Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

PZT Related Abstracts

5 Detection of Concrete Reinforcement Damage Using Piezoelectric Materials: Analytical and Experimental Study

Authors: C. P. Providakis, G. M. Angeli, M. J. Favvata, N. A. Papadopoulos, C. E. Chalioris, C. G. Karayannis

Abstract:

An effort for the detection of damages in the reinforcement bars of reinforced concrete members using PZTs is presented. The damage can be the result of excessive elongation of the steel bar due to steel yielding or due to local steel corrosion. In both cases the damage is simulated by considering reduced diameter of the rebar along the damaged part of its length. An integration approach based on both electro-mechanical admittance methodology and guided wave propagation technique is used to evaluate the artificial damage on the examined longitudinal steel bar. Two actuator PZTs and a sensor PZT are considered to be bonded on the examined steel bar. The admittance of the Sensor PZT is calculated using COMSOL 3.4a. Fast Furrier Transformation for a better evaluation of the results is employed. An effort for the quantification of the damage detection using the root mean square deviation (RMSD) between the healthy condition and damage state of the sensor PZT is attempted. The numerical value of the RSMD yields a level for the difference between the healthy and the damaged admittance computation indicating this way the presence of damage in the structure. Experimental measurements are also presented.

Keywords: Experimental Measurements, Concrete Reinforcement, Guided Waves, damage detection, Finite Element Method, electromechanical admittance, PZT

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4 Detection of Concrete Reinforcement Damage Using Piezoelectric Materials: Analytical and Experimental Study

Authors: C. P. Providakis, G. M. Angeli, M. J. Favvata, N. A. Papadopoulos, C. E. Chalioris, C. G. Karayannis

Abstract:

An effort for the detection of damages in the reinforcement bars of reinforced concrete members using PZTs is presented. The damage can be the result of excessive elongation of the steel bar due to steel yielding or due to local steel corrosion. In both cases the damage is simulated by considering reduced diameter of the rebar along the damaged part of its length. An integration approach based on both electromechanical admittance methodology and guided wave propagation technique is used to evaluate the artificial damage on the examined longitudinal steel bar. Two actuator PZTs and a sensor PZT are considered to be bonded on the examined steel bar. The admittance of the Sensor PZT is calculated using COMSOL 3.4a. Fast Furrier Transformation for a better evaluation of the results is employed. An effort for the quantification of the damage detection using the root mean square deviation (RMSD) between the healthy condition and damage state of the sensor PZT is attempted. The numerical value of the RSMD yields a level for the difference between the healthy and the damaged admittance computation indicating this way the presence of damage in the structure. Experimental measurements are also presented.

Keywords: Experimental Measurements, Concrete Reinforcement, Guided Waves, damage detection, Finite Element Method, electromechanical admittance, PZT

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
3 Development of a Sprayable Piezoelectric Material for E-Textile Applications

Authors: K. Yang, Y. Wei, M. Zhang, S. Yong, R. Torah, J. Tudor, S. Beeby

Abstract:

E-textiles are traditional textiles with integrated electronic functionality. It is an emerging innovation with numerous applications in fashion, wearable computing, health and safety monitoring, and the military and medical sectors. The piezoelectric effect is a widespread and versatile transduction mechanism used in sensor and actuator applications. Piezoelectric materials produce electric charge when stressed. Conversely, mechanical deformation occurs when an electric field is applied across the material. Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) is a widely used piezoceramic material which has been used to fabricate e-textiles through screen printing, electro spinning and hydrothermal synthesis. This paper explores an alternative fabrication process: Spray coating. Spray coating is a straightforward and cost effective fabrication method applicable on both flat and curved surfaces. It can also be applied selectively by spraying through a stencil which enables the required design to be realised on the substrate. This work developed a sprayable PZT based piezoelectric ink consisting of a binder (Fabink-Binder-01), PZT powder (80 % 2 µm and 20 % 0.8 µm) and acetone as a thinner. The optimised weight ratio of PZT/binder is 10:1. The components were mixed using a SpeedMixer DAC 150. The fabrication processes is as follows: 1) Screen print a UV-curable polyurethane interface layer on the textile to create a smooth textile surface. 2) Spray one layer of a conductive silver polymer ink through a pre-designed stencil and dry at 90 °C for 10 minutes to form the bottom electrode. 3) Spray three layers of the PZT ink through a pre-designed stencil and dry at 90 °C for 10 minutes for each layer to form a total thickness of ~250µm PZT layer. 4) Spray one layer of the silver ink through a pre-designed stencil on top of the PZT layer and dry at 90 °C for 10 minutes to form the top electrode. The domains of the PZT elements were aligned by polarising the material at an elevated temperature under a strong electric field. A d33 of 37 pC/N has been achieved after polarising at 90 °C for 6 minutes with an electric field of 3 MV/m. The application of the piezoelectric textile was demonstrated by fabricating a pressure sensor to switch an LED on/off. Other potential applications on e-textiles include motion sensing, energy harvesting, force sensing and a buzzer.

Keywords: PZT, piezoelectric, spray coating, pressure sensor, e-textile

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2 Health of Riveted Joints with Active and Passive Structural Health Monitoring Techniques

Authors: Alireza Mirzaee, Javad Yarmahmoudi

Abstract:

Many active and passive structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques have been developed for detection of the defects of plates. Generally, riveted joints hold the plates together and their failure may create accidents. In this study, well known active and passive methods were modified for the evaluation of the health of the riveted joints between the plates. The active method generated Lamb waves and monitored their propagation by using lead zirconate titanate (PZT) disks. The signal was analyzed by using the wavelet transformations. The passive method used the Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors and evaluated the spectral characteristics of the signals by using Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT). The results indicated that the existing methods designed for the evaluation of the health of individual plates may be used for inspection of riveted joints with software modifications.

Keywords: Structural health monitoring, PZT, SHM, active SHM, passive SHM, fiber bragg grating sensor, lead zirconate titanate

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
1 Domain Switching Characteristics of Lead Zirconate Titanate Piezoelectric Ceramic

Authors: Mitsuhiro Okayasu

Abstract:

To better understand the lattice characteristics of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics, the lattice orientations and domain-switching characteristics have been directly examined during loading and unloading using various experimental techniques. Upon loading, the PZT ceramics are fractured linear and nonlinearly during the compressive loading process. The strain characteristics of the PZT ceramic were directly affected by both the lattice and domain switching strain. Due to the piezoelectric ceramic, electrical activity of lightning-like behavior occurs in the PZT ceramics, which attributed to the severe domain-switching leading to weak piezoelectric property. The characteristics of domain-switching and reverse switching are detected during the loading and unloading processes. The amount of domain-switching depends on the grain, due to different stress levels. In addition, two patterns of 90˚ domain-switching systems are characterized, namely (i) 90˚ turn about the tetragonal c-axis and (ii) 90˚ rotation of the tetragonal a-axis. In this case, PZT ceramic was loaded by the thermal stress at 80°C. Extent of domain switching is related to the direction of c-axis of the tetragonal structure, e.g., that axis, orientated close to the loading direction, makes severe domain switching. It is considered that there is 90˚ domain switching, but in actual, the angle of domain switching is less than 90˚, e.g., 85.4° ~ 90.0°. In situ TEM observation of the domain switching characteristics of PZT ceramic has been conducted with increasing the sample temperature from 25°C to 300°C, and the domain switching like behavior is directly observed from the lattice image, where the severe domain switching occurs less than 100°C.

Keywords: PZT, lead zirconate titanate, piezoelectric ceramic, domain switching, material property

Procedia PDF Downloads 29