Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

PWM Related Abstracts

13 Contribution to the Analytical Study of the Stability of a DC-DC Converter (Boost) Used for MPPT Control

Authors: Mohamed Amarouayache, Badia Amrouche, Gharbi Akila, Boukadoume Mohamed


This work is devoted to the modeling of DC-DC converter (boost) used for MPPT applications to set conditions of stability. For this, we establish a linear mathematical model of the DC-DC converter with an average small signal model. This model has allowed us to apply conventional linear methods of automation. A mathematical relationship between the duty cycle and the voltage of the panel has been set up. With this relationship we specify the conditions of the stability in closed-loop depending on the system parameters (the elements of storage capacity and inductance, PWM control).

Keywords: Stability, MPPT, PWM, criterion of Routh, average small signal model

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12 Real-Time Control of Grid-Connected Inverter Based on labVIEW

Authors: L. Benbaouche, H. E., F. Krim


In this paper we propose real-time control of grid-connected single phase inverter, which is flexible and efficient. The first step is devoted to the study and design of the controller through simulation, conducted by the LabVIEW software on the computer 'host'. The second step is running the application from PXI 'target'. LabVIEW software, combined with NI-DAQmx, gives the tools to easily build applications using the digital to analog converter to generate the PWM control signals. Experimental results show that the effectiveness of LabVIEW software applied to power electronics.

Keywords: Inverter, Real-Time Control, PWM, labview

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11 Design of Demand Pacemaker Using an Embedded Controller

Authors: C. Bala Prashanth Reddy, B. Abhinay, C. Sreekar, D. V. Shobhana Priscilla


The project aims in designing an emergency pacemaker which is capable of giving shocks to a human heart which has stopped working suddenly. A pacemaker is a machine commonly used by cardiologists. This machine is used in order to shock a human’s heart back into usage. The way the heart works is that there are small cells called pacemakers sending electrical pulses to cardiac muscles that tell the heart when to pump blood. When these electrical pulses stop, the heart stops beating. When this happens, a pacemaker is used to shock the heart muscles and the pacemakers back into action. The way this is achieved is by rubbing the two panels of the pacemaker together to create an adequate electrical current, and then the heart gets back to the normal state. The project aims in designing a system which is capable of continuously displaying the heart beat and blood pressure of a person on LCD. The concerned doctor gets the heart beat and also the blood pressure details continuously through the GSM Modem in the form of SMS alerts. In case of abnormal condition, the doctor sends message format regarding the amount of electric shock needed. Automatically the microcontroller gives the input to the pacemaker which in turn gives the shock to the patient. Heart beat monitor and display system is a portable and a best replacement for the old model stethoscope which is less efficient. The heart beat rate is calculated manually using stethoscope where the probability of error is high because the heart beat rate lies in the range of 70 to 90 per minute whose occurrence is less than 1 sec, so this device can be considered as a very good alternative instead of a stethoscope.

Keywords: heart, PWM, missing R wave, demand pacemaker

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10 Evaluation of MPPT Algorithms for Photovoltaic Generator by Comparing Incremental Conductance Method, Perturbation and Observation Method and the Method Using Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Ahmed Essadki, Tamou Nasser, Elmahdi Elgharbaoui


In the era of sustainable development, photovoltaic (PV) technology has shown significant potential as a renewable energy source. Photovoltaic generators (GPV) have a non-linear current-voltage characteristic, with a maximum power point (MPP) characterized by an optimal voltage, and depends on environmental factors such as temperature and irradiation. To extract each time the maximum power available at the terminals of the GPV and transfer it to the load, an adaptation stage is used, consisting of a boost chopper controlled by a maximum power point tracking technique (MPPT) through a stage of pulse width modulation (PWM). Our choice has focused on three techniques which are: the perturbation and observation method (P&O), the incremental conductance method (InCond) and the last is that of control using the fuzzy logic. The implementation and simulation of the system (photovoltaic generator, chopper boost, PWM and MPPT techniques) are then performed in the Matlab/Simulink environment.

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic, PWM, photovoltaic generator, P&O, technique MPPT, boost chopper, InCond

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
9 Comparison of Fundamental Frequency Model and PWM Based Model for UPFC

Authors: A. Haider, S. A. Al-Qallaf, S. A. Al-Mawsawi


Among all FACTS devices, the unified power flow controller (UPFC) is considered to be the most versatile device. This is due to its capability to control all the transmission system parameters (impedance, voltage magnitude, and phase angle). With the growing interest in UPFC, the attention to develop a mathematical model has increased. Several models were introduced for UPFC in literature for different type of studies in power systems. In this paper a novel comparison study between two dynamic models of UPFC with their proposed control strategies.

Keywords: dynamic modeling, facts, PWM, UPFC, fundamental frequency

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
8 Digital Control Techniques for Power Electronic Devices

Authors: Rakesh Krishna, Abhishek Poddar


The paper discusses the work carried out on the implementation of control techniques like Digital Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) and Digital Pulse Fired control(PFC). These techniques are often used in devices like inverters, battery chargers, DC-to-DC converters can also be implemented on household devices like heaters. The advantage being the control and improved life span of device. In case of batteries using these techniques are known to increase the life span of battery in mobiles and other hand-held devices. 8051 microcontroller is used to implement these methods.Thyristors are used for switching operations.

Keywords: PWM, SVM, PFC, bidirectional inverters, snubber

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7 Improving Power Quality in Wind Power Generation System

Authors: A. Omeiri, A. Djellad, P. O. Logerais, O. Riou, J. F. Durastanti


With the growing of electrical energy demand, wind power capacity has experienced tremendous growth in the past decade, thanks to wind power’s environmental benefits. Direct driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) with a full size back-to-back converter set is one of the promising technologies employed with wind power generation. Wind grid integration brings the problems of voltage fluctuation and harmonic pollution. In the present study, the filter is placed between the wind system and the network to reduce the total harmonic distortion (THD) and enhance power quality during disturbances. The models of wind turbine, PMSG, power electronic converters and the filter are implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment.

Keywords: Power Quality, PWM, THD, wind energy conversion system, PMSG, passive filter

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6 Efficient Control of Brushless DC Motors with Pulse Width Modulation

Authors: J. Rizk, S. Shahzadi


This paper describes the pulse width modulated control of a three phase, 4 polar DC brushless motor. To implement this practically the Atmel’s AVR ATmega 328 microcontroller embedded on an Arduino Eleven board is utilized. The microcontroller programming is done in an open source Arduino IDE development environment. The programming logic effectively manipulated a six MOSFET bridge which was used to energize the stator windings as per control requirements. The results obtained showed accurate, precise and efficient pulse width modulated operation. Another advantage offered by this pulse width modulated control was the efficient speed control of the motor. By varying the time intervals between successive commutations, faster energizing of the stator windings was possible thereby leading to quicker rotor alignment with these energized phases and faster revolutions.

Keywords: PWM, MOSFET, brushless dc motors, commutation

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5 Single Phase PV Inverter Applying a Dual Boost Technology

Authors: Sudha Bhutada, S. R. Nigam


In this paper, a single-phase PV inverter applying a dual boost converter circuit inverter is proposed for photovoltaic (PV) generation system and PV grid connected system. This system is designed to improve integration of a Single phase inverter with Photovoltaic panel. The DC 24V is converted into to 86V DC and then 86V DC to 312V DC. The 312 V DC is then successfully inverted to AC 220V. Hence, solar energy is powerfully converted into electrical energy for fulfilling the necessities of the home load, or to link with the grid. Matlab Simulation software was used for simulation of the circuit and outcome are presented in this paper.

Keywords: SPWM, PWM, H bridge inverter, dual boost converter

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4 Regulated Output Voltage Double Switch Buck-Boost Converter for Photovoltaic Energy Application

Authors: A. Cheriti, M. Kaouane, A. Boukhelifa


In this paper, a new Buck-Boost DC-DC converter is designed and simulated for photovoltaic energy system. The presented Buck-Boost converter has a double switch. Moreover, its output voltage is regulated to a constant value whatever its input is. In the presented work, the Buck-Boost transfers the produced energy from the photovoltaic generator to an R-L load. The converter is controlled by the pulse width modulation technique in a way to have a suitable output voltage, in the other hand, to carry the generator’s power, and put it close to the maximum possible power that can be generated by introducing the right duty cycle of the pulse width modulation signals that control the switches of the converter; each component and each parameter of the proposed circuit is well calculated using the equations that describe each operating mode of the converter. The proposed configuration of Buck-Boost converter has been simulated in Matlab/Simulink environment; the simulation results show that it is a good choice to take in order to maintain the output voltage constant while ensuring a good energy transfer.

Keywords: Power, Energy transfer, Photovoltaic, PWM, buck-boost converter, switch

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3 PWM Harmonic Injection and Frequency-Modulated Triangular Carrier to Improve the Lives of the Transformers

Authors: Mario J. Meco-Gutierrez, Francisco Perez-Hidalgo, Juan R. Heredia-Larrubia, Antonio Ruiz-Gonzalez, Francisco Vargas-Merino


More and more applications power inverters connected to transformers, for example, the connection facilities to the power grid renewable generation. It is well known that the quality of signal power inverters it is not a pure sine. The harmonic content produced negative effects, one of which is the heating of electrical machines and therefore, affects the life of the machines. The decrease of life of transformers can be calculated by Arrhenius or Montsinger equation. Analyzing this expression any (long-term) decrease of a transformer temperature for 6º C - 7º C means doubles its life-expectancy. Methodologies: This work presents the technique of pulse width modulation (PWM) with an injection of harmonic and triangular frequency carrier modulated in frequency. This technique is used to improve the quality of the output voltage signal of the power inverters controlled PWM. The proposed technique increases in the fundamental term and a significant reduction in low order harmonics with the same commutations per time that control sine PWM. To achieve this, the modulating wave is compared to a triangular carrier with variable frequency over the period of the modulator. Therefore, it is, advantageous for the modulating signal to have a large amount of sinusoidal “information” in the areas of greater sampling. A triangular signal with a frequency that varies over the modulator’s period is used as a carrier, for obtaining more samples in the area with the greatest slope. A power inverter controlled by PWM proposed technique is connected to a transformer. Results: In order to verify the derived thermal parameters under different operation conditions, another ambient and loading scenario is involved for a further verification, which was sampled from the same power transformer. Temperatures of different parts of the transformer will be exposed for each PWM control technique analyzed. An assessment of the temperature be done with different techniques PWM control and hence the life of the transformer is calculated for each technique. Conclusion: This paper analyzes such as transformer heating produced by this technique and compared with other forms of PWM control. In it can be seen as a reduction the harmonic content produces less heat transformer and therefore, an increase in the life of the transformer.

Keywords: Heating, PWM, transformer, power-inverter

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2 [Keynote Talk]: Analysis of Intelligent Based Fault Tolerant Capability System for Solar Photovoltaic Energy Conversion

Authors: Albert Alexander Stonier


Due to the fossil fuel exhaustion and environmental pollution, renewable energy sources especially solar photovoltaic system plays a predominant role in providing energy to the consumers. It has been estimated that by 2050 the renewable energy sources will satisfy 50% of the total energy requirement of the world. In this context, the faults in the conversion process require a special attention which is considered as a major problem. A fault which remains even for a few seconds will cause undesirable effects to the system. The presentation comprises of the analysis, causes, effects and mitigation methods of various faults occurring in the entire solar photovoltaic energy conversion process. In order to overcome the faults in the system, an intelligent based artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic are proposed which can significantly mitigate the faults. Hence the presentation intends to find the problem in renewable energy and provides the possible solution to overcome it with simulation and experimental results. The work performed in a 3kWp solar photovoltaic plant whose results cites the improvement in reliability, availability, power quality and fault tolerant ability.

Keywords: Power Electronics, Power Quality, Solar Photovoltaic, PWM

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1 Multi-Level Pulse Width Modulation to Boost the Power Efficiency of Switching Amplifiers for Analog Signals with Very High Crest Factor

Authors: Jan Doutreloigne


The main goal of this paper is to develop a switching amplifier with optimized power efficiency for analog signals with a very high crest factor such as audio or DSL signals. Theoretical calculations show that a switching amplifier architecture based on multi-level pulse width modulation outperforms all other types of linear or switching amplifiers in that respect. Simulations on a 2 W multi-level switching audio amplifier, designed in a 50 V 0.35 mm IC technology, confirm its superior performance in terms of power efficiency. A real silicon implementation of this audio amplifier design is currently underway to provide experimental validation.

Keywords: Power Efficiency, PWM, pulse width modulation, audio amplifier, multi-level switching amplifier, self-oscillating amplifier

Procedia PDF Downloads 193