Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Purification Related Abstracts

24 Bioproduction of L(+)-Lactic Acid and Purification by Ion Exchange Mechanism

Authors: Zelal Polat, Şebnem Harsa, Semra Ülkü

Abstract:

Lactic acid exists in nature optically in two forms, L(+), D(-)-lactic acid, and has been used in food, leather, textile, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Moreover, L(+)-lactic acid constitutes the raw material for the production of poly-L-lactic acid which is used in biomedical applications. Microbially produced lactic acid was aimed to be recovered from the fermentation media efficiently and economically. Among the various downstream operations, ion exchange chromatography is highly selective and yields a low cost product recovery within a short period of time. In this project, Lactobacillus casei NRRL B-441 was used for the production of L(+)-lactic acid from whey by fermentation at pH 5.5 and 37°C that took 12 hours. The product concentration was 50 g/l with 100% L(+)-lactic acid content. Next, the suitable resin was selected due to its high sorption capacity with rapid equilibrium behavior. Dowex marathon WBA, weakly basic anion exchanger in OH form reached the equilibrium in 15 minutes. The batch adsorption experiments were done approximately at pH 7.0 and 30°C and sampling was continued for 20 hours. Furthermore, the effect of temperature and pH was investigated and their influence was found to be unimportant. All the adsorption/desorption experiments were applied to both model lactic acid and biomass free fermentation broth. The ion exchange equilibria of lactic acid and L(+)-lactic acid in fermentation broth on Dowex marathon WBA was explained by Langmuir isotherm. The maximum exchange capacity (qm) for model lactic acid was 0.25 g La/g wet resin and for fermentation broth 0.04 g La/g wet resin. The equilibrium loading and exchange efficiency of L(+)-lactic acid in fermentation broth were reduced as a result of competition by other ionic species. The competing ions inhibit the binding of L(+)-lactic acid to the free sites of ion exchanger. Moreover, column operations were applied to recover adsorbed lactic acid from the ion exchanger. 2.0 M HCl was the suitable eluting agent to recover the bound L(+)-lactic acid with a flowrate of 1 ml/min at ambient temperature. About 95% of bound L(+)-lactic acid was recovered from Dowex marathon WBA. The equilibrium was reached within 15 minutes. The aim of this project was to investigate the purification of L(+)-lactic acid with ion exchange method from fermentation broth. The additional goals were to investigate the end product purity, to obtain new data on the adsorption/desorption behaviours of lactic acid and applicability of the system in industrial usage.

Keywords: Purification, Fermentation, ion exchange, whey, lactic acid

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23 Treatment of Grey Water from Different Restaurants in FUTA Using Fungi

Authors: F. A. Ogundolie, F. Okogue, D. V. Adegunloye

Abstract:

Greywater samples were obtained from three restaurants in the Federal University of Technology; Akure coded SSR, MGR and GGR. Fungi isolates obtained include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Mucor mucedo, Aspergillus flavus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Of these fungi isolates obtained, R. stolonifer, A. niger and A. flavus showed significant degradation ability on grey water and was used for this research. A simple bioreactor was constructed using biodegradation process in purification of waste water samples. Waste water undergoes primary treatment; secondary treatment involves the introduction of the isolated organisms into the waste water sample and the tertiary treatment which involved the use of filter candle and the sand bed filtration process to achieve the end product without the use of chemicals. A. niger brought about significant reduction in both the bacterial load and the fungi load of the greywater samples of the three respective restaurants with a reduction of (1.29 × 108 to 1.57 × 102 cfu/ml; 1.04 × 108 to 1.12 × 102 cfu/ml and 1.72 × 108 to 1.60 × 102 cfu/ml) for bacterial load in SSR, MGR and GGR respectively. Reduction of 2.01 × 104 to 1.2 × 101; 1.72 × 104 to 1.1 × 101, and 2.50 × 104 to 1.5 × 101 in fungi load from SSR, MGR and GGR respectively. Result of degradation of these selected waste water by the fungi showed that A. niger was probably more potent in the degradation of organic matter and hence, A. niger could be used in the treatment of wastewater.

Keywords: bioreactor, Bacterial, Purification, biodegradation, Fungi, Aspergillus niger, microbial load, greywater, organic matter and filtration

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22 Isolation and Structural Elucidation of 20 Hydroxyecdystone from Vitex doniana Sweet Stem Bark

Authors: Mustapha A. Tijjani, Fanna I. Abdulrahman, Irfan Z. Khan, Umar K. Sandabe, Cong Li

Abstract:

Air dried sample V. doniana after collection and identification was extracted with ethanol and further partition with chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. Ethanolic extract (11.9g) was fractionated on a silica gel accelerated column chromatography using solvents such as n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Each eluent fractions (150ml aliquots) were collected and monitored with thin layer chromatography. Fractions with similar Rf values from same solvents system were pooled together. Phytochemical test of all the fractions were performed using standard procedure. Complete elution yielded 48 fractions (150ml/fraction) which were pooled to 24 fractions base on the Rf values. It was further recombined and 12 fractions were obtained on the basis on Rf values and coded Vd1 to Vd12 fractions. Vd8 was further eluted with ethylacetate and methanol and gave fourteen sub fractions Vd8-a, -Vd8-m. Fraction Vd8-a (56mg) gave a white crystal compound coded V1. It was further checked on TLC and observed under ultraviolet lamp and was found to give a single spot. The Rf values were calculated to be 0.433. The melting point was determined using Gallenkamp capillary melting point apparatus and found to be 241-243°C uncorrected. Characterization of the isolated compound coded V1 was done using FT-infra-red spectroscopy, HNMR, 13CNMR(1and 2D) and HRESI-MS. The IR spectrum of compound V1 shows prominent peaks that corresponds to OHstr (3365cm-1) and C=0 (1652cm-1) etc. This spectrum suggests that among the functional moiety in compound V1 are the carbonyl and hydroxyl group. The 1H NMR (400 MHz) spectrum of compound V1 in DMSO-d6 displayed five singlet signals at δ 0.72 (3H, s, H-18), 0.79 (3H, s, H-19), 1.03 (3H, s, H-21), 1.04 (3H, s, H-26), 1.06 (3H, s, H-27) each integrating for three protons indicating the five methyl functional groups present in the compound. It further showed a broad singlet at δ 5.58 integrated for 1 H due to an olefinic H-atom adjacent to the carbonyl carbon atom. Three signals at δ 3.10 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, H-22), 3.59 (m, 1H, 2H-a) and 3.72 (m, 1H, 3H-e), each integrating for one proton is due to oxymethine protons indicating that three oxymethine H-atoms are present in the compound. These all signals are characteristic to the ecdysteroid skeletons. The 13C-NMR spectrum showed the presence of 27 carbon atoms, suggesting that may be steroid skeleton. The DEPT-135 experiment showed the presence of five CH3, eight CH2, and seven CH groups, and seven quaternary C-atoms. The molecular formula was established as C27H44O7 by high resolution electron spray ionization-mass spectroscopy (HRESI-MS) positive ion mode m/z 481.3179. The signals in mass spectrum are 463, 445, and 427 peaks corresponding to losses of one, two, three, or four water molecules characteristic for ecdysterone skeleton reported in the literature. Based on the spectral analysis (HNMR, 13CNMR, DEPT, HMQC, IR, HRESI-MS) the compound V1 is thus concluded to have ecdysteriod skeleton and conclusively conforms with 2β, 3β 14α, 20R, 22R, 25-hexahydroxy-5 β cholest-7-ene-6- one, or 2, 3, 14, 20, 22, 25 hexahydroxy cholest-7-ene-6-one commonly known as 20-hydroxyecdysone.

Keywords: Spectroscopy, Purification, Chromatography, Isolation, phytochemical, vitex

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21 Studying the Effect of Ethanol and Operating Temperature on Purification of Lactulose Syrup Containing Lactose

Authors: N. Zanganeh, M. Zabet

Abstract:

Lactulose is a synthetic disaccharide which has remarkable applications in food and pharmaceutical fields. Lactulose is not found in nature and it is produced by isomerization reaction of lactose in an alkaline environment. It should be noted that this reaction has a very low yield since significant amount of lactose stays un-reacted in the system. Basically, purification of lactulose is difficult and costly. Previous studies have revealed that solubility of lactose and lactulose are significantly different in ethanol. Considering the fact that solubility is also affected by temperature itself, we investigated the effect of ethanol and temperature on separation process of lactose from the syrup containing lactose and lactulose. For this purpose, a saturated solution containing lactulose and lactose was made at three different temperatures; 25⁰C (room temperature), 31⁰C, and 37⁰C first.  Five samples containing 2g saturated solution was taken and then 2g, 3g, 4g, 5g, and 6g ethanol separately was added to the sampling tubes. Sampling tubes were kept at respective temperatures afterward. The concentration of lactose and lactulose after separation process measured and analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that ethanol has such a greater impact than operating temperature on purification process. Also, it was observed that the maximum rate of separation occurred at initial amount of added ethanol.

Keywords: Purification, Lactose, solubility, lactulose

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20 Adsoption Tests of Two Industrial Dyes by Metallic Hydroxyds

Authors: R. Berrached, H. Ait Mahamed, A. Iddou

Abstract:

Water pollution is nowadays a serious problem, due to the increasing scarcity of water and thus to the impact induced by such pollution on the human health. Various techniques are made use of to deal with water pollution. Among the most used ones, some can be enumerated: the bacterian bed, the activated mud, the Lagunage as biological processes and coagulation-floculation as a physic-chemical process. These processes are very expensive and an treatment efficiency which decreases along with the increase of the initial pollutants’ concentration. This is the reason why research has been reoriented towards the use of a process by adsorption as an alternative solution instead of the other traditional processes. In our study, we have tempted to exploit the characteristics of two metallic hydroxides Al and Fe to purify contaminated water by two industrial dyes SBL blue and SRL-150 orange. Results have shown the efficiency of the two materials on the blue SBL dye.

Keywords: Purification, metallic hydroxydes, industrial dyes, lagunage

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19 Purification and Characterization of a Novel Extracellular Chitinase from Bacillus licheniformis LHH100

Authors: Laribi-Habchi Hasiba, Bouanane-Darenfed Amel, Drouiche Nadjib, Pausse André, Mameri Nabil

Abstract:

Chitin, a linear 1, 4-linked N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc) polysaccharide is the major structural component of fungal cell walls, insect exoskeletons and shells of crustaceans. It is one of the most abundant naturally occurring polysaccharides and has attracted tremendous attention in the fields of agriculture, pharmacology and biotechnology. Each year, a vast amount of chitin waste is released from the aquatic food industry, where crustaceans (prawn, crab, Shrimp and lobster) constitute one of the main agricultural products. This creates a serious environmental problem. This linear polymer can be hydrolyzed by bases, acids or enzymes such as chitinase. In this context an extracellular chitinase (ChiA-65) was produced and purified from a newly isolated LHH100. Pure protein was obtained after heat treatment and ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by Sephacryl S-200 chromatography. Based on matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis, the purified enzyme is a monomer with a molecular mass of 65,195.13 Da. The sequence of the 27 N-terminal residues of the mature ChiA-65 showed high homology with family-18 chitinases. Optimal activity was achieved at pH 4 and 75◦C. Among the inhibitors and metals tested p-chloromercuribenzoic acid, N-ethylmaleimide, Hg2+ and Hg + completelyinhibited enzyme activity. Chitinase activity was high on colloidal chitin, glycol chitin, glycol chitosane, chitotriose and chitooligosaccharide. Chitinase activity towards synthetic substrates in the order of p-NP-(GlcNAc) n (n = 2–4) was p-NP-(GlcNAc)2> p-NP-(GlcNAc)4> p-NP-(GlcNAc)3. Our results suggest that ChiA-65 preferentially hydrolyzed the second glycosidic link from the non-reducing end of (GlcNAc) n. ChiA-65 obeyed Michaelis Menten kinetics the Km and kcat values being 0.385 mg, colloidal chitin/ml and5000 s−1, respectively. ChiA-65 exhibited remarkable biochemical properties suggesting that this enzyme is suitable for bioconversion of chitin waste.

Keywords: Characterization, Purification, Bacillus licheniformis LHH100, extracellular chitinase

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18 Biosynthesis, Characterization and Interplay of Bacteriocin-nanoparticles to Combat Infectious Drug Resistant Pathogens

Authors: Shah Ali Ul Qader, Afsheen Aman, Asma Ansari

Abstract:

In the past few years, numerous concerns have been raised against increased bacterial resistance towards effective drugs and become a debated issue all over the world. With the emergence of drug resistant pathogens, the interaction of natural antimicrobial compounds and antibacterial nanoparticles has emerged as a potential candidate for combating infectious diseases. Microbial diversity in the biome provides an opportunity to screen new species which are capable of producing large number of antimicrobial compounds. Among these antimicrobial compounds, bacteriocins are highly specific and efficient antagonists. A combination of bacteriocin along with nanoparticles could prove to be more potent due to broadened antibacterial spectrum with possibly lower doses. In the current study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized through biological reduction using various isolated bacterial, fungal and yeast strains. Spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed for the confirmation of nanoparticles. Bacteriocin was characterized and purified to homogeneity through gel permeation chromatography. The estimated molecular weight of bacteriocin was 10 kDa. Amino acid analysis and N-terminal sequencing revealed the novelty of the protein. Then antibacterial potential of silver nanoparticles and broad inhibitory spectrum bacteriocin was determined through agar well diffusion assay. These synthesized bacteriocin-Nanoparticles exhibit a good potential for clinical applications as compared to bacteriocin alone. This combination of bacteriocin with nanoparticles will be used as a new sort of biocide in the field of nano-proteomics. The advancement of nanoparticles-mediated drug delivery system will open a new age for rapid eradication of pathogens from biological systems.

Keywords: Purification, Silver Nanoparticles, BAC-IB17, multidrug resistance

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17 Adsoption Tests of Two Industrial Dyes by Hydroxyds of Metals

Authors: R. Berrached, H. Ait Mahamed, A. Iddou

Abstract:

Water pollution is nowadays a serious problem, due to the increasing scarcity of water and thus to the impact induced by such pollution on the human health. Various techniques are made use of to deal with water pollution. Among the most used ones, some can be enumerated: the bacterian bed, the activated sludge, lagoons as biological processes and coagulation-flocculation as a physic-chemical process. These processes are very expensive and a decreasing in efficiency treatment with the increase of the initial pollutants concentration. This is the reason why research has been reoriented towards the use of adsorption process as an alternative solution instead of the other traditional processes. In our study, we have tempted to explore the characteristics of hydroxides of Al and Fe to purify contaminated water by two industrial dyes SBL blue and SRL-150 orange. Results have shown the efficiency of the two materials on the blue SBL dye.

Keywords: Purification, Adsorption, Dyes, metallic hydroxydes

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16 Preparation of Biodiesel by Three Step Method Followed Purification by Various Silica Sources

Authors: Chanchal Mewar, Shikha Gangil, Yashwant Parihar, Virendra Dhakar, Bharat Modhera

Abstract:

Biodiesel was prepared from Karanja oil by three step methods: saponification, acidification and esterification. In first step, saponification was done in presence of methanol and KOH or NaOH with Karanja oil. During second step acidification, various acids such as H3PO4, HCl, H2SO4 were used as acid catalyst. In third step, esterification followed by purification was done with various silica sources as Ludox (colloidal silicate) and fumed silica gel. It was found that there was no significant change in density, kinematic viscosity, iodine number, acid value, saponification number, flash point, cloud point, pour point and cetane number after purification by these adsorbents. The objective of this research is the comparison among different adsorbents which were used for the purification of biodiesel. Ludox (colloidal silicate) and fumed silica gel were used as adsorbents for the removal of glycerin from biodiesel and evaluate the effectiveness of biodiesel purity. Furthermore, this study compared the results of distilled water washing also. It was observed that Ludox, fumed silica gel and distilled water produced yield about 93%, 91% and 83% respectively. Highest yield was obtained with Ludox at 100 oC temperature using H3PO4 as acid catalyst and NaOH as base catalyst with methanol, (3:1) alcohol to oil molar ratio in 90 min.

Keywords: Purification, Biodiesel, three step method, silica sources

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15 Parametric Studies of Ethylene Dichloride Purification Process

Authors: Sh. Arzani, H. Kazemi Esfeh, Y. Galeh Zadeh, V. Akbari

Abstract:

Ethylene dichloride is a colorless liquid with a smell like chloroform. EDC is classified in the simple hydrocarbon group which is obtained from chlorinating ethylene gas. Its chemical formula is C2H2Cl2 which is used as the main mediator in VCM production. Therefore, the purification process of EDC is important in the petrochemical process. In this study, the purification unit of EDC was simulated, and then validation was performed. Finally, the impact of process parameter was studied for the degree of EDC purity. The results showed that by increasing the feed flow, the reflux impure combinations increase and result in an EDC purity decrease.

Keywords: Simulation, Purification, ethylene dichloride, edc

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14 Production and Purification of Pectinase by Aspergillus Niger

Authors: M. Umar Dahot, G. S. Mangrio

Abstract:

In this study Agro-industrial waste was used as a carbon source, which is a low cost substrate. Along with this, various sugars and molasses of 2.5% and 5% were investigated as substrate/carbon source for the growth of A.niger and Pectinase production. Different nitrogen sources were also used. An overview of results obtained show that 5% sucrose, 5% molasses and 0.4% (NH4)2SO4 were found the best carbon and nitrogen sources for the production of pectinase by A. niger. The maximum production of pectinase (26.87units/ml) was observed at pH 6.0 after 72 hrs incubation. The optimum temperature for the maximum production of pectinase was achieved at 35ºC when maximum production of pectinase was obtained as 28.25Units/ml.Pectinase enzyme was purified with ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialyzed sample was finally applied on gel filtration chromatography (Sephadex G-100) and Ion Exchange DEAE A-50. The enzyme was purified 2.5 fold by gel chromatography on Sephadex G-100 and Four fractions were obtained, Fraction 1, 2, 4 showed single band while Fraction -3 showed multiple bands on SDS Page electrophoresis. Fraction -3 was pooled, dialyzed and separated on Sephdex A-50 and two fractions 3a and 3b showed single band. The molecular weights of the purified fractions were detected in the range of 33000 ± 2000 and 38000± 2000 Daltons. The purified enzyme was specifically most active with pure pectin, while pectin, Lemon pectin and orange peel given lower activity as compared to (control). The optimum pH and temperature for pectinase activity was found between pH 5.0 and 6.0 and 40°- 50°C, respectively. The enzyme was stable over the pH range 3.0-8.0. The thermostability of was determined and it was observed that the pectinase activity is heat stable and retains activity more than 40% when incubated at 90°C for 10 minutes. The pectinase activity of F3a and F3b was increased with different metal ions. The Pectinase activity was stimulated in the presence of CaCl2 up to 10-30%. ZnSO4, MnSO4 and Mg SO4 showed higher activity in fractions F3a and F3b, which indicates that the pectinase belongs to metalo-enzymes. It is concluded that A. niger is capable to produce pH stable and thermostable pectinase, which can be used for industrial purposes.

Keywords: Characterization, Production, Purification, pectinase, a. niger

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13 Control of Fungal Growth in Sweet Orange and Mango Juices by Justica flava and Afromomum melegueta Extracts

Authors: Adferotimi Banso

Abstract:

A laboratory investigation was conducted to determine the effect of Justica flava and Aframonium melegueta on the growth of Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer and Fusarium species in sweet orange and mango juices. Aqueous extract (3%v/v) of Justica flava and Aframonium melegueta reduced the growth of the fungi, a combination of 2% (v/v) each of Justica flava and Aframonium melegueta extracts reduced the growth better. Partial purification of aqueous extracts of Justica flava and Aframonium melegueta showed that ethyl acetate fraction of the extracts exhibited the highest level of inhibition of growth of the test fungi compared with diethyl ether and n-hexane fractions. The results suggest that extracts of Justica flava and Aframonium melegueta may be important substitutes for conventional chemical preservatives in the processing of fruit juices.

Keywords: Purification, mango, aqueous, fraction, orange, sweet

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12 Extractive Bioconversion of Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from Ralstonia Eutropha Via Aqueous Two-Phase System-An Integrated Approach

Authors: Y. K. Leong, J. C. W. Lan, H. S. Loh, P. L. Show

Abstract:

Being biodegradable, non-toxic, renewable and have similar or better properties as commercial plastics, polyhydroxy alkanoates (PHAs) can be a potential game changer in the polymer industry. PHAs are the biodegradable polymer produced by bacteria, which are in interest as a sustainable alternative to petrochemical-derived plastics; however, its commercial value has significantly limited by high production and recovery cost of PHA. Aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) offers different chemical and physical environments, which contains about 80-90% water delivers an excellent environment for partitioning of cells, cell organelles and biologically active substances. Extractive bioconversion via ATPS allows the integration of PHA upstream fermentation and downstream purification process, which reduces production steps and time, thus lead to cost reduction. The ability of Ralstonia eutropha to grow under different ATPS conditions was investigated for its potential to be used in a bioconversion system. Changes in tie-line length (TLL) and a volume ratio (Vr) were shown to have an effect on PHA partition coefficient. High PHA recovery yield of 65% with a relatively high purity of 73% was obtained in PEG 6000/Sodium sulphate system with 42.6 wt/wt % TLL and 1.25 Vr. Extractive bioconversion via ATPS is an attractive approach for the combination of PHA production and recovery process.

Keywords: Purification, aqueous two-phase system, extractive bioconversion, polyhydroxy alkanoates

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11 Different Methods of Producing Bioemulsifier by Bacillus licheniformis Strains

Authors: Afshin Farahbakhsh, Saba Pajuhan, S. M. M. Dastgheib

Abstract:

Biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers are a structurally diverse group of surface-active molecules synthesized by microorganisms, they are amphipathic molecules which reduce surface and interfacial tensions and widely used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and petroleum industries. In this paper, several methods of bioemulsifer synthesis and purification by Bacillus licheniformis strains (namely ACO1, PTCC 1595 and ACO4) were investigated. Strains were grown in nutrient broth with different conditions in order to get maximum production of bioemulsifer. The purification of bio emulsifier and the quality evaluation of the product was done by adding sulfuric acid (H₂SO₄) (98%), Ethanol or HCl to the solution followed by centrifuging. To determine the optimal conditions yielding the highest bioemulsifier production, the effect of various carbon and nitrogen sources, temperature, NaCl concentration, pH, O₂ levels, incubation time are indispensable and all of them were highly effective in bioemulsifiers production.

Keywords: Purification, Interfacial tension, surface tension, biosurfactant, bioemulsifier

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10 Hermeneutical Understanding of 2 Cor. 7:1 in the Light of Igbo Cultural Concept of Purification

Authors: H. E. Amolo

Abstract:

The concepts of pollution or contamination and purification or ritual cleansing are very important concepts among traditional Africans. This is because in relation to human behaviors and attitudes, they constitute on the one hand what could be referred to as moral demands and on the other, what results in the default of such demands. The many taboos which a man has to observe are not to be regarded as things mechanical which do not touch the heart, but that the avoidance is a sacred law respected by the community. In breaking it, you offend the divine power’. Researches have shown that, Africans tenaciously hold the belief that, moral values are based upon the recognition of the divine will and that sin in the community must be expelled if perfect peace is to be enjoyed. Sadly enough, these moral values are gradually eroding in contemporary times. Thus, this study proposal calls for a survey of the passage from an African cultural context; how it can enhance the understanding of the text, as well as how it can complement its scholarly interpretation with the view of institutionalizing the concept of holiness as a means of bringing the people closer to God, and also instilling ethical purity and righteousness.

Keywords: Purification, rituals, cultural practices, Igbo ideology

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9 Production and Purification of Monosaccharides by Hydrolysis of Sugar Cane Bagasse in an Ionic Liquid Medium

Authors: T. R. Bandara, H. Jaelani, G. J. Griffin

Abstract:

The conversion of lignocellulosic waste materials, such as sugar cane bagasse, to biofuels such as ethanol has attracted significant interest as a potential element for transforming transport fuel supplies to totally renewable sources. However, the refractory nature of the cellulosic structure of lignocellulosic materials has impeded progress on developing an economic process, whereby the cellulose component may be effectively broken down to glucose monosaccharides and then purified to allow downstream fermentation. Ionic liquid (IL) treatment of lignocellulosic biomass has been shown to disrupt the crystalline structure of cellulose thus potentially enabling the cellulose to be more readily hydrolysed to monosaccharides. Furthermore, conventional hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials yields byproducts that are inhibitors for efficient fermentation of the monosaccharides. However, selective extraction of monosaccharides from an aqueous/IL phase into an organic phase utilizing a combination of boronic acids and quaternary amines has shown promise as a purification process. Hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse immersed in an aqueous solution with IL (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate) was conducted at different pH and temperature below 100 ºC. It was found that the use of a high concentration of hydrochloric acid to acidify the solution inhibited the hydrolysis of bagasse. At high pH (i.e. basic conditions), using sodium hydroxide, catalyst yields were reduced for total reducing sugars (TRS) due to the rapid degradation of the sugars formed. For purification trials, a supported liquid membrane (SLM) apparatus was constructed, whereby a synthetic solution containing xylose and glucose in an aqueous IL phase was transported across a membrane impregnated with phenyl boronic acid/Aliquat 336 to an aqueous phase. The transport rate of xylose was generally higher than that of glucose indicating that a SLM scheme may not only be useful for purifying sugars from undesirable toxic compounds, but also for fractionating sugars to improve fermentation efficiency.

Keywords: biomass, Purification, Hydrolysis, bagasse, monosaccharide, supported liquid membrane

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8 Purification of Bacillus Lipopeptides for Diverse Applications

Authors: Kim G. Clarke, Vivek Rangarajan

Abstract:

Bacillus lipopeptides are biosurfactants with wide ranging applications in the medical, food, agricultural, environmental and cosmetic industries. They are produced as a mix of three families, surfactin, iturin and fengycin, each comprising a large number of homologues of varying functionalities. Consequently, the method and degree of purification of the lipopeptide cocktail becomes particularly important if the functionality of the lipopeptide end-product is to be maximized for the specific application. However, downstream processing of Bacillus lipopeptides is particularly challenging due to the subtle variations observed in the different lipopeptide homologues and isoforms. To date, the most frequently used lipopeptide purification operations have been acid precipitation, solvent extraction, membrane ultrafiltration, adsorption and size exclusion. RP-HPLC (reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography) also has potential for fractionation of the lipopeptide homologues. In the studies presented here, membrane ultrafiltration and RP-HPLC were evaluated for lipopeptide purification to different degrees of purities for maximum functionality. Batch membrane ultrafiltration using 50 kDa polyether sulphone (PES) membranes resulted in lipopeptide recovery of about 68% for surfactin and 82 % for fengycin. The recovery was further improved to 95% by using size-conditioned lipopeptide micelles. The conditioning of lipopeptides with Ca2+ ions resulted in uniformly sized micelles with average size of 96.4 nm and a polydispersity index of 0.18. The size conditioning also facilitated removal of impurities (molecular weight ranging between 2335-3500 Da) through operation of the system under dia-filtration mode, in a way similar to salt removal from protein by dialysis. The resultant purified lipopeptide was devoid of macromolecular impurities and could ideally suit applications in the cosmetic and food industries. Enhanced purification using RP-HPLC was carried out in an analytical C18 column, with the aim to fractionate lipopeptides into their constituent homologues. The column was eluted with mobile phase comprising acetonitrile and water over an acetonitrile gradient, 35% - 80%, over 70 minutes. The gradient elution program resulted in as many as 41 fractions of individual lipopeptide homologues. The efficacy test of these fractions against fungal phytopathogens showed that first 21 fractions, identified to be homologues of iturins and fengycins, displayed maximum antifungal activities, suitable for biocontrol in the agricultural industry. Thus, in the current study, the downstream processing of lipopeptides leading to tailor-made products for selective applications was demonstrated using two major downstream unit operations.

Keywords: Purification, RP-HPLC, bacillus lipopeptides, membrane ultrafiltration

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7 Control of Pipeline Gas Quality to Extend Gas Turbine Life

Authors: Peter J. H. Carnell, Panayiotis Theophanous

Abstract:

Natural gas due to its cleaner combustion characteristics is expected to be the most widely used fuel in the move towards less polluting and renewable energy sources. Thus, the developed world is supplied by a complex network of gas pipelines and natural gas is becoming a major source of fuel. Natural gas delivered directly from the well will differ in composition from gas derived from LNG or produced by anaerobic digestion processes. Each will also have specific contaminants and properties although gas from all sources is likely to enter the distribution system and be blended to provide the desired characteristics such as Higher Heating Value and Wobbe No. The absence of a standard gas composition poses problems when the gas is used as a chemical feedstock, in specialised furnaces or on gas turbines. The chemical industry has suffered in the past as a result of variable gas composition. Transition metal catalysts used in ammonia, methanol and hydrogen plants were easily poisoned by sulphur, chlorides and mercury reducing both activity and catalyst expected lives from years to months. These plants now concentrate on purification and conditioning of the natural gas feed using fixed bed technologies, allowing them to run for several years and having transformed their operations. Similar technologies can be applied to the power industry reducing maintenance requirements and extending the operating life of gas turbines.

Keywords: Power Generation, Purification, Gas Turbines, gas composition, gas conditioning

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6 Laboratory Scale Purification of Water from Copper Waste

Authors: Mumtaz Khan, Adeel Shahid, Waqas Khan

Abstract:

Heavy metals presence in water streams is a big danger for aquatic life and ultimately effects human health. Removal of copper (Cu) by ispaghula husk, maize fibre, and maize oil cake from synthetic solution in batch conditions was studied. Different experimental parameters such as contact time, initial solution pH, agitation rate, initial Cu concentration, biosorbent concentration, and biosorbent particle size has been studied to quantify the Cu biosorption. The rate of adsorption of metal ions was very fast at the beginning and became slow after reaching the saturation point, followed by a slower active metabolic uptake of metal ions into the cells. Up to a certain point, (pH=4, concentration of Cu = ~ 640 mg/l, agitation rate = ~ 400 rpm, biosorbent concentration = ~ 0.5g, 3g, 3g for ispaghula husk, maize fiber and maize oil cake, respectively) increasing the pH, concentration of Cu, agitation rate, and biosorbent concentration, increased the biosorption rate; however the sorption capacity increased by decreasing the particle size. At optimized experimental parameters, the maximum Cu biosorption by ispaghula husk, maize fibre and maize oil cake were 86.7%, 59.6% and 71.3%, respectively. Moreover, the results of the kinetics studies demonstrated that the biosorption of copper on ispaghula husk, maize fibre, and maize oil cake followed pseudo-second order kinetics. The results of adsorption were fitted to both the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The Langmuir model represented the sorption process better than Freundlich, and R² value ~ 0.978. Optimizations of physical and environmental parameters revealed, ispaghula husk as more potent copper biosorbent than maize fibre, and maize oil cake. The sorbent is cheap and available easily, so this study can be applied to remove Cu impurities on pilot and industrial scale after certain modifications.

Keywords: Purification, Copper, biosorption, ispaghula husk, maize fibre, maize oil cake

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5 Ultrasound-Mediated Separation of Ethanol, Methanol, and Butanol from Their Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Ozan Kahraman, Hao Feng

Abstract:

Ultrasonic atomization (UA) is a useful technique for producing a liquid spray for various processes, such as spray drying. Ultrasound generates small droplets (a few microns in diameter) by disintegration of the liquid via cavitation and/or capillary waves, with low range velocity and narrow droplet size distribution. In recent years, UA has been investigated as an alternative for enabling or enhancing ultrasound-mediated unit operations, such as evaporation, separation, and purification. The previous studies on the UA separation of a solvent from a bulk solution were limited to ethanol-water systems. More investigations into ultrasound-mediated separation for other liquid systems are needed to elucidate the separation mechanism. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the operational parameters on the ultrasound-mediated separation of three miscible liquid pairs: ethanol-, methanol-, and butanol-water. A 2.4 MHz ultrasonic mister with a diameter of 18 mm and rating power of 24 W was installed on the bottom of a custom-designed cylindrical separation unit. Air was supplied to the unit (3 to 4 L/min.) as a carrier gas to collect the mist. The effects of the initial alcohol concentration, viscosity, and temperature (10, 30 and 50°C) on the atomization rates were evaluated. The alcohol concentration in the collected mist was measured with high performance liquid chromatography and a refractometer. The viscosity of the solutions was determined using a Brookfield digital viscometer. The alcohol concentration of the atomized mist was dependent on the feed concentration, feed rate, viscosity, and temperature. Increasing the temperature of the alcohol-water mixtures from 10 to 50°C increased the vapor pressure of both the alcohols and water, resulting in an increase in the atomization rates but a decrease in the separation efficiency. The alcohol concentration in the mist was higher than that of the alcohol-water equilibrium at all three temperatures. More importantly, for ethanol, the ethanol concentration in the mist went beyond the azeotropic point, which cannot be achieved by conventional distillation. Ultrasound-mediated separation is a promising non-equilibrium method for separating and purifying alcohols, which may result in significant energy reductions and process intensification.

Keywords: Distillation, Purification, evaporation, azeotropic mixtures, seperation, ultrasonic atomization

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4 Optimization of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Purifications to Improving the Production of Hepatitis B Vaccines on Pichia pastoris

Authors: Rizky Kusuma Cahyani

Abstract:

Hepatitis B is a liver inflammatory disease caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). This infection can be prevented by vaccination which contains HBV surface protein (sHBsAg). However, vaccine supply is limited. Several attempts have been conducted to produce local sHBsAg. However, the purity degree and protein yield are still inadequate. Therefore optimization of HBsAg purification steps is required to obtain high yield with better purification fold. In this study, optimization of purification was done in 2 steps, precipitation using variation of NaCl concentration (0,3 M; 0,5 M; 0,7 M) and PEG (3%, 5%, 7%); ion exchange chromatography (IEC) using NaCl 300-500 mM elution buffer concentration.To determine HBsAg protein, bicinchoninic acid assay (BCA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used in this study. Visualization of HBsAg protein was done by SDS-PAGE analysis. Based on quantitative analysis, optimal condition at precipitation step was given 0,3 M NaCl and PEG 3%, while in ion exchange chromatography step, the optimum condition when protein eluted with NaCl 500 mM. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis indicates that the presence of protein HBsAg with a molecular weight of 25 kDa (monomer) and 50 kDa (dimer). The optimum condition for purification of sHBsAg produced in Pichia pastoris gave a yield of 47% and purification fold 17x so that it would increase the production of hepatitis B vaccine to be more optimal.

Keywords: Purification, hepatitis B virus, Pichia pastoris, HBsAg, hepatitis B surface antigen

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3 Additional Method for the Purification of Lanthanide-Labeled Peptide Compounds Pre-Purified by Weak Cation Exchange Cartridge

Authors: K. Eryilmaz, G. Mercanoglu

Abstract:

Aim: Purification of the final product, which is the last step in the synthesis of lanthanide-labeled peptide compounds, can be accomplished by different methods. Among these methods, the two most commonly used methods are C18 solid phase extraction (SPE) and weak cation exchanger cartridge elution. SPE C18 solid phase extraction method yields high purity final product, while elution from the weak cation exchanger cartridge is pH dependent and ineffective in removing colloidal impurities. The aim of this work is to develop an additional purification method for the lanthanide-labeled peptide compound in cases where the desired radionuclidic and radiochemical purity of the final product can not be achieved because of pH problem or colloidal impurity. Material and Methods: For colloidal impurity formation, 3 mL of water for injection (WFI) was added to 30 mCi of 177LuCl3 solution and allowed to stand for 1 day. 177Lu-DOTATATE was synthesized using EZAG ML-EAZY module (10 mCi/mL). After synthesis, the final product was mixed with the colloidal impurity solution (total volume:13 mL, total activity: 40 mCi). The resulting mixture was trapped in SPE-C18 cartridge. The cartridge was washed with 10 ml saline to remove impurities to the waste vial. The product trapped in the cartridge was eluted with 2 ml of 50% ethanol and collected to the final product vial via passing through a 0.22μm filter. The final product was diluted with 10 mL of saline. Radiochemical purity before and after purification was analysed by HPLC method. (column: ACE C18-100A. 3µm. 150 x 3.0mm, mobile phase: Water-Acetonitrile-Trifluoro acetic acid (75:25:1), flow rate: 0.6 mL/min). Results: UV and radioactivity detector results in HPLC analysis showed that colloidal impurities were completely removed from the 177Lu-DOTATATE/ colloidal impurity mixture by purification method. Conclusion: The improved purification method can be used as an additional method to remove impurities that may result from the lanthanide-peptide synthesis in which the weak cation exchange purification technique is used as the last step. The purification of the final product and the GMP compliance (the final aseptic filtration and the sterile disposable system components) are two major advantages.

Keywords: Synthesis, Purification, Radionuclide, labeling, Peptide, radiopharmaceutical, lanthanide

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2 Purification and Characterization of Phycoerythrin from a Mesophilic Cyanobacterium Nostoc piscinale PUPCCC 405.17

Authors: Sandeep Kaur

Abstract:

Phycoerythrin (PE) from the mesophilic filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc piscinale PUPCCC 405.17, a good producer of phycobiliproteins, has been characterized in terms of their unit assembly and stability. The phycoerythrin was extracted by freeze-thawing the cells in water, concentrated by ammonium sulphate fractionation and purified by anion exchange chromatography. The purification process resulted in 2.90 fold increase in phycoerythrin purity reaching to 1.54. Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate- Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis of purified PE demonstrated three protein bands of 14.3, 27.54 and 39.81 kDa. The native PE also showed one band of 125.87 kDa, assumed to be a dimer (αβ)2γ based on results of non-denaturing PAGE. Lyophilized powder PE was more stable compared to phycoerythrin in the solution. The half-life of dry PE is 80 days when stored at 4 °C under dark. The phycoerythrin from this organism has potential applications in food as natural colour and as a fluorescent marker.

Keywords: Characterization, Purification, Nostoc piscinale, phycoerythrin

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1 Purification, Biochemical Characterization and Application of an Extracellular Alkaline Keratinase Produced by Aspergillus sp. DHE7

Authors: Dina Helmy El-Ghonemy, Thanaa Hamed Ali

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to purify and characterize a keratinolytic enzyme produced by Aspergillus sp. DHE7 cultured in basal medium containing chicken feather as substrate. The enzyme was purified through ammonium sulfate saturation of 60%, followed by gel filtration chromatography in Sephadex G-100, with a 16.4-purification fold and recovery yield of 52.2%. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the purified enzyme is a monomeric enzyme with an apparent molecular mass of 30 kDa — the purified keratinase of Aspergillus sp. DHE7 exhibited activity in a broad range of pH (7- 9) and temperature (40℃-60℃) profiles with an optimal activity at pH eight and 50℃. The keratinolytic activity was inhibited by protease inhibitors such as phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and ethylenediaminetetraacetate, while no reduction of activity was detected by the addition of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Bivalent cations, Ca²⁺ and Mn²⁺, were able to greatly enhance the activity of keratinase by 125.7% and 194.8%, respectively, when used at one mM final concentration. On the other hand, Cu²⁺ and Hg²⁺ inhibited the enzyme activity, which might be indicative of essential vicinal sulfhydryl groups of the enzyme for productive catalysis. Furthermore, the purified keratinase showed significant stability and compatibility against the tested commercial detergents at 37ºC. Therefore, these results suggested that the purified keratinase from Aspergillus sp. DHE7 may have potential use in the detergent industry and should be of interest in the processing of poultry feather waste.

Keywords: Waste Management, Purification, biochemical characterization, Aspergillus sp. DHE7, keratinase

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