Commenced in January 2007
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pyrethroids Related Abstracts

2 Separation of Some Pyrethroid Insecticides by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

Authors: Fairouz Tazerouti, Samira Ihadadene

Abstract:

Pyrethroids are synthetic pesticides that originated from the modification of natural pyrethrins to improve their biological activity and stability. They are a family of chiral pesticides with a large number of stereoisomers. Enantiomers of synthetic pyretroids present different insecticidal activity, toxicity against aquatic invertebrates and persistence in the environment so the development of rapid and sensitive chiral methods for the determination of different enantiomers is necessary. In this study, the separation of enantiomers of pyrethroid insecticides has been systematically studied using three commercially chiral high-performance liquid chromatography columns. Useful resolution was obtained for compounds with a variety of acid and alcohol moieties, and containing one to four chiral centres. The chromatographic behaviour of the diastereomers of some of these insecticides by using normal, polar and reversed mobile phase mode were also examined.

Keywords: Analysis, Pesticides, liquid chromatography, pyrethroids

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1 Combined Use of Microbial Consortia for the Enhanced Degradation of Type-IIx Pyrethroids

Authors: Parminder Kaur, Chandrajit B. Majumder

Abstract:

The unrestrained usage of pesticides to meet the burgeoning demand of enhanced crop productivity has led to the serious contamination of both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem. The remediation of mixture of pesticides is a challenging affair regarding inadvertent mixture of pesticides from agricultural lands treated with various compounds. Global concerns about the excessive use of pesticides have driven the need to develop more effective and safer alternatives for their remediation. We focused our work on the microbial degradation of a mixture of three Type II-pyrethroids, namely Cypermethrin, Cyhalothrin and Deltamethrin commonly applied for both agricultural and domestic purposes. The fungal strains (Fusarium strain 8-11P and Fusarium sp. zzz1124) had previously been isolated from agricultural soils and their ability to biotransform this amalgam was studied. In brief, the experiment was conducted in two growth systems (added carbon and carbon-free) enriched with variable concentrations of pyrethroids between 100 to 300 mgL⁻¹. Parameter optimization (pH, temperature, concentration and time) was done using a central composite design matrix of Response Surface Methodology (RSM). At concentrations below 200 mgL⁻¹, complete removal was observed; however, degradation of 95.6%/97.4 and 92.27%/95.65% (in carbon-free/added carbon) was observed for 250 and 300 mgL⁻¹ respectively. The consortium has been shown to degrade the pyrethroid mixture (300 mg L⁻¹) within 120 h. After 5 day incubation, the residual pyrethroids concentration in unsterilized soil were much lower than in sterilized soil, indicating that microbial degradation predominates in pyrethroids elimination with the half-life (t₁/₂) of 1.6 d and R² ranging from 0.992-0.999. Overall, these results showed that microbial consortia might be more efficient than single degrader strains. The findings will complement our current understanding of the bioremediation of mixture of Type II pyrethroids with microbial consortia and potentially heighten the importance for considering bioremediation as an effective alternative for the remediation of such pollutants.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Soil, Fungi, pyrethroids

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