Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Pushover Analysis Related Abstracts

17 Performance Based Design of Masonry Infilled Reinforced Concrete Frames for Near-Field Earthquakes Using Energy Methods

Authors: Alok Madan, Arshad K. Hashmi


Performance based design (PBD) is an iterative exercise in which a preliminary trial design of the building structure is selected and if the selected trial design of the building structure does not conform to the desired performance objective, the trial design is revised. In this context, development of a fundamental approach for performance based seismic design of masonry infilled frames with minimum number of trials is an important objective. The paper presents a plastic design procedure based on the energy balance concept for PBD of multi-story multi-bay masonry infilled reinforced concrete (R/C) frames subjected to near-field earthquakes. The proposed energy based plastic design procedure was implemented for trial performance based seismic design of representative masonry infilled reinforced concrete frames with various practically relevant distributions of masonry infill panels over the frame elevation. Non-linear dynamic analyses of the trial PBD of masonry infilled R/C frames was performed under the action of near-field earthquake ground motions. The results of non-linear dynamic analyses demonstrate that the proposed energy method is effective for performance based design of masonry infilled R/C frames under near-field as well as far-field earthquakes.

Keywords: Pushover Analysis, seismic demand, nonlinear dynamic analysis, masonry infilled frame, energy methods, near-fault ground motions

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16 Modeling and Behavior of Structural Walls

Authors: Salima Djehaichia, Rachid Lassoued


Reinforced concrete structural walls are very efficient elements for protecting buildings against excessive early damage and against collapse under earthquake actions. It is therefore of interest to develop a numerical model which simulates the typical behavior of these units, this paper presents and describes different modeling techniques that have been used by researchers and their advantages and limitations mentioned. The earthquake of Boumerdes in 2003 has demonstrated the fragility of structures and total neglect of sismique design rules in the realization of old buildings. Significant damage and destruction of buildings caused by this earthquake are not due to the choice of type of material, but the design and the study does not congruent with seismic code requirements and bad quality of materials. For idealizing the failure of rules, a parametric study focuses on: low rate of reinforcements, type of reinforcement, resistance moderate of concrete. As an application the modeling strategy based on finite elements combined with a discretization of wall more solicited by successive thin layers. The estimated performance level achieved during a seismic action is obtained from capacity curves under incrementally increasing loads. Using a pushover analysis, a characteristic non linear force-displacement relationship can be determined. The results of numeric model are confronted with those of Algerian Para seismic Rules (RPA) in force have allowed the determination of profits in terms of displacement, shearing action, ductility.

Keywords: Modeling, Pushover Analysis, old building, structural walls

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15 Finite Element Modeling and Nonlinear Analysis for Seismic Assessment of Off-Diagonal Steel Braced RC Frame

Authors: Keyvan Ramin


The geometric nonlinearity of Off-Diagonal Bracing System (ODBS) could be a complementary system to covering and extending the nonlinearity of reinforced concrete material. Finite element modeling is performed for flexural frame, x-braced frame and the ODBS braced frame system at the initial phase. Then the different models are investigated along various analyses. According to the experimental results of flexural and x-braced frame, the verification is done. Analytical assessments are performed in according to three-dimensional finite element modeling. Non-linear static analysis is considered to obtain performance level and seismic behavior, and then the response modification factors calculated from each model’s pushover curve. In the next phase, the evaluation of cracks observed in the finite element models, especially for RC members of all three systems is performed. The finite element assessment is performed on engendered cracks in ODBS braced frame for various time steps. The nonlinear dynamic time history analysis accomplished in different stories models for three records of Elcentro, Naghan, and Tabas earthquake accelerograms. Dynamic analysis is performed after scaling accelerogram on each type of flexural frame, x-braced frame and ODBS braced frame one by one. The base-point on RC frame is considered to investigate proportional displacement under each record. Hysteresis curves are assessed along continuing this study. The equivalent viscous damping for ODBS system is estimated in according to references. Results in each section show the ODBS system has an acceptable seismic behavior and their conclusions have been converged when the ODBS system is utilized in reinforced concrete frame.

Keywords: Pushover Analysis, Passive Control, FEM, seismic behaviour, time history analysis, equivalent viscous damping, geometric nonlinearity, crack investigation, hysteresis curve

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14 Seismic Evaluation with Shear Walls and Braces for Buildings

Authors: S. K. Madan, R. S. Malik, V. K. Sehgal


Reinforced concrete (RCC) buildings with dual system consisting of shear walls and moment resisting frames or braces and moment resisting frames have been widely used to resist lateral forces during earthquakes. The two dual systems are designed to resist the total design lateral force in proportion to their lateral stiffness. The response of the combination of braces and shear walls has not yet been studied therefore has practically no work to refer to. The combination may prove to be more effective in lateral load resistance by employing the peculiar advantages of shear walls and braces simultaneously and may also improve the architectural appearance of structures. This concept has been applied to regular RCC buildings provided with shear walls, braces, and their combinations.

Keywords: Displacement, Pushover Analysis, Dynamic Analysis, dual structures, storey drift

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13 Seismic Assessment of RC Structures

Authors: Badla Oualid


A great number of existing buildings are designed without seismic design criteria and detailing rules for dissipative structural behavior. Thus, it is of critical importance that the structures that need seismic retrofitting are correctly identified, and an optimal retrofitting is conducted in a cost effective fashion. Among the retrofitting techniques available, steel braces can be considered as one of the most efficient solution among seismic performance upgrading methods of RC structures. This paper investigates the seismic behavior of RC buildings strengthened with different types of steel braces, X-braced, inverted V braced, ZX braced, and Zipper braced. Static non linear pushover analysis has been conducted to estimate the capacity of three story and six story buildings with different brace-frame systems and different cross sections for the braces. It is found that adding braces enhances the global capacity of the buildings compared to the case with no bracing and that the X and Zipper bracing systems performed better depending on the type and size of the cross section.

Keywords: Seismic Design, Strengthening, Pushover Analysis, RC frames, steel bracing

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12 Seismic Assessment of Old Existing RC Buildings with Masonry Infill in Madinah as Per ASCE

Authors: Ayman H. Khalil, Ayman M. Ismail, Tarek M. Alguhane, Nour M. Fayed


An existing RC building in Madinah is seismically evaluated with and without infill wall. Four model systems have been considered i. e. model I (no infill), model IIA (strut infill-update from field test), model IIB (strut infill- ASCE/SEI 41) and model IIC (strut infill-Soft storey-ASCE/SEI 41). Three dimensional pushover analyses have been carried out using SAP 2000 software incorporating inelastic material behavior for concrete, steel and infill walls. Infill wall has been modeled as equivalent strut according to suggested equation matching field test measurements and to the ASCE/SEI 41 equation. The effect of building modeling on the performance point as well as capacity and demand spectra due to EQ design spectrum function in Madinah area has been investigated. The response modification factor (R) for the 5 story RC building is evaluated from capacity and demand spectra (ATC-40) for the studied models. The results are summarized and discussed.

Keywords: Pushover Analysis, Seismic Assessment, infill wall, response modification factor

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11 Seismic Assessment of an Existing Dual System RC Buildings in Madinah City

Authors: Tarek M. Alguhane, Ayman H. Khalil, M. N. Fayed, Ayman M. Ismail


A 15-storey RC building, studied in this paper, is representative of modern building type constructed in Madina City in Saudi Arabia before 10 years ago. These buildings are almost consisting of reinforced concrete skeleton, i. e. columns, beams and flat slab as well as shear walls in the stairs and elevator areas arranged in the way to have a resistance system for lateral loads (wind–earthquake loads). In this study, the dynamic properties of the 15-storey RC building were identified using ambient motions recorded at several spatially-distributed locations within each building. After updating the mathematical models for this building with the experimental results, three dimensional pushover analysis (nonlinear static analysis) was carried out using SAP2000 software incorporating inelastic material properties for concrete, infill and steel. The effect of modeling the building with and without infill walls on the performance point as well as capacity and demand spectra due to EQ design spectrum function in Madina area has been investigated. The response modification factor (R) for the 15 storey RC building is evaluated from capacity and demand spectra (ATC-40). The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the expected performance of structural systems by estimating, strength and deformation demands in design, and comparing these demands to available capacities at the performance levels of interest. The results are summarized and discussed.

Keywords: Pushover Analysis, Seismic Assessment, modal update, ambient vibration

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10 Influence of Slenderness Ratio on the Ductility of Reinforced Concrete Portal Structures

Authors: Kahil Amar, Hamizi Mohand, Hannachi Naceur Eddine, Nekmouche Aghiles, Titouche Billal


The ductility is an important parameter in the nonlinear behavior of portal structures reinforced concrete. It may be explained by the ability of the structure to deform in the plastic range, or the geometric characteristics in the map may influence the overall ductility. Our study is based on the influence of geometric slenderness (Lx / Ly) on the overall ductility of these structures, a study is made on a structure has 05 floors with varying the column section of 900 cm², 1600 cm² and 1225 cm². A slight variation in global ductility is noticed as (Lx/Ly) varies; however, column sections can control satisfactorily the plastic behavior of buildings.

Keywords: Pushover Analysis, Structural Behavior, Ductility, Nonlinear Behavior, geometric slenderness

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9 Analytical Investigation on Seismic Behavior of Infilled Reinforced Concrete Frames Strengthened with Precast Diagonal Concrete Panels

Authors: Ceyhun Aksoylu, Rifat Sezer


In this study, a strengthening method applicable without any evacuation process was investigated. In this analytical study, the pushover analysis results carry out by using the software of SAP2000. For this purpose, 1/3 scaled, 1-bay and 2-story R/C seven frames having usual deficiencies faults produced, one of which were not strengthened, but having brick-infill wall and the other 3 frames with infill walls strengthened with various shaped of high strength-precast diagonal concrete panels. The prepared analytical models investigated under reversed-cyclic loading that resembles the seismic effect. As a result of the analytical study, the properties of the reinforced concrete frames, such as strength, rigidity, energy dissipation capacity, etc. were determined and the strengthened models were compared with the unstrengthened one having the same properties. As a result of this study, the contributions of precast diagonal concrete applied on the infill walls of the existing frame systems against seismic effects were introduced with its advantages and disadvantages.

Keywords: Strengthening, Pushover Analysis, Seismic Effect, RC frame, infill wall, precast diagonal concrete panel

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8 Analysis of a Strengthening of a Building Reinforced Concrete Structure

Authors: Nassereddine Attari


Each operation to strengthen or repair requires special consideration and requires the use of methods, tools and techniques appropriate to the situation and specific problems of each of the constructs. The aim of this paper is to study the pathology of building of reinforced concrete towards the earthquake and the vulnerability assessment using a non-linear Pushover analysis and to develop curves for a medium capacity building in order to estimate the damaged condition of the building.

Keywords: Earthquake, Strengthening, Pushover Analysis, Damage

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7 Plastic Behavior of Steel Frames Using Different Concentric Bracing Configurations

Authors: Madan Chandra Maurya, A. R. Dar


Among the entire natural calamities earthquake is the one which is most devastating. If the losses due to all other calamities are added still it will be very less than the losses due to earthquakes. So it means we must be ready to face such a situation, which is only possible if we make our structures earthquake resistant. A review of structural damages to the braced frame systems after several major earthquakes—including recent earthquakes—has identified some anticipated and unanticipated damage. This damage has prompted many engineers and researchers around the world to consider new approaches to improve the behavior of braced frame systems. Extensive experimental studies over the last fourty years of conventional buckling brace components and several braced frame specimens have been briefly reviewed, highlighting that the number of studies on the full-scale concentric braced frames is still limited. So for this reason the study surrounds the words plastic behavior, steel structure, brace frame system. In this study, there are two different analytical approaches which have been used to predict the behavior and strength of an un-braced frame. The first is referred as incremental elasto-plastic analysis a plastic approach. This method gives a complete load-deflection history of the structure until collapse. It is based on the plastic hinge concept for fully plastic cross sections in a structure under increasing proportional loading. In this, the incremental elasto-plastic analysis- hinge by hinge method is used in this study because of its simplicity to know the complete load- deformation history of two storey un-braced scaled model. After that the experiments were conducted on two storey scaled building model with and without bracing system to know the true or experimental load deformation curve of scaled model. Only way, is to understand and analyze these techniques and adopt these techniques in our structures. The study named as Plastic Behavior of Steel Frames using Different Concentric Bracing Configurations deals with all this. This study aimed at improving the already practiced traditional systems and to check the behavior and its usefulness with respect to X-braced system as reference model i.e. is how plastically it is different from X-braced. Laboratory tests involved determination of plastic behavior of these models (with and without brace) in terms of load-deformation curve. Thus, the aim of this study is to improve the lateral displacement resistance capacity by using new configuration of brace member in concentric manner which is different from conventional concentric brace. Once the experimental and manual results (using plastic approach) compared, simultaneously the results from both approach were also compared with nonlinear static analysis (pushover analysis) approach using ETABS i.e how both the previous results closely depicts the behavior in pushover curve and upto what limit. Tests results shows that all the three approaches behaves somewhat in similar manner upto yield point and also the applicability of elasto-plastic analysis (hinge by hinge method) to know the plastic behavior. Finally the outcome from three approaches shows that the newer one configuration which is chosen for study behaves in-between the plane frame (without brace or reference frame) and the conventional X-brace frame.

Keywords: Pushover Analysis, elasto-plastic analysis, concentric steel braced frame, ETABS

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6 Assessment of the Energy Balance Method in the Case of Masonry Domes

Authors: S. Vahdani, M. M. Sadeghi


Masonry dome structures had been widely used for covering large spans in the past. The seismic assessment of these historical structures is very complicated due to the nonlinear behavior of the material, their rigidness, and special stability configuration. The assessment method based on energy balance concept, as well as the standard pushover analysis, is used to evaluate the effectiveness of these methods in the case of masonry dome structures. The Soltanieh dome building is used as an example to which two methods are applied. The performance points are given from superimposing the capacity, and demand curves in Acceleration Displacement Response Spectra (ADRS) and energy coordination are compared with the nonlinear time history analysis as the exact result. The results show a good agreement between the dynamic analysis and the energy balance method, but standard pushover method does not provide an acceptable estimation.

Keywords: Pushover Analysis, time history analysis, energy balance method, masonry dome

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5 Pushover Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Buildings Using Full Jacket Technics: A Case Study on an Existing Old Building in Madinah

Authors: Tarek M. Alguhane, Ayman H. Khalil, M. N. Fayed, Ayman M. Ismail


The retrofitting of existing buildings to resist the seismic loads is very important to avoid losing lives or financial disasters. The aim at retrofitting processes is increasing total structure strength by increasing stiffness or ductility ratio. In addition, the response modification factors (R) have to satisfy the code requirements for suggested retrofitting types. In this study, two types of jackets are used, i.e. full reinforced concrete jackets and surrounding steel plate jackets. The study is carried out on an existing building in Madinah by performing static pushover analysis before and after retrofitting the columns. The selected model building represents nearly all-typical structure lacks structure built before 30 years ago in Madina City, KSA. The comparison of the results indicates a good enhancement of the structure respect to the applied seismic forces. Also, the response modification factor of the RC building is evaluated for the studied cases before and after retrofitting. The design of all vertical elements (columns) is given. The results show that the design of retrofitted columns satisfied the code's design stress requirements. However, for some retrofitting types, the ductility requirements represented by response modification factor do not satisfy KSA design code (SBC- 301).

Keywords: Pushover Analysis, Non-linear Analysis, RC buildings, concrete jackets, steel jackets

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4 Comparison between Pushover Analysis Techniques and Validation of the Simplified Modal Pushover Analysis

Authors: N. F. Hanna, A. M. Haridy


One of the main drawbacks of the Modal Pushover Analysis (MPA) is the need to perform nonlinear time-history analysis, which complicates the analysis method and time. A simplified version of the MPA has been proposed based on the concept of the inelastic deformation ratio. Furthermore, the effect of the higher modes of vibration is considered by assuming linearly-elastic responses, which enables the use of standard elastic response spectrum analysis. In this thesis, the simplified MPA (SMPA) method is applied to determine the target global drift and the inter-story drifts of steel frame building. The effect of the higher vibration modes is considered within the framework of the SMPA. A comprehensive survey about the inelastic deformation ratio is presented. After that, a suitable expression from literature is selected for the inelastic deformation ratio and then implemented in the SMPA. The estimated seismic demands using the SMPA, such as target drift, base shear, and the inter-story drifts, are compared with the seismic responses determined by applying the standard MPA. The accuracy of the estimated seismic demands is validated by comparing with the results obtained by the nonlinear time-history analysis using real earthquake records.

Keywords: modal analysis, Pushover Analysis, Seismic Performance, target displacement

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3 Evaluation of Response Modification Factor and Behavior of Seismic Base-Isolated RC Structures

Authors: Mohammad Parsaeimaram, Fang Congqi


In this paper, one of the significant seismic design parameter as response modification factor in reinforced concrete (RC) buildings with base isolation system was evaluated. The seismic isolation system is a capable approach to absorbing seismic energy at the base and transfer to the substructure with lower response modification factor as compared to non-isolated structures. A response spectrum method and static nonlinear pushover analysis in according to Uniform Building Code (UBC-97), have been performed on building models involve 5, 8, 12 and 15 stories building with fixed and isolated bases consist of identical moment resisting configurations. The isolation system is composed of lead rubber bearing (LRB) was designed with help UBC-97 parameters. The force-deformation behavior of isolators was modeled as bi-linear hysteretic behavior which can be effectively used to create the isolation systems. The obtained analytical results highlight the response modification factor of considered base isolation system with higher values than recommended in the codes. The response modification factor is used in modern seismic codes to scale down the elastic response of structures.

Keywords: Pushover Analysis, response modification factor, base isolation system, lead rubber bearing, bi-linear hysteretic

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2 Structural Analysis and Strengthening of the National Youth Foundation Building in Igoumenitsa, Greece

Authors: Chrysanthos Maraveas, Argiris Plesias, Garyfalia G. Triantafyllou, Konstantinos Petronikolos


The current paper presents a structural assessment and proposals for retrofit of the National Youth Foundation Building, an existing reinforced concrete (RC) building in the city of Igoumenitsa, Greece. The building is scheduled to be renovated in order to create a Municipal Cultural Center. The bearing capacity and structural integrity have been investigated in relation to the provisions and requirements of the Greek Retrofitting Code (KAN.EPE.) and European Standards (Eurocodes). The capacity of the existing concrete structure that makes up the two central buildings in the complex (buildings II and IV) has been evaluated both in its present form and after including several proposed architectural interventions. The structural system consists of spatial frames of columns and beams that have been simulated using beam elements. Some RC elements of the buildings have been strengthened in the past by means of concrete jacketing and have had cracks sealed with epoxy injections. Static-nonlinear analysis (Pushover) has been used to assess the seismic performance of the two structures with regard to performance level B1 from KAN.EPE. Retrofitting scenarios are proposed for the two buildings, including type Λ steel bracings and placement of concrete shear walls in the transverse direction in order to achieve the design-specification deformation in each applicable situation, improve the seismic performance, and reduce the number of interventions required.

Keywords: Strengthening, earthquake resistance, Pushover Analysis, Reinforced Concrete, retrofit

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1 Seismic Performance of Reinforced Concrete Frame Structure Based on Plastic Rotation

Authors: Kahil Amar, Meziani Faroudja, Khelil Nacim


The principal objective of this study is the evaluation of the seismic performance of reinforced concrete frame structures, taking into account of the behavior laws, reflecting the real behavior of materials, using CASTEM2000 software. A finite element model used is based in modified Takeda model with Timoshenko elements for columns and beams. This model is validated on a Vecchio experimental reinforced concrete (RC) frame model. Then, a study focused on the behavior of a RC frame with three-level and three-story in order to visualize the positioning the plastic hinge (plastic rotation), determined from the curvature distribution along the elements. The results obtained show that the beams of the 1st and 2nd level developed a very large plastic rotations, or these rotations exceed the values corresponding to CP (Collapse prevention with cp qCP = 0.02 rad), against those developed at the 3rd level, are between IO and LS (Immediate occupancy and life Safety with qIO = 0.005 rad and rad qLS = 0.01 respectively), so the beams of first and second levels submit a very significant damage.

Keywords: Pushover Analysis, Seismic Performance, plastic hinge, performance level, plastic rotation

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