational qualifications, they were all qualified. Academic preparation, trainings and maturation were their attributes to the development of managerial skills of the school administrators. They showed competence in the areas of management skills that they were able to carry their functions with utmost responsibility and capability. School administrators in terms of seminars and trainings on administration and supervision were already equipped. It is concluded that the school administrators possessed the necessary skills and work values in administering the school.

Keywords: Qualitative, School Administrators, management skills and values, public secondary schools

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20 The Columbine Shooting in German Media Coverage: A Point of No Return

Authors: Melanie Verhovnik


School shootings are a well-known phenomenon in Germany, 14 of which have occurred to date. The first case happened half a year after the April 20th, 1999 Columbine shooting in the United States, which was at the time the most serious school shooting to have occurred anywhere in the world. The German media gave only scant attention to the subject of school shootings prior to Columbine, even though there were numerous instances of it throughout the world and several serious instances in the United States during the 1990s. A mixed method design of qualitative and quantitative content analysis was employed in order to demonstrate the main features and characteristics of core German media’s coverage of Columbine.

Keywords: Qualitative, quantitative content analysis, Columbine, media coverage, school shooting

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19 Investigating the Contribution of Road Construction on Soil Erosion, a Case Study of Engcobo Local Municipality, Chris Hani District, South Africa

Authors: Yamkela Zitwana


Soil erosion along the roads and/or road riparian areas has become a norm in the Eastern Cape. Soil erosion refers to the detachment and transportation of soil from one area (onsite) to another (offsite). This displacement or removal of soil can be caused by water, air and sometimes gravity. This will focus on accelerated soil erosion which is the result of human interference with the environment. Engcobo local municipality falls within the Eastern Cape Province in the eastern side of CHRIS HANI District municipality. The focus road is R61 protruding from the Engcobo town outskirts along the Nyanga SSS on the way to Umtata although it will cover few Kilometers away from Engcobo. This research aims at looking at the contribution made by road construction to soil erosion. Steps to achieve the result will involve revisiting the phases of road construction through unstructured interviews, identifying the types of soil erosion evident in the area by doing a checklist, checking the material, utensils and equipment used for road construction and the contribution of road construction through stratified random sampling checking the soil color and texture. This research will use a pragmatic approach which combines related methods and consider the flaws of each method so as to ensure validity, precision and accuracy. Both qualitative and quantitative methods will be used. Statistical methods and GIS analysis will be used to analyze the collected data.

Keywords: Research, Qualitative, Unstructured Interviews, Sampling, soil erosion, Road Construction, Focus Groups, pragmatic approach, road riparian, accelerated soil erosion, universal soil loss model, GIS analysis, quantitative method, checklist questionnaires

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18 Health Information Needs and Utilization of Information and Communication Technologies by Medical Professionals in a Northern City of India

Authors: Sonika Raj, Amarjeet Singh, Vijay Lakshmi Sharma


Introduction: In 21st century, due to revolution in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), there has been phenomenal development in quality and quantity of knowledge in the field of medical science. So, the access to relevant information to physicians is critical to the delivery of effective healthcare services to patients. The study was conducted to assess the information needs and attitudes of the medical professionals; to determine the sources and channels of information used by them; to ascertain the current usage of ICTs and the barriers faced by them in utilization of ICTs in health information access. Methodology: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried in 2015 on hundred medical professionals working in public and private sectors of Chandigarh. The study used both quantitative and qualitative method for data collection. A semi structured questionnaire and interview schedule was used to collect data on information seeking needs, access to ICTs and barriers to healthcare information access. Five Data analysis was done using SPSS-16 and qualitative data was analyzed using thematic approach. Results: The most preferred sources to access healthcare information were internet (85%), trainings (61%) and communication with colleagues (57%). They wanted information on new drug therapy and latest developments in respective fields. All had access to computer with but almost half assessed their computer knowledge as average and only 3% had received training regarding usage. Educational status (p=0.004), place of work (p=0.004), number of years in job (p=0.004) and sector of job (p=0.04) of doctors were found to be significantly associated with their active search for information. The major themes that emerged from in-views were need; types and sources of healthcare information; exchange of information among different levels of healthcare providers; usage of ICTs to obtain and share information; barriers to access of healthcare information and quality of health information materials and involvement in their development process Conclusion and Recommendations: The medical professionals need information in their in their due course of work. However, information needs of medical professionals were not being adequately met. There should be training of professional regarding internet skills and the course on bioinformatics should be incorporated in the curricula of medical students. The policy framework must be formulated that will encourage and promote the use of ICTs as tools for health information access and dissemination.

Keywords: Health Information, Qualitative, ICTs, medical professionals

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17 Qualitative and Quantitative Case Study Research Method on Social Science: Accounting Perspective

Authors: Bubaker F. Shareia


The main aim of this paper is to set the parameters within which the study is to be conducted, specifically justifying the use of qualitative research, informed by theory. This paper argues that the social world is subjective in nature and may be accessed through the interpretive approach provided by the people involved in the context of the study. The paper defines and distinguishes between qualitative and quantitative research methodologies, explores Burrell and Morgan's framework for social research, and presents the study's adopted methodology and methods, with the rationale for these choices.

Keywords: Accounting, Qualitative, Quantitative Research, methodologies

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16 A Qualitative Examination of Childfreedom and Childlessness: The Life Experiences of Non-Parents in Australia

Authors: B. Harman, E. Gringart, C. Harms


There is evidence that increasing numbers of adults of child-bearing age in Australia do not have children. While there has been research into the life experiences of non-parents, one of the issues is that the differences between people who choose not to have children – the childfree – and people who cannot have children – the childless – are not clearly defined. The qualitative research reported here adopted an interpretative phenomenological approach to examine the life experiences of non-parents. Potential participants from Australia were invited to complete an online survey describing their experiences of life without children. An examination of the data from 229 participants (188 female, 41 male) revealed that they defined their non-parent status as either childfree or childless. There are, however, five sub-categories of child freedom identified by the participants, whereas previous research has not recognized such distinctions. The variance in the definition of child freedom is important because it may be related to the life journey as a non-parent. The current paper will firstly discuss the different groups of childfree and childless people. Secondly, it will examine the life experiences and journeys of non-parents in light of how the participants defined themselves. From a social psychological perspective, the current research is important as it highlights the socially held stereotypes and the stigma experienced by non-parents in Australia.

Keywords: Social Psychology, Qualitative, Australia, childfree, childless, non-parents

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15 Child Labour: Enforcement of Right to Promote Child Development in Nigeria

Authors: G. Salavwa, P. Erhijakpor Jr., H. Ukwu


This study will explore child labour issues in Nigeria because it is capable of affecting the physical and general well-being of children who perform hazardous work. This feat will be achieved through qualitative research methodology. Data collection shall be elicited by oral interviews and documental content analysis to delve on the application of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), International Labour Organization ILO and Geneva Convention relating to child labour practices in Nigeria. This will include the relevance of present domestic laws relating to child labour as implemented in Nigeria, together with factors that contribute to the practice of child labour in the country. The oral interview data analysis will be performed by breaking the interview data into significant statements and themes. This shall be done by comparing and determining the commonalities that are prevalent in the participants’ views regarding child labour menace in Nigeria. Presumably, findings from this study shall unveil that a poor educational policy, a widespread poverty level which is mostly prevalent amongst families in the rural areas of the country, a lack of employment for adults, have led to the ineffectiveness of the local child labour laws in Nigeria. These has in turn culminated into a somewhat non-implementation of the international laws of the CRC, ILO and Geneva Declaration on child labour to which the Nigerian government is a signatory. Based on the finding, this study will calls on the government of Nigeria to extend its free educational policy from the elementary, secondary to tertiary educations. The government also has to ensure that offenders of children’s rights should face a severe punishment.

Keywords: Constitution, Qualitative, Commonalities, tertiary

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14 Opinions and Perceptions of Clinical Staff towards Caring for Obese Patients: A Qualitative Research Study in a Cardiac Centre in Bahrain

Authors: Catherine Mary Abou-Zaid, Sandra Goodwin


This study was conducted in a cardiac center in Bahrain. The rise in the amount of obese patients’ both men and women, being admitted for surgical procedures has become an issue to the nurses and doctors as these patients pose a high risk of major complications arising from their problem. The cessation of obesity in the country is very high and obesity-related diseases has been the cause of concern among men and women, also related individual diseases such as cardiovascular, diabetes and chronic respiratory diseases are rising dramatically within Bahrain in the last 10 years. Rationale for the Study: The ontological approach will help to understand and assess the true nature of the social world and how the world looks at obesity. Obesity has to be looked at as being a realistic ongoing issue. The epistemological approach will look at the theory of the origins of the nature of knowledge, set the rule of validating and learning in the social world of what can be done to curb this concept and how this can help prevent otherwise preventable diseases. Design Methodology: The qualitative design methodology took the form of an ontological/epistemological approach using phenomenology as a framework. The study was based on a social research issue, therefore, ontological ‘realism and idealism’ will feature as the nature of the world from a social and natural context. Epistemological positions of the study will be how we as researchers will find the actual social world and the limiting of that knowledge. The one-to-one interviews will be transcribed and the taped verbatim will be coded and charted giving the thematic analytic results. Recommendations: The significance of the research brought many recommendations. These recommendations were taken from the themes and sub-themes and were presented to the centers management and the necessary arrangements for updating knowledge and attitudes towards obesity in cardiac patients was then presented to the in-service education department. Workshops and training sessions on promoting health education were organized and put into the educational calendar for the next academic year. These sessions would look at patient autonomy, the patients’ rights, healthy eating for patients and families and the risks associated with obesity in cardiac disease processes.

Keywords: Diabetes, Qualitative, cardiac patients, education & training, obesity cessation

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13 Design Thinking Activities: A Tool in Overcoming Student Reticence

Authors: Marinel Dayawon


Student participation in classroom activities is vital in the teaching- learning the process as it develops self-confidence, social relationships and good academic performance of students. It is the teacher’s empathetic manner and creativity to create solutions that encourage teamwork and mutual support while dropping the academic competition within the class that hinder every shy student to walk with courage and talk with conviction because they consider their ideas, weak, as compared to the bright students. This study aimed to explore the different design thinking strategies that will change the mindset of shy students in classroom activities, maximizing their participation in all given tasks while sharing their views through ideation and providing them a wider world through compromise agreement within the members of the group, sensitivity to one’s idea, thus, arriving at a collective decision in the development of a prototype that indicates improvement in their classroom involvement. The study used the qualitative type of research. Triangulation is done through participant observation, focus group discussion and interview, documented through photos and videos. The respondents were the second- year Bachelor of Secondary Education students of the Institute of Teacher Education at Isabela State University- Cauayan City Campus. The result of the study revealed that reticent students when involved in game activities through a slap and tap method, writing their clustered ideas, using sticky notes is excited in sharing ideas as it doesn’t use oral communication. It is also observed after three weeks of using the design thinking strategies; shy students volunteer as secretary, rapporteur or group leader in the team- building activities as it represents the ideas of the heterogeneous group, removing the individual identity of the ideas. Superior students learned to listen to the ideas of the reticent students and involved them in the prototyping process of designing a remediation program for high school students showing reticence in the classroom, making their experience as a benchmark. The strategies made a 360- degrees transformation of the shy students, producing their journal log, in their journey to being open. Thus, faculty members are now adopting the design thinking approach.

Keywords: Qualitative, Philippines, design thinking activities, reticent students, Isabela

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12 The Impact of Physical Activity for Recovering Cancer Patients

Authors: Martyn Queen, Diane Crone, Andrew Parker, Saul Bloxham


Rationale: There is a growing body of evidence that supports the use of physical activity during and after cancer treatment. However, activity levels for patients remain low. As more cancer patients are treated successfully, and treatment costs continue to escalate, physical activity may be a promising adjunct to a person-centred healthcare approach to recovery. Aim: The aim was to further understand how physical activity may enhance the recovery process for a group of mixed-site cancer patients. Objectives: The research investigated longitudinal changes in physical activity and perceived the quality of life between two and six month’s post-exercise interventions. It also investigated support systems that enabled patients to sustain these perceived changes. Method: The respondent cohort comprised 14 mixed-site cancer patients aged 43-70 (11 women, 3 men), who participated in a two-phase physical activity intervention that took place at a university in the South West of England. Phase 1 consisted of an eight-week structured physical activity programme; Phase 2 consisted of four months of non-supervised physical activity. Semi-structured interviews took place three times over six months with each participant. Grounded theory informed the data collection and analysis which, in turn, facilitated theoretical development. Findings: Our findings propose three theories on the impact of physical activity for recovering cancer patients: 1) Knowledge gained through a structured exercise programme can enable recovering cancer patients to independently sustain physical activity to four-month follow-up. 2) Sustaining physical activity for six months promotes positive changes in the quality of life indicators of chronic fatigue, self-efficacy, the ability to self-manage and energy levels. 3) Peer support from patients facilitates adherence to a structured exercise programme and support from a spouse, or life partner facilitates independently sustained physical activity to four-month follow-up. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that qualitative research can provide an evidence base that could be used to support future care plans for cancer patients. Findings also demonstrate that a physical activity intervention can be effective at helping cancer patients recover from the side effects of their treatment, and recommends that physical activity should become an adjunct therapy alongside traditional cancer treatments.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Health, Support Systems, Qualitative, Quality of Life, Grounded theory, cancer recovery, person-centred healthcare

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11 A Qualitative Exploration of the Socio-Cultural Determinants of Exclusive Breastfeeding Practice among Rural Mothers in Bindawa and Baure Local Government Areas, Katsina, North West Nigeria

Authors: Friday I. Joseph


Background: Nigeria has an under-five mortality rate that is 128 per 1000 live birth which is higher than the rate for the African region. Optimal breastfeeding practice has the potential to reduce under-five mortality by 13% in developing countries. However, documented exclusive breastfeeding rate in Nigeria from birth to six months is just 17%. Aim: To explore perceptions of the sociocultural factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding for six months among rural mothers in Bindawa and Baure Local Government Area (LGA), Katsina state, North West Nigeria, to inform policies, intervention or strategies to improve exclusive breastfeeding practice in Nigeria. Methods: The social constructionism-interpretivist epistemological approach informed the use of an exploratory study to understand mothers’ experiences and views. Twenty mothers, all from rural areas between 19-35 years old were conveniently sampled from two LGA in Katsina state, north –west Nigeria for semi-structured interviews. Sample size had representation of both Hausa and Fulani ethnic group. Thematic content analysis was utilized for analysis. Results: Three major themes emerged from the study: (1) Breastfeeding initiation - Immediate traditional newborn care practices, birth attendant, place of delivery, the perception of about colostrum determines how soon a mother initiate breastfeeding. (2) Exclusive breastfeeding and introduction of food-Motivation to sustain exclusive breastfeeding relies on the interplay between the obligation to perform traditional rites; mother’s awareness and family support. (3) Decision making about infant feeding – It is not independent of the influence of key social figures like the father, mother-in-law, traditional birth attendant and the health workers. Overall, in spite of awareness of exclusive breastfeeding benefits, mothers expressed concerns that they may not win their family support if they shared contrary views. Conclusions: Health promotion intervention should be tailored, taking cognizant and addressing the sociocultural barriers to the practice of optimal breastfeeding by a focused community and family-based participatory approach. Implementers of interventions should employ culture-sensitive approaches in community-based intervention.

Keywords: Perception, Qualitative, exclusive breastfeeding, sociocultural determinants

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10 The Influence of Fashion Bloggers on the Pre-Purchase Decision for Online Fashion Products among Generation Y Female Malaysian Consumers

Authors: Mohd Zaimmudin Mohd Zain, Patsy Perry, Lee Quinn


This study explores how fashion consumers are influenced by fashion bloggers towards pre-purchase decision for online fashion products in a non-Western context. Malaysians rank among the world’s most avid online shoppers, with apparel the third most popular purchase category. However, extant research on fashion blogging focuses on the developed Western market context. Numerous international fashion retailers have entered the Malaysian market from luxury to fast fashion segments of the market; however Malaysian fashion consumers must balance religious and social norms for modesty with their dress style and adoption of fashion trends. Consumers increasingly mix and match Islamic and Western elements of dress to create new styles enabling them to follow Western fashion trends whilst paying respect to social and religious norms. Social media have revolutionised the way that consumers can search for and find information about fashion products. For online fashion brands with no physical presence, social media provide a means of discovery for consumers. By allowing the creation and exchange of user-generated content (UGC) online, they provide a public forum that gives individual consumers their own voices, as well as access to product information that facilitates their purchase decisions. Social media empower consumers and brands have important roles in facilitating conversations among consumers and themselves, to help consumers connect with them and one another. Fashion blogs have become an important fashion information sources. By sharing their personal style and inspiring their followers with what they wear on popular social media platforms such as Instagram, fashion bloggers have become fashion opinion leaders. By creating UGC to spread useful information to their followers, they influence the pre-purchase decision. Hence, successful Western fashion bloggers such as Chiara Ferragni may earn millions of US dollars every year, and some have created their own fashion ranges and beauty products, become judges in fashion reality shows, won awards, and collaborated with high street and luxury brands. As fashion blogging has become more established worldwide, increasing numbers of fashion bloggers have emerged from non-Western backgrounds to promote Islamic fashion styles, such as Hassanah El-Yacoubi and Dian Pelangi. This study adopts a qualitative approach using netnographic content analysis of consumer comments on two famous Malaysian fashion bloggers’ Instagram accounts during January-March 2016 and qualitative interviews with 16 Malaysian Generation Y fashion consumers during September-October 2016. Netnography adapts ethnographic techniques to the study of online communities or computer-mediated communications. Template analysis of the data involved coding comments according to the theoretical framework, which was developed from the literature review. Initial data analysis shows the strong influence of Malaysian fashion bloggers on their followers in terms of lifestyle and morals as well as fashion style. Followers were guided towards the mix and match trend of dress with Western and Islamic elements, for example, showing how vivid colours or accessories could be worked into an outfit whilst still respecting social and religious norms. The blogger’s Instagram account is a form of online community where followers can communicate and gain guidance and support from other followers, as well as from the blogger.

Keywords: Social Media, Qualitative, Malaysia, fashion bloggers

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9 Descriptive Analysis of Variations in Maguindanaon Language

Authors: Fhajema Kunso


People who live in the same region and who seemed to speak the same language still vary in some aspects of their language. The variation may occur in terms of pronunciation, lexicon, morphology, and syntax. This qualitative study described the phonological, morphological, and lexical variations of the Maguindanaon language among the ten Maguindanao municipalities. Purposive sampling, in-depth interviews, focus group discussion, and sorting and classifying of words according to phonological and morphological as well as lexical structures in data analysis were employed. The variations occurred through phonemic changes and other phonological processes and morphological processes. Phonological processes consisted of vowel lengthening and deletion while morphological processes included affixation, borrowing, and coinage. In the phonological variation, it was observed that there were phonemic changes in one dialect to another. For example, there was a change of phoneme /r/ to /l/. The phoneme /r/ was most likely to occur in Kabuntalan like /biru/, /kurIt/, and /kɘmɅr/ whereas in the rest of the dialects these were /bilu/, /kuIɪt/, and /kɘmɅl/ respectively. Morphologically, the affixation was the main way to know the tenses. For example, the root sarig (expect) when inserted with im becomes simarig, i.e. s + im + arig = simarig (expected). Lexical variation also existed in the Maguindanaon language. Results revealed that the variation in phonology, morphology, and lexicon were observed to be associated primarily on geographic distribution.

Keywords: Applied Linguistics, Morphology, Language, Phonology, Qualitative, Processes, Lexicon, Variation, Philippines, Maguindanao

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8 Health Care Providers' Perceptions on mHealth Workplace Nutrition Wellness Program: A Thematic Analysis

Authors: Kim H. K. Choy, Oliva H. K. Chu, W. Y. Keung, B. Lim, Winnie P. Y. Tang


Background: Health care providers have been identified as an at-risk group for obesity. Mobile health technology can be used to motivate lifestyle behavioral changes. The aim of this study was to investigate hospital-based health care providers’ perceptions of mHealth Workplace Nutrition Wellness Program. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted at a regional hospital in Hong Kong. Ten health care providers were purposively selected for the study. Qualitative data was collected by individual face-to-face semi-structured interviews which were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and analyzed by thematic analysis. Results: Four themes were identified: (1) mobile health technology motivates lifestyle changes, (2) self-perceived body weight initiates health behavioral changes, (3) organizational support promotes healthy behavior, (4) lack of self-confidence hinders lifestyle modification. The health care providers’ perceptions of mobile health technology, barriers, and facilitators to participation in the mHealth Workplace Nutrition Wellness Program were discussed in the study. Conclusions: Barriers, facilitators, self-perceived body weight and experiences of mobile health technology were associated with intention of participation in mHealth Workplace Nutrition Wellness Program. The knowledge generated from the study could be used to guide the design and implementation of effective interventions, strategies and policies of workplace wellness programs to promote participation for hospital’s employees.

Keywords: Mobile Health, Qualitative, barriers, workplace wellness program, facilitators

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7 Psychiatric Nurses' Perception of Patient Safety Culture: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Amira A. Alshowkan, Aleya M. Gamal


Background: Patient safety is a vital element in providing high quality health care. In psychiatric wards, numerous of physical and emotional factors have been found to affect patient safety. In addition, organization, healthcare provider and patients were identified to be significant factors in patient safety. Aim: This study aims to discover nurses' perception of patient safety in psychiatric wards in Saudi Arabian. Method: Date will be collected through semi-structure face to face interview with nurses who are working at psychiatric wards. Data will be analysed thought the used of thematic analysis. Results: The results of this study will help in understanding the psychiatric nurses' perception of patient safety in Saudi Arabia. Several suggestions will be recommended for formulation of policies and strategies for psychiatric wards. In addition, recommendation to nursing education and training will be tailored in order to improve patient safety culture.

Keywords: Qualitative, Psychiatric, Saudi Arabia, patient safety culture

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6 Absence of Secured Bathing Spaces and Its Effect on Women: An Exploratory Qualitative Study of Rural Odisha, India

Authors: Minaj Ranjita Singh, Meghna Mukherjee, Abhijeet Jadhav


This is an exploratory qualitative study with an objective to understand the bathing practices followed by rural women and its consequences. Access to safe bathing spaces in rural India is a neglected issue due to which women are affected in various ways. Today, government policies are largely focused towards the building of toilets, but no importance has been given to the construction of bathrooms. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected using in-depth interviews and focused group discussions with rural women in six villages of Odisha, India. The study was approved by an Institutional Research and Ethics Committee, and informed consent was taken from participants. For most of the participants, the access to water, bathing space and toilet was compromised posing various challenges in their daily lives. Women's daily schedule, hygiene practices, dignity, and health are greatly affected due to this lack. Since bathing in the open has been an ancient practice, the community's perception is benign towards the hardship of women. Lack of exposure to concealed bathing, necessary funds, and competing priorities are some of the household level factors which never let them think about having bathrooms and the lack of water supply, proper drainage system, subsidy or financial support are the governance and policy related factors which prevent their access to secured bathing spaces.

Keywords: Women, Rural, Women's Health, Qualitative, dignity, exploratory, bathrooms

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5 Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis in Younger Children: A Qualitative Analysis of Families’ Experiences of the Condition and Perspective on Treatment

Authors: Amberly Brigden, Ali Heawood, Emma C. Anderson, Richard Morris, Esther Crawley


Background: Paediatric chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)/myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) is characterised by persistent, disabling fatigue. Health services see patients below the age of 12. This age group experience high levels of disability, with low levels of school attendance, high levels of fatigue, anxiety, functional disability and pain. CFS/ME interventions have been developed for adolescents, but the developmental needs of younger children suggest treatment should be tailored to this age group. Little is known about how intervention should be delivered to this age group, and further work is needed to explore this. Qualitative research aids patient-centered design of health intervention. Methods: Five to 11-year-olds and their parents were recruited from a specialist CFS/ME service. Semi-structured interviews explored the families’ experience of the condition and perspectives on treatment. Interactive and arts-based methods were used. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. Qualitative Results: 14 parents and 7 children were interviewed. Early analysis of the interviews revealed the importance of the social-ecological setting of the child, which led to themes being developed in the context of Systems Theory. Theme one relates to the level of the child, theme two the family system, theme three the organisational and societal systems, and theme four cuts-across all levels. Theme1: The child’s capacity to describe, understand and manage their condition. Younger children struggled to describe their internal experiences, such as physical symptoms. Parents felt younger children did not understand some concepts of CFS/ME and did not have the capabilities to monitor and self-regulate their behaviour, as required by treatment. A spectrum of abilities was described; older children (10-11-year-olds) were more involved in clinical sessions and had more responsibility for self-management. Theme2: Parents’ responsibility for managing their child’s condition. Parents took responsibility for regulating their child’s behaviour in accordance with the treatment programme. They structured their child’s environment, gave direct instructions to their child, and communicated the needs of their child to others involved in care. Parents wanted their child to experience a 'normal' childhood and took steps to shield their child from medicalization, including diagnostic labels and clinical discussions. Theme3: Parental isolation and the role of organisational and societal systems. Parents felt unsupported in their role of managing the condition and felt negative responses from primary care health services and schools were underpinned by a lack of awareness and knowledge about CFS/ME in younger children. This sometimes led to a protracted time to diagnosis. Parents felt that schools have the potential important role in managing the child’s condition. Theme4: Complexity and uncertainty. Many parents valued specialist treatment (which included activity management, physiotherapy, sleep management, dietary advice, medical management and psychological support), but felt it needed to account for the complexity of the condition in younger children. Some parents expressed uncertainty about the diagnosis and the treatment programme. Conclusions: Interventions for younger children need to consider the 'systems' (family, organisational and societal) involved in the child’s care. Future research will include interviews with clinicians and schools supporting younger children with CFS/ME.

Keywords: Pediatric, treatment, Qualitative, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)/myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME)

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4 Challenges to Tuberculosis Control in Angola: The Narrative of Medical Professionals

Authors: Domingos Vita, Patrick Brady


Background: There is a tuberculosis (TB) epidemic in Angola that has been getting worse for more than a decade despite the active implementation of the DOTS strategy. The aim of this study was to directly interrogate healthcare workers involved in TB control on what they consider to be the drivers of the TB epidemic in Angola. Methods: Twenty four in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with medical staff working in this field in the provinces of Luanda and Benguela. Results: The healthcare professionals see the migrant working poor as a particular problem for the control of TB. These migrants are constructed as ‘Rural People’ and are seen as non-compliant and late-presenting. This is a stigmatized and marginal group contending with the additional stigma associated with TB infection. The healthcare professionals interviewed also see the interruption of treatment and self medication generally as a better explanation for the TB epidemic than urbanization or lack of medication. Conclusions: The local narrative is in contrast to previous explanations used elsewhere in the developing world. To be effective policy must recognize the local issues of the migrant workforce, interruption of treatment and the stigma associated with TB in Angola.

Keywords: Tuberculosis, Research, Qualitative, Africa, migrants, Angola

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3 Perspectives of Healthcare Workers on Healthcare-Associated Infections and Infection Control in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Abha, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Esther Paul, Ibrahim A. M. Alzaydani, Al Hakami, Caryl Beynon


Research Objectives and Goal: The main aim of the current study was to explore the perspectives of healthcare workers on Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) and infection control measures in a tertiary care Hospital in Abha, Saudi Arabia. As per our knowledge, this is perhaps the first qualitative study on HAI to be done in Saudi Arabia. The goal of the study was to understand the perspectives of the healthcare workers on the current protocol and guidelines for HAI and infections control measures in the hospital, the effectiveness of the current protocol for HAI and infection control measures and ways of reducing the incidence of HAI and improve infection control measures. Methods used: A qualitative research design was used to collect the data from 25 healthcare workers consisting of doctors and nurses, recruited by Snowball strategy via semi-structured interviews which were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim immediately. An interview guide consisting of open-ended questions about the existing HAI and infection control practices in the healthcare facility, the awareness of the healthcare workers about HAI and the need for safe infection control measures were used to collect the data. The transcribed data were analyzed using the thematic analysis method. Results: Using thematic analysis four themes were identified.1.Knowledge of HAI and infection control 2. Infection control measures in practice 3. The gap in infection control measures and HAI 4. Required Implementations. The first theme covered the participants' knowledge on HAI, its definition, the types of HAI and the infection control measures.Most of the participants were aware of HAI and had some idea of the definition of HAI, its significance and the dangers posed by HAI, but few residents had no idea of the types of HAI. The second theme was focussed on the infection control measures in practice. Most of the participants were aware of the importance of infection control measures like hand hygiene, catheter care, and waste disposal. The nurses were responsible for most of the disinfection and sterilization measures and practiced it effectively. However, some doctors and residents had no inkling about these measures. The third theme emphasized that although most of the participants were aware of HAI and infection control measures and were in practice. There were some lacunae regarding their knowledge of the different types of HAI, Personal Protective Equipment practices, communication among the healthcare personnel and the hospital administrations and the means of waste disposal. The fourth and the final theme identified that most of the participants felt the need for implementations of changes regarding existing protocols, workshops/seminars, methods of waste disposal and sterilization and disinfection practices. Conclusion: The current qualitative study concluded that there is a need for better educational programs and hands-on training for all the healthcare personnel including the paramedical staff as well. The residents should have adequate knowledge of infection control practices to guide the nurses and should share the responsibility with the nurses in the practice of effective infection control measures

Keywords: Qualitative, Perspectives, healthcare-associated infections, infection control measures

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2 Women's Perceptions of Zika Virus Prevention Recommendations: A Tale of Two Cities within Fortaleza, Brazil

Authors: Jeni Stolow, Lina Moses, Carl Kendall


Zika virus (ZIKV) reemerged as a global threat in 2015 with Brazil at its epicenter. Brazilians have a long history of combatting Aedes aegypti mosquitos as it is a common vector for dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever. As a response to the epidemic, public health authorities promoted ZIKV prevention behaviors such as mosquito bite prevention, reproductive counseling for women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy, pregnancy avoidance, and condom use. Most prevention efforts from Brazil focused on the mosquito vector- utilizing recycled dengue approaches without acknowledging the context in which women were able to adhere to these prevention messages. This study used qualitative methods to explore how women in Fortaleza, Brazil perceive ZIKV, the Brazilian authorities’ ZIKV prevention recommendations, and the feasibility of adhering to these recommendations. A core study aim was to look at how women perceive their physical, social, and natural environment as it impacts women’s ability to adhere to ZIKV prevention behaviors. A Rapid Anthropological Assessment (RAA) containing observations, informational interviews, and semi-structured in-depth interviews were utilized for data collection. The study utilized Grounded Theory as the systematic inductive method of analyzing the data collected. Interviews were conducted with 35 women of reproductive age (15-39 years old), who primarily utilize the public health system. It was found that women’s self-identified economic class was associated with how strongly women felt they could prevent ZIKV. All women interviewed technically belong to the C-class, the middle economic class. Although all members of the same economic class, there was a divide amongst participants as to who perceived themselves as higher C-class versus lower C-class. How women saw their economic status was dictated by how they perceived their physical, social, and natural environment. Women further associated their environment and their economic class to their likelihood of contracting ZIKV, their options for preventing ZIKV, their ability to prevent ZIKV, and their willingness to attempt to prevent ZIKV. Women’s perceived economic status was found to relate to their structural environment (housing quality, sewage, and locations to supplies), social environment (family and peer norms), and natural environment (wetland areas, natural mosquito breeding sites, and cyclical nature of vectors). Findings from this study suggest that women’s perceived environment and economic status impact their perceived feasibility and desire to attempt behaviors to prevent ZIKV. Although ZIKV has depleted from epidemic to endemic status, it is suggested that the virus will return as cyclical outbreaks like that seen with similar arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya. As the next ZIKV epidemic approaches it is essential to understand how women perceive themselves, their abilities, and their environments to best aid the prevention of ZIKV.

Keywords: Prevention, Environment, Qualitative, aedes aegypti, Zika

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1 Other End of the Leash: The Volunteer Handlers Perspective of Animal-Assisted Interventions

Authors: Julie A. Carberry, Victor Maddalena


Animal-Assisted Interventions (AAIs) have existed in various forms for centuries. In the past 30 years, there has been a dramatic increase in popularity. AAIs are now part of the lives of persons of all ages in many types of institutions. Anecdotal evidence of the benefits of AAIs have led to widespread adoption, yet there remains a lack of solid research base for support. The research question was, what are the lived experiences of AAI volunteer handlers are? An interpretive phenomenological methodology was used for this qualitative study. Data were collected from 1 - 2 hour-long semi-structured interviews and 1 observational field visit. All interviews were conducted, transcribed, and coded for themes by the principal investigator. Participants must have been an active St. John Ambulance Therapy Dog Program volunteer for a least one year. In total, 14 volunteer handlers, along with some of their dogs, were included. The St. John Ambulance is a not for profit organization that provides training and community services to Canadians. The Therapy Dog Program is 1 of the 4 nationally recognized core community service programs. The program incorporates dogs in the otherwise traditional therapeutic intervention of friendly visitation with clients. The lack of formal objectives and goals, and a trained therapist defines the program as an Animal-Assisted Activity (AAA), which is a type of AAI. Since the animals incorporated are dogs, the program is specifically a Canine-Assisted Activity (CAA), which is a type of Canine-Assisted Intervention (CAI). Six themes emerged from the analysis of the data: (a) a win-win-win situation for all parties involved – volunteer handlers, clients, and the dogs, (b) being on the other end of the leash: functions of the role of volunteer handler, (c) the importance of socialization: from spreading smiles to creating meaningful connections, (d) the role of the dog: initiating interaction and providing comfort, (e) an opportunity to feel good and destress, and (f) altruism versus personal rewards. Other insights were found regarding the program, clients, and staff. Possible implications from this research include increased organizational recruitment and retention of volunteer handlers and as well as increased support for CAAs and other CAIs that incorporate teams of volunteer handlers and their dogs. This support could, in turn, add overall support for the acceptance and broad implementation of AAIs as an alternative and or complementary non-pharmaceutical therapeutic intervention.

Keywords: Qualitative, perspective, animal-assisted activity, animal-assisted intervention, canine-assisted activity, canine-assisted intervention, volunteer handler

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