Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

PVDF Related Abstracts

18 Use of Polymeric Materials in the Architectural Preservation

Authors: F. Zouai, F. Z. Benabid, D. Benachour, A. Douibi


These Fluorinated polymers and polyacrylics have known a wide use in the field of historical monuments. PVDF provides a great easiness to processing, a good UV resistance and good chemical inertia. Although the quality of physical characteristics of the PMMA and its low price with a respect to PVDF, its deterioration against UV radiations limits its use as protector agent for the stones. On the other hand, PVDF/PMMA blend is a compromise of a great development in the field of architectural restoration, since it is the best method in term of quality and price to make new polymeric materials having enhanced properties. Films of different compositions based on the two polymers within an adequate solvent (DMF) were obtained to perform an exposition to artificial ageing and to the salted fog, a spectroscopic analysis (FTIR and UV) and optical analysis (refractive index). Based on its great interest in the field of building, a variety of standard tests has been elaborated for the first time at the central laboratory of ENAP (Souk-Ahras) in order to evaluate our blend performance. The obtained results have allowed observing the behavior of the different compositions of the blend under various tests. The addition of PVDF to PMMA enhances the properties of this last to know the exhibition to the natural and artificial ageing and to the saline fog. On the other hand, PMMA enhances the optical properties of the blend. Finally, 70/30 composition of the blend is in concordance with results of previous works and it is the adequate proportion for an eventual application.

Keywords: Preservation, PMMA, blend, PVDF, historic monuments

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17 Optimal Design of Polymer Based Piezoelectric Actuator with Varying Thickness and Length Ratios

Authors: Geetika Srivastava, Vineet Tiwari, R. K. Dwivedi


Piezoelectric cantilevers are exploited for their use in sensors and actuators. In this study, a unimorph cantilever beam is considered as a study element with a piezoelectric polymer Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) layer bonded to a substrate layer. The different substrates like polysilicon, stainless steel and silicon nitride are tried for the study. An effort has been made to optimize and study the effect of the various parameters of the device in order to achieve maximum tip deflection. The variation of the tip displacement of the cantilever with respect to the length ratio of the nonpiezoelectric layer to the piezoelectric layer has been studied. The electric response of this unimorph cantilever beam is simulated with the help of finite element analysis software COMSOL Multiphysics.

Keywords: Sensors, Actuators, piezoelectric, cantilever, PVDF

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16 Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Polyaniline Films for Improved Dielectric Properties

Authors: Anjana Jain, S. Jayanth Kumar


Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) is a well-known material for remarkable mechanical properties, resistance to chemicals and superior ferroelectric performances. This endows PVDF the potential for application in supercapacitor devices. The dielectric properties of PVDF, however, are not very high. To improve the dielectric properties of Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), Piezoelectric polymer nanocomposites are prepared without affecting the other useful properties of PVDF. Polyaniline (PANI) was chosen as a filler material to prepare the nanocomposites. PVDF-PANI nanocomposite films were prepared using solvent cast method with different volume fractions of PANI varying from 0.04% to 0.048% of PANI content. The films are characterized for structural, mechanical, and surface morphological properties using X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimeter, Raman spectra, Infrared spectra, tensile testing, and scanning electron microscopy. The X-ray diffraction analysis shows that, prepared films were in β-phase. The DSC scans indicated that the degree of crystallinity in PVDF-PANI is improved. Raman and Infrared spectrum further confirm the presence of β-phase of PVDF-PANI film. Tensile properties of PVDF-PANI films were in good agreement with those reported in literature. The surface feature shows that PANI is uniformly distributed in PVDF and also results in disappearance of spherulites. The influence of volume fraction of PANI in PVDF on dielectric properties was analyzed. The results showed that the dielectric permittivity of PVDF-PANI (120) was much higher than that of PVDF (12). The sensitivity of these films was studied on application of a pressure and a constant output voltage was obtained.

Keywords: Smart Materials, PVDF, PANI, dielectric properties

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15 Elaboration and Characterization of PVDF/TiO2 Nanocomposites

Authors: F. Zouai, F. Z. Benabid, D. Benachour, S. Kridi


The aim of present work is to characterize the PVDF/TiO2 blends as nanocomposites, and study the effect of TiO2 on properties of different compositions and the evaluation of the effectiveness of the method used for filler treatment. Nanocomposite samples were synthesized by molten route in an internal mixer. The TiO2 nanoparticles were treated with stearic acid in order to obtain a good dispersion, and the demonstration of the effectiveness of the treatment on the morphology and roughness of the nanofiller was established by microstructural analysis by FTIR and AFM. The various developed nanocomposite compositions were characterized by different methods; i.e. FTIR, XRD, SEM and optical microscopy. Rheological, dielectric and mechanical studies were also performed. The results showed a remarkable increase in the crystallinity of the PVDF/neat TiO2 nanocomposite containing 1 wt% loading of filler, due to the nucleation effect of TiO2 nanoparticles. A good dispersion was obtained in PVDF/treated TiO2 nanocomposites. The rheological study showed an increase in the fluidity in all developed nanocomposite compositions, involved by the orientation of TiO2 nanoparticles in the flow direction. The dielectric study revealed an increase in electrical conductivity in PVDF/neat TiO2 nanocomposites. However, in PVDF/ treated TiO2 nanocomposites, the electrical conductivity was decreased by the addition of 0.5 and 2 wt% loading of filler.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, TiO2, PVDF, comixing, mechanical treatment

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14 Preliminary Studies of MWCNT/PVDF Polymer Composites

Authors: Esther Lorrayne M. Pereira, Adriana Souza M. Batista, Fabíola A. S. Ribeiro, Adelina P. Santos, Clascídia A. Furtado, Luiz O. Faria


The combination of multi–walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with polymers offers an attractive route to reinforce the macromolecular compounds as well as the introduction of new properties based on morphological modifications or electronic interactions between the two constituents. As they are only a few nanometers in dimension, it offers ultra-large interfacial area per volume between the nano-element and polymer matrix. Nevertheless, the use of MWCNTs as a rough material in different applications has been largely limited by their poor processability, insolubility, and infusibility. Studies concerning the nanofiller reinforced polymer composites are justified in an attempt to overcome these limitations. This work presents one preliminary study of MWCNTs dispersion into the PVDF homopolymer. For preparation, the composite components were diluted in n,n-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) with mechanical agitation assistance. After complete dilution, followed by slow evaporation of the solvent at 60°C, the samples were dried. Films of about 80 μm were obtained. FTIR and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques were used to characterize the nanocomposites. The appearance of absorption bands in the FTIR spectra of nanofilled samples, when compared to the spectrum of pristine PVDF samples, are discussed and compared with the UV-Vis measurements.

Keywords: Composites materials, FTIR, PVDF, MWNTs, UV-vis

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13 Characterization of Gamma Irradiated PVDF and PVDF/Graphene Oxide Composites by Spectroscopic Techniques

Authors: Clascídia A. Furtado, Luiz O. Faria, Juliana V. Pereira, Adriana S. M. Batista, Jefferson P. Nascimento


The combination of the properties of graphene oxide (OG) and PVDF homopolymer makes their combined composite materials as multifunctional systems with great potential. Knowledge of the molecular structure is essential for better use. In this work, the degradation of PVDF polymer exposed to gamma irradiation in oxygen atmosphere in high dose rate has been studied and compared to degradation of PVDF/OG composites. The samples were irradiated with a Co-60 source at constant dose rate, with doses ranging from 100 kGy to 1,000 kGy. In FTIR data shown that the formation of oxidation products was at the both samples with formation of carbonyl and hydroxyl groups amongst the most prevalent products in the pure PVDF samples. In the other hand, the composites samples exhibit less presence of degradation products with predominant formation of carbonyl groups, these results also seen in the UV-Vis analysis. The results show that the samples of composites may have greater resistance to the irradiation process, since they have less degradation products than pure PVDF samples seen by spectroscopic techniques.

Keywords: gamma irradiation, PVDF, PVDF/OG composites, spectroscopic techniques

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12 Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Crystalline Structure of Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride)

Authors: Adriana Souza M. Batista, Luiz O. Faria, Cláubia Pereira


The irradiation of polymeric materials has received much attention because it can produce diverse changes in chemical structure and physical properties. Thus, studying the chemical and structural changes of polymers is important in practice to achieve optimal conditions for the modification of polymers. The effect of gamma irradiation on the crystalline structure of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) has been investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction techniques (XRD). Gamma irradiation was carried out in atmosphere air with doses between 100 kGy at 3,000 kGy with a Co-60 source. In the melting thermogram of the samples irradiated can be seen a bimodal melting endotherm is detected with two melting temperature. The lower melting temperature is attributed to melting of crystals originally present and the higher melting peak due to melting of crystals reorganized upon heat treatment. These results are consistent with those obtained by XRD technique showing increasing crystallinity with increasing irradiation dose, although the melting latent heat is decreasing.

Keywords: Differential Scanning Calorimetry, gamma irradiation, PVDF, X-ray diffraction technique

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11 Design of a Pulse Generator Based on a Programmable System-on-Chip (PSoC) for Ultrasonic Applications

Authors: Pedro Acevedo, Carlos Díaz, Mónica Vázquez, Joel Durán


This paper describes the design of a pulse generator based on the Programmable System-on-Chip (PSoC) module. In this module, using programmable logic is possible to implement different pulses which are required for ultrasonic applications, either in a single channel or multiple channels. This module can operate with programmable frequencies from 3-74 MHz; its programming may be versatile covering a wide range of ultrasonic applications. It is ideal for low-power ultrasonic applications where PZT or PVDF transducers are used.

Keywords: Ultrasonic Transducer, pulse generator, PVDF, PSoC

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10 Radiation Effects in the PVDF/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites

Authors: Clascídia A. Furtado, Luiz O. Faria, Juliana V. Pereira, Adriana S. M. Batista, Jefferson P. Nascimento


Exposure to ionizing radiation has been found to induce changes in poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) homopolymers. The high dose gamma irradiation process induces the formation of C=C and C=O bonds in its [CH2-CF2]n main chain. The irradiation also provokes crosslinking and chain scission. All these radio-induced defects lead to changes in the PVDF crystalline structure. As a consequence, it is common to observe a decrease in the melting temperature (TM) and melting latent heat (LM) and some changes in its ferroelectric features. We have investigated the possibility of preparing nanocomposites of PVDF with graphene oxide (GO) through the radio-induction of molecular bonds. In this work, we discuss how the gamma radiation interacts with the nanocomposite crystalline structure.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, Graphene Oxide, gamma irradiation, PVDF

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9 Improving Gas Separation Performance of Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) Based Membranes Containing Ionic Liquid

Authors: S. Al-Enezi, J. Samuel, A. Al-Banna


Polymer based membranes are one of the low-cost technologies available for the gas separation. Three major elements required for a commercial gas separating membrane are high permeability, high selectivity, and good mechanical strength. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) is a commercially available fluoropolymer and a widely used membrane material in gas separation devices since it possesses remarkable thermal, chemical stability, and excellent mechanical strength. The PVDF membrane was chemically modified by soaking in different ionic liquids and dried. The thermal behavior of modified membranes was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetry (TGA), and the results clearly show the best affinity between the ionic liquid and the polymer support. The porous structure of the PVDF membranes was clearly seen in the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The CO₂ permeability of blended membranes was explored in comparison with the unmodified matrix. The ionic liquid immobilized in the hydrophobic PVDF support exhibited good performance for separations of CO₂/N₂. The improved permeability of modified membrane (PVDF-IL) is attributed to the high concentration of nitrogen rich imidazolium moieties.

Keywords: nanotubes, gas permeability, PVDF, CO2 separation, polymer membrane

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8 Identification of Force Vector on an Elastic Solid Using an Embeded PVDF Senor Array

Authors: Andrew Youssef, David Matthews, Jie Pan


Identifying the magnitude and direction of a force on an elastic solid is highly desirable, as this allows for investigation and continual monitoring of the dynamic loading. This was traditionally conducted by connecting the solid to the supporting structure by multi-axial force transducer, providing that the transducer will not change the mounting conditions. Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film is a versatile force transducer that can be easily embedded in structures. Here a PVDF sensor array is embedded inside a simple structure in an effort to determine the force vector applied to the structure is an inverse problem. In this paper, forces of different magnitudes and directions where applied to the structure with an impact hammer, and the output of the PVDF was captured and processed to gain an estimate of the forces applied by the hammer. The outcome extends the scope of application of PVDF sensors for measuring the external or contact force vectors.

Keywords: Vibration, monitoring, PVDF, embedded sensor

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7 Performance Analysis of Microelectromechanical Systems-Based Piezoelectric Energy Harvester

Authors: Swapneel U. Naphade, Satyabodh M. Kulkarni, Sanket S. Jugade


Microscale energy harvesters can be used to convert ambient mechanical vibrations to electrical energy. Such devices have great applications in low powered electronics in remote environments like powering wireless sensor nodes of Internet of Things, lightings on highways or in ships, etc. In this paper, a Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based energy harvester has been modeled using Analytical and Finite Element Method (FEM). The device consists of a microcantilever with a proof mass attached to its free end and a Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric thin film deposited on the surface of microcantilever in a unimorph or bimorph configuration. For the analytical method, the energy harvester was modeled as an equivalent electrical system in SIMULINK. The Finite element model was developed and analyzed using the commercial package COMSOL Multiphysics. The modal analysis was performed first to find the fundamental natural frequency and its variation with geometrical parameters of the system. Then the harmonic analysis was performed to find the input mechanical power, output electrical voltage, and power for a range of excitation frequencies and base acceleration values. The variation of output power with load resistance, PVDF film thickness, and damping values was also found out. The results from FEM were then validated with that of the analytical model. Finally, the performance of the device was optimized with respect to various electro-mechanical parameters. For a unimorph configuration consisting of single crystal silicon microcantilever of dimensions 8mm×2mm×80µm and proof mass of 9.32 mg with optimal values of the thickness of PVDF film and load resistance as 225 µm and 20 MΩ respectively, the maximum electrical power generated for base excitation of 0.2g at 630 Hz is 0.9 µW.

Keywords: MEMS, Harmonic Analysis, FEM, energy harvester, unimorph, PVDF, bimorph

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6 Preparation and Characterization of Hybrid Perovskite Enhanced with PVDF for Pressure Sensing

Authors: Mohamed E. Harb, Enas Moustafa, Shaker Ebrahim, Moataz Soliman


In this paper pressure detectors were synthesized and characterized using hybrid perovskite/PVDF composites as an active layer. Methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI₃) was synthesized from methylammonium iodide (MAI) (CH₃NH₃I) and lead iodide (PbI₂). Composites of perovskite/PVDF using different weight ratio were prepared as the active material. PVDF with weights percentages of 6%, 8%, and 10% was used. All prepared materials were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared spectrum (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A Versastat 4 Potentiostat Galvanostat instrument was used to perform the current-voltage characteristics of the fabricated sensors. The pressure sensors exhibited a voltage increase with applying different forces. Also, the current-voltage characteristics (CV) showed different effects with applying forces. So, the results showed a good pressure sensing performance.

Keywords: Pressure Sensing, PVDF, hybrid perovskite, perovskite semiconductor

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5 Preparation and Characterization of the TiO₂ Photocatalytic Membrane for the Degradation of Reactive Orange 16 Dye

Authors: Shruti Sakarkar, Jega Jegatheesan, Srinivasan Madapusi


Photocatalytic membranes have shown great potential for the removal of an organic and inorganic pollutant from wastewater as it combines the degradation and antibacterial properties from photocatalysis and physical separation by the membrane in a single unit. Incorporation of the semiconductor in membrane structure results in enhancing the performance and the properties of the membrane. In this study porous ultrafiltration polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes with entrapped TiO₂ nanoparticle were prepared by phase inversion method and further used for the degradation of reactive orange 16 (RO16). Prepared photocatalytic membranes were characterized by the scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), contact angle, and atomic force microscope (AFM). The addition of TiO₂ nanopartparticles improves the strength and thermal stability of the membrane. In particular hydrophilicity and permeability increases with the increase of TiO₂ nanoparticles into the membrane. The photocatalytic membrane achieves 80-85% degrdation of RO16. The impact of different parameters such as pH, concentration of photocatalyst, dye concentration and effect of H₂O₂ were analysed. The best conditions for dye degradation were an initial dye concentration of 50 mg/L, with a membrane containing TiO₂ loading of 2wt%. It was observed that in the presence of H₂O₂, degradation increases with increasing H₂O₂ concentration and reached up to 95-98%. The high quality permeates obtained from the photocatalytic membrane can be reused.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, TiO2, PVDF, photocatalytic membrane

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4 Tailoring Piezoelectricity of PVDF Fibers with Voltage Polarity and Humidity in Electrospinning

Authors: Urszula Stachewicz, Piotr K. Szewczyk, Arkadiusz Gradys, Sungkyun Kim, Luana Persano, Mateusz M. Marzec, Oleksander Kryshtal, Andrzej Bernasik, Sohini Kar-Narayan, Pawel Sajkiewicz


Piezoelectric polymers have received great attention in smart textiles, wearables, and flexible electronics. Their potential applications range from devices that could operate without traditional power sources, through self-powering sensors, up to implantable biosensors. Semi-crystalline PVDF is often proposed as the main candidate for industrial-scale applications as it exhibits exceptional energy harvesting efficiency compared to other polymers combined with high mechanical strength and thermal stability. Plenty of approaches have been proposed for obtaining PVDF rich in the desired β-phase with electric polling, thermal annealing, and mechanical stretching being the most prevalent. Electrospinning is a highly tunable technique that provides a one-step process of obtaining highly piezoelectric PVDF fibers without the need for post-treatment. In this study, voltage polarity and relative humidity influence on electrospun PVDF, fibers were investigated with the main focus on piezoelectric β-phase contents and piezoelectric performance. Morphology and internal structure of fibers were investigated using scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy techniques (TEM). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FITR), wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to characterize the phase composition of electrospun PVDF. Additionally, surface chemistry was verified with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Piezoelectric performance of individual electrospun PVDF fibers was measured using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), and the power output from meshes was analyzed via custom-built equipment. To prepare the solution for electrospinning, PVDF pellets were dissolved in dimethylacetamide and acetone solution in a 1:1 ratio to achieve a 24% solution. Fibers were electrospun with a constant voltage of +/-15kV applied to the stainless steel nozzle with the inner diameter of 0.8mm. The flow rate was kept constant at 6mlh⁻¹. The electrospinning of PVDF was performed at T = 25°C and relative humidity of 30 and 60% for PVDF30+/- and PVDF60+/- samples respectively in the environmental chamber. The SEM and TEM analysis of fibers produced at a lower relative humidity of 30% (PVDF30+/-) showed a smooth surface in opposition to fibers obtained at 60% relative humidity (PVDF60+/-), which had wrinkled surface and additionally internal voids. XPS results confirmed lower fluorine content at the surface of PVDF- fibers obtained by electrospinning with negative voltage polarity comparing to the PVDF+ obtained with positive voltage polarity. Changes in surface composition measured with XPS were found to influence the piezoelectric performance of obtained fibers what was further confirmed by PFM as well as by custom-built fiber-based piezoelectric generator. For PVDF60+/- samples humidity led to an increase of β-phase contents in PVDF fibers as confirmed by FTIR, WAXS, and DSC measurements, which showed almost two times higher concentrations of β-phase. A combination of negative voltage polarity with high relative humidity led to fibers with the highest β-phase contents and the best piezoelectric performance of all investigated samples. This study outlines the possibility to produce electrospun PVDF fibers with tunable piezoelectric performance in a one-step electrospinning process by controlling relative humidity and voltage polarity conditions. Acknowledgment: This research was conducted within the funding from m the Sonata Bis 5 project granted by National Science Centre, No 2015/18/E/ST5/00230, and supported by the infrastructure at International Centre of Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (IC-EM) at AGH University of Science and Technology. The PFM measurements were supported by an STSM Grant from COST Action CA17107.

Keywords: Electrospinning, Crystallinity, PVDF, voltage polarity

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3 Investigation on Reducing the Bandgap in Nanocomposite Polymers by Doping

Authors: Sharvare Palwai, Padmaja Guggilla


Smart materials, also called as responsive materials, undergo reversible physical or chemical changes in their properties as a consequence of small environmental variations. They can respond to a single or multiple stimuli such as stress, temperature, moist, electric or magnetic fields, light, or chemical compounds. Hence smart materials are the basis of many applications, including biosensors and transducers, particularly electroactive polymers. As the polymers exhibit good flexibility, high transparency, easy processing, and low cost, they would be promising for the sensor material. Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF), being a ferroelectric polymer, exhibits piezoelectric and pyro electric properties. Pyroelectric materials convert heat directly into electricity, while piezoelectric materials convert mechanical energy into electricity. These characteristics of PVDF make it useful in biosensor devices and batteries. However, the influence of nanoparticle fillers such as Lithium Tantalate (LiTaO₃/LT), Potassium Niobate (KNbO₃/PN), and Zinc Titanate (ZnTiO₃/ZT) in polymer films will be studied comprehensively. Developing advanced and cost-effective biosensors is pivotal to foresee the fullest potential of polymer based wireless sensor networks, which will further enable new types of self-powered applications. Finally, nanocomposites films with best set of properties; the sensory elements will be designed and tested for their performance as electric generators under laboratory conditions. By characterizing the materials for their optical properties and investigate the effects of doping on the bandgap energies, the science in the next-generation biosensor technologies can be advanced.

Keywords: PVDF, polyvinylidene fluoride, lithium tantalate, potassium niobate, zinc titanate

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2 Greatly Improved Dielectric Properties of Poly'vinylidene fluoride' Nanocomposites Using Ag-BaTiO₃ Hybrid Nanoparticles as Filler

Authors: K. Silakaew, P. Thongbai


There is an increasing need for high–permittivity polymer–matrix composites (PMC) owing to the rapid development of the electronics industry. Unfortunately, the dielectric permittivity of PMC is still too low ( < 80). Moreover, the dielectric loss tangent is usually high (tan > 0.1) when the dielectric permittivity of PMC increased. In this research work, the dielectric properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)–based nanocomposites can be significantly improved by incorporating by silver–BaTiO3 (Ag–BT) ceramic hybrid nanoparticles. The Ag–BT/PVDF nanocomposites were fabricated using various volume fractions of Ag–BT hybrid nanoparticles (fAg–BT = 0–0.5). The Ag–BT/PVDF nanocomposites were characterized using several techniques. The main phase of Ag and BT can be detected by the XRD technique. The microstructure of the Ag–BT/PVDF nanocomposites was investigated to reveal the dispersion of Ag–BT hybrid nanoparticles because the dispersion state of a filler can have an effect on the dielectric properties of the nanocomposites. It was found that the filler hybrid nanoparticles were well dispersed in the PVDF matrix. The phase formation of PVDF phases was identified using the XRD and FTIR techniques. We found that the fillers can increase the polar phase of a PVDF polymer. The fabricated Ag–BT/PVDF nanocomposites are systematically characterized to explain the dielectric behavior in Ag–BT/PVDF nanocomposites. Interestingly, largely enhanced dielectric permittivity (>240) and suppressed loss tangent (tan<0.08) over a wide frequency range (102 – 105 Hz) are obtained. Notably, the dielectric permittivity is slightly dependent on temperature. The greatly enhanced dielectric permittivity was explained by the interfacial polarization between the Ag and PVDF interface, and due to a high permittivity of BT particles.

Keywords: PVDF, dielectric properties, BaTiO3, polymer composite

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1 Fused Deposition Modeling Printing of Bioinspired Triply Periodic Minimal Surfaces Based Polyvinylidene Fluoride Materials for Scaffold Development in Biomedical Application

Authors: Farusil Najeeb Mullaveettil, Rolanas Dauksevicius


Cellular structures produced by additive manufacturing have earned wide research attention due to their unique specific strength and energy absorption potentiality. The literature review concludes that pattern type and density are vital parameters that affect the mechanical properties of parts formed by additive manufacturing techniques and have an influence on printing time and material consumption. Fused deposition modeling technique (FDM) is used here to produce Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) parts. In this work, patterns are based on triply periodic minimal surfaces (TPMS) produced by PVDF-based filaments using the FDM technique. PVDF homopolymer filament Fluorinar-H™ and PVDF copolymer filament Fluorinar-C™ are printed with three types of TPMS patterns. The patterns printed are Gyroid, Schwartz diamond, and Schwartz primitive. Tensile, flexural, and compression tests under quasi-static loading conditions are performed in compliance with ISO standards. The investigation elucidates the deformation mechanisms and a study that establishes a relationship between the printed and nominal specimens' dimensional accuracy. In comparison to the examined TPMS pattern, Schwartz diamond showed a higher relative elastic modulus and strength than the other patterns in tensile loading, and the Gyroid pattern showed the highest mechanical characteristics in flexural loading. The concluded results could be utilized to produce informed cellular designs for biomedical and mechanical applications.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing, tensile, PVDF, flexural, FDM, gyroid, schwartz primitive, schwartz diamond, TPMS

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