Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Public Sector Related Abstracts

22 State Budget Accounting: Factors Affected and Basic Orientation to Vietnamese Public Sector Entities

Authors: Pham Quang Huy

Abstract:

State budget is considered as an effective tool for controlling, adjusting and regulating the market economy of any countries. To ensure that the activities of the state in the fields of politics, economy and society has been efficiency, it requires major sources of certain budget. These financial funds are formed from tax revenues and tax revenues beyond. Therefore, the Governments need to have an accounting regime to manage the receipt, expenditure which are suitable for recording a full range of items. From that, it can help to increase the transparency and accountability in budget system. One of the main requirements in Vietnamese policies is to improve that accounting system of revenues and expenditures which can provide many reports to meet the information required of government and users, as well as directions to the trends of international standards requirements. By using quantitative research methods and analytical models to exploring factors, the main purpose of this article is to identify the factors affecting budget accounting and providing some direction for Vietnamese public sector in the future. The results indicated that Vietnam budget accounting has been impacted by seven factors and aims to implement three main orientations in the public sector units.

Keywords: Accounting, Government, Public Sector, budget management, state budget, IPSAS

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21 Improving Knowledge Management Practices in the South African Healthcare System

Authors: Kgabo H. Badimo, Sheryl Buckley

Abstract:

Knowledge is increasingly recognised in this, the knowledge era, as a strategic resource, by public sector organisations, in view of the public sector reform initiatives. People and knowledge play a vital role in attaining improved organisational performance and high service quality. Many government departments in the public sector have started to realise the importance of knowledge management in streamlining their operations and processes. This study focused on knowledge management in the public healthcare service organisations, where the concept of service provider competitiveness pales to insignificance, considering the huge challenges emanating from the healthcare and public sector reforms. Many government departments are faced with challenges of improving organisational performance and service delivery, improving accountability, making informed decisions, capturing the knowledge of the aging workforce, and enhancing partnerships with stakeholders. The purpose of this paper is to examine the knowledge management practices of the Gauteng Department of Health in South Africa, in order to understand how knowledge management practices influence improvement in organisational performance and healthcare service delivery. This issue is explored through a review of literature on dominant views on knowledge management and healthcare service delivery, as well as results of interviews with, and questionnaire responses from, the general staff of the Gauteng Department of Health. Web-based questionnaires, face-to-face interviews and organisational documents were used to collect data. The data were analysed using both the quantitative and qualitative methods. The central question investigated was: To what extent can the conditions required for successful knowledge management be observed, in order to improve organisational performance and healthcare service delivery in the Gauteng Department of Health. The findings showed that the elements of knowledge management capabilities investigated in this study, namely knowledge creation, knowledge sharing and knowledge application, have a positive, significant relationship with all measures of organisational performance and healthcare service delivery. These findings thus indicate that by employing knowledge management principles, the Gauteng Department of Health could improve its ability to achieve its operational goals and objectives, and solve organisational and healthcare challenges, thereby improving organisational.

Keywords: Knowledge Management, Public Sector, Healthcare Service Delivery, public healthcare

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20 A Proposal of Ontology about Brazilian Government Transparency Portal

Authors: Estela Mayra de Moura Vianna, Thiago José Tavares Ávila, Bruno Morais Silva, Diego Henrique Bezerra, Paulo Henrique Gomes Silva, Alan Pedro da Silva

Abstract:

The Brazilian Federal Constitution defines the access to information as a crucial right of the citizen and the Law on Access to Public Information, which regulates this right. Accordingly, the Fiscal Responsibility Act, 2000, amended in 2009 by the “Law of Transparency”, began demanding a wider disclosure of public accounts for the society, including electronic media for public access. Thus, public entities began to create "Transparency Portals," which aim to gather a diversity of data and information. However, this information, in general, is still published in formats that do not simplify understanding of the data by citizens and that could be better especially available for audit purposes. In this context, a proposal of ontology about Brazilian Transparency Portal can play a key role in how these data will be better available. This study aims to identify and implement in ontology, the data model about Transparency Portal ecosystem, with emphasis in activities that use these data for some applications, like audits, press activities, social government control, and others.

Keywords: Ontology, Public Sector, Audit, Government Transparency

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19 Engineering Management and Practice in Nigeria

Authors: Harold Jideofor

Abstract:

The application of Project Management (PM) tools and techniques in the public sector is gradually becoming an important issue in developing economies, especially in a country like Nigeria where projects of different size and structures are undertaken. The paper examined the application of the project management practice in the public sector in Nigeria. The PM lifecycles, tools, and techniques were presented. The study was carried out in Lagos because of its metropolitan nature and rapidly growing economy. Twenty-three copies of questionnaire were administered to 23 public institutions in Lagos to generate primary data. The descriptive analysis techniques using percentages and table presentations coupled with the coefficient of correlation were used for data analysis. The study revealed that application of PM tools and techniques is an essential management approach that tends to achieve specified objectives within specific time and budget limits through the optimum use of resources. Furthermore, the study noted that there is a lack of in-depth knowledge of PM tools and techniques in public sector institutions sampled, also a high cost of the application was also observed by the respondents. The study recommended among others that PM tools and techniques should be applied gradually especially in old government institutions where resistance to change is perceived to be high.

Keywords: Project Management, Public Sector, Practice, Nigeria

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18 Challenges to Effective Public Sector Management in Developing Countries: The Networking and Communication Functions of Public Sector Managers in Nigeria and Ghana

Authors: Ethelbert Chinedu Nwokorie

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This empirical study analyzes the impact of communication and networking functions of Nigerian and Ghanaian public sector managers’ on public sector effectiveness. The focus is on which of these management functions public sector managers’ in these countries perform most, why, how and how does it affect effectiveness of public sector organizations in the two countries. This qualitative analysis was done by interviewing middle and top level managers in some selected public sector organizations in the two countries on their practical experiences. Findings reveal that ineffectiveness of public sector organizations in Ghana persists because public sector managers perform more of networking functions to promote their individual carrier success and progression in their various organizations, rather than achieving the organizations goals and objectives. In Nigeria, though majority of the interviewed public sector managers perform more communication functions than networking, they do this mostly by treating files and correspondences, instead of face-to-face communication and interaction with employees’. Hence, they hardly relate directly with their employees’ to find out how they are performing their jobs, their challenges, where they are having problems and why. The findings and recommendations of this study will help in improving effectiveness, quality and service delivery in Nigerian and Ghanaian public sector organizations and beyond.

Keywords: Networking, Communication, Management, Organization, Public Sector, Effectiveness, employees

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17 Barriers to Job Localization Policy in Private Sector: Case Study from Oman

Authors: Yahya Al Nahdi

Abstract:

Even though efforts to increase the participation of nationals in the workforce have been in place for more than a decade in the Sultanate of Oman, the results are not impressive. Citizens’ workforce participation – it is argued in the literature – is hindered by institutional, as well as attitudinal concerns. The purpose of this study was to determine barriers to Omanization (employment of Omani nationals) in the private sector as perceived by the senior managers in government and private sector. Data were collected predominantly through in-depth, semi-structured interviews with managers who directly deal with Omanization policies from both the public and private sector. Results from the data analysis have shown that the majority of participants acknowledged a work preference in the movement (public sector). The private sector employees' compensation and benefits package was perceived to be less attractive than that offered in the government (public sector). The negative perceptions (stereotypes) shared by expatriates regarding work attitudes and competencies of citizens in the local labour market was also overwhelmingly perceived as a major hindrance. Furthermore, institutional issues such as, ineffectiveness of rules and regulation regarding Omanization, inappropriate quota system and lack of public awareness towards private sector’s jobs, are also perceived problematic to successful Omanization. Finally, results from the data analysis were used in recommending strategies for potential consideration in the pursuit of a successful Omanization programme.

Keywords: Public Sector, Localization, private sector, job security, labour force structure, Omanization

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16 The Leadership Criterion: Challenges in Pursuing Excellence in the Jordanian Public Sector

Authors: Shaker Aladwan, Paul Forrester

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This paper explores the challenges that face leaders when implementing business excellence programmes in the Jordanian public sector. The study adopted a content analysis approach to analyse the excellence assessment reports that have been produced by the King Abdullah II Centre for Excellence (KACE). The sample comprises ten public organisations which have participated in the King Abdullah Award for Excellence (KAA) more than once and acknowledge in their reports that they have failed to achieve satisfactory results. The key challenges to the implementation of leadership criteria in the public sector in Jordan were found to be poor strategic planning, lack of employee empowerment, weaknesses in benchmarking performance, a lack of financial resources, poor integration and coordination, and poor measurement system: This study proposes a conceptual model for the as assessment of challenges that face managers when seeking to implement excellence in leadership in the Jordanian public sector. Theoretically, this paper fills context gaps in the excellence literature in general and organisational excellence in the public sector in particular. Leadership challenges in the public sector are generally widely studied, but it is important to gain a better understanding of how these challenges can be overcome. In comparison to many existing studies, this research has provided specific and detailed insights these organisational excellence challenges in the public sector and provides a conceptual model for use by other researchers into the future.

Keywords: Challenges, Public Sector, jordan, leadership criterion, organisational excellence, quality awards

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15 Delay in the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis and Initiation of TB Treatment in the Private and Public Health Sectors, Udaipur District, Rajasthan, India, Nov 2013

Authors: R. S. Gupta, Yogita Tulsian, K. F. Laserson

Abstract:

Background: Delays in the diagnosis and treatment of TB facilitates disease transmission in the community, so we conducted a study to evaluate the burden of and risk factors for delay in TB diagnosis and initiation of TB treatment among patients in the private and public sectors in Udaipur district, Rajasthan, India. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted among 100 new sputum-positive TB. Patients were interviewed in the intensive phase of treatment September 2013-November 2013 Long total diagnosis delay (TDD) was defined as a time interval between first symptom to confirmed diagnosis > 30 days. Long health treatment delay (HTD) was defined as a time interval between confirmed diagnosis to treatment initiation > 7 days. Results: We observed a median TDD of 55 days (range: 7-136 days) in the public sector and of 92 days (11-380 days) in the private sector. Long TDD in the private sector was significantly associated with middle-higher socio-economic status (Risk Ratio (RR): 2;95% CI: 1.3-3). The reasons reported from the private sector for long TDD were suspect TB patients not advised for sputum examination (RR: 42; 95% CI:2.6-660), practise of self-medication (RR: 17.4; 95% CI: 1.1-267), or lack of awareness (RR: 9.7;95% CI: 0.6-145). The median HTD in the public sector was 3 days (range: 0-14 days), and in the private sector, 2 days (range: 0-11 days) (non-significant difference). Conclusions: Long TDD in private sector may be improved through sputum referral for all suspect TB cases and better education to all regarding TB.

Keywords: Public Sector, diagnosis delay, treatment delay, privatesector

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14 Manufacturing of Race Car Case Study AGH Racing

Authors: Hanna Faron, Wojciech Marcinkowski, Daniel Prusak

Abstract:

The aim of this article is to familiarize with the activity of AGH Racing scientific circle, pertaining to the international project -Formula Student, giving the opportunity to young engineers from all around the world to validate their talent and knowledge in the real world conditions, under the pressure of time, and the design requirements. Every year, the team begins the process of building a race car from the formation of human resources. In case of the public sector, to which public universities can be included, the scientific circles represent the structure uniting students with the common interests and level of determination. Due to the scientific nature of the project which simulates the market conditions, they have a chance to verify previously acquired knowledge in practice. High level of the innovation and competitiveness of participating in the project Formula Student teams, requires an intelligent organizational system, which is characterized by a high dynamics. It is connected with the necessity of separation of duties, setting priorities, selecting optimal solutions which is often a compromise between the available technology and a limited budget. Proper selection of the adequate guidelines in the design phase allows an efficient transition to the implementation stage, which is process-oriented implementation of the project. Four dynamic and three static competitions are the main verification and evaluation of year-round work and effort put into the process of building a race car. Acquired feedback flowing during the race is a very important part while monitoring the effectiveness of AGH Racing scientific circle, as well as the main criterion while determining long-term goals and all the necessary improvements in the team.

Keywords: Public Sector, Automotive industry, SAE, formula student, race car

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13 The Core Obstacles of Continuous Improvement Implementation: Some Key Findings from Health and Education Sectors

Authors: Abdullah Alhaqbani

Abstract:

Purpose: Implementing continuous improvement is a challenge that public sector organisations face in becoming successful. Many obstacles hinder public organisations from successfully implementing continuous improvement. This paper aims to highlight the key core obstacles that face public organisations to implement continuous improvement programmes. Approach: Based on the literature, this paper reviews 66 papers that were published between 2000 and 2013 and that focused on the concept of continuous improvement and improvement methodologies in the context of public sector organisations. The methodologies for continuous improvement covered in these papers include Total Quality Management, Six Sigma, process re-engineering, lean thinking and Kaizen. Findings: Of the 24 obstacles found in the literature, 11 barriers were seen as core barriers that frequently occurred in public sector organisations. The findings indicate that lack of top management commitment; organisational culture and political issues and resistance to change are significant obstacles for improvement programmes. Moreover, this review found that improvement methodologies share some core barriers to successful implementation within public organisations. These barriers as well are common in the different geographic area. For instance lack of top management commitment and training that found in the education sector in Albanian are common barriers of improvement studies in Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Spain, UK and US. Practical implications: Understanding these core issues and barriers will help managers of public organisations to improve their strategies with respect to continuous improvement. Thus, this review highlights the core issues that prevent a successful continuous improvement journey within the public sector. Value: Identifying and understanding the common obstacles to successfully implementing continuous improvement in the public sector will help public organisations to learn how to improve in launching and successfully sustaining such programmes. However, this is not the end; rather, it is just the beginning of a longer improvement journey. Thus, it is intended that this review will identify key learning opportunities for public sector organisations in developing nations which will then be tested via further research.

Keywords: Public Sector, Total Quality Management, continuous improvement, obstacles

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12 Enhancing the Safety Climate and Reducing Violence against Staff in Closed Hospital Wards

Authors: Valerie Isaak

Abstract:

This study examines the effectiveness of an intervention program aimed at enhancing a unit-level safety climate as a way to minimize the risk of employees being injured by patient violence. The intervention program conducted in maximum security units in one of the psychiatric hospitals in Israel included a three day workshop. Safety climate was examined before and after the implementation of the intervention. We also collected data regarding incidents involving patient violence. Six months after the intervention a significant improvement in employees’ perceptions regarding management’s commitment to safety were found as well as a marginally significant improvement in communication concerning safety issues. Our research shows that an intervention program aimed at enhancing a safety climate is associated with a decrease in the number of aggressive incidents. We conclude that such an intervention program is likely to return the sense of safety and reduce the scope of violence.

Keywords: Violence, Performance, Public Sector, Intervention, safety climate

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11 The Governance of UK Museums and Art Galleries: Implications for Accountability

Authors: Aminah Abdullah, Iqbal Khadaroo

Abstract:

This paper investigates to what ends, how and by whom museums and art galleries in the UK are governed, and to whom they provide accounts to justify their behavior and activities. A theoretical framework is developed by drawing from the governance and accountability literature and is fleshed out by using empirical data from secondary sources. The findings show that the governance model used, informed by the new public management (NPM) philosophy, and has created tensions between the managerial and social forms of accountability. Museums and art galleries have adopted a managerial culture of getting done what gets measured.

Keywords: Governance, Accountability, Public Sector, UK museums and art galleries

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10 PPPs as Panacea to Delivery of Public Sector Construction Project in Zimbabwe

Authors: Ringisai Abigail Mawondo-Dhliwayo, Kahilu Kajimo-Shakantu

Abstract:

Due to financial challenges which governments in general face, it is becoming more difficult for many to continually use their limited resources to undertake infrastructural development. Governments increasingly now need other delivery approaches, in particular, the Public-Private Partnerships which make it possible for the public sector to achieve infrastructural development without incurring any/minimum cost. The literature reviewed outlined that benefits of PPPs include timely delivery of quality projects with cost limits. The methodology utilized for the empirical study comprised six interviews and sixty questionnaires which were undertaken and administered by construction consultants and government officials involved in PPPs projects. The results obtained showed that PPPs are not widely used in Zimbabwe although the need for their use exists. The study also found some challenges which prevent or derail the rate at which PPPs are utilized, of which the primary one was a political influence. It is concluded that despite limitations, PPPs remain the most effective and viable option for the delivery of government projects. The study recommends that policy and framework for the implementation of PPPs be developed. More useful information could have been obtained if final users of PPPs projects were included in the sample for data collection.

Keywords: Public Sector, Procurement, Construction Projects, Public private partnerships

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9 The Effect of Innovation Capability and Activity, and Wider Sector Condition on the Performance of Malaysian Public Sector Innovation Policy

Authors: Razul Ikmal Ramli

Abstract:

Successful implementation of innovation is a key success formula of a great organization. Innovation will ensure competitive advantages as well as sustainability of organization in the long run. In public sector context, the role of innovation is crucial to resolve dynamic challenges of public services such as operating in economic uncertainty with limited resources, increasing operating expenditure and growing expectation among citizens towards high quality, swift and reliable public services. Acknowledging the prospect of innovation as a tool for achieving high-performance public sector, the Malaysian New Economic Model launched in the year 2011 intensified government commitment to foster innovation in the public sector. Since 2011 various initiatives have been implemented, however little is known about the performance of public sector innovation in Malaysia. Hence, by applying the national innovation system theory as a pillar, the formulated research objectives were focused on measuring the level of innovation capabilities, wider public sector condition for innovation, innovation activity, and innovation performance as well as to examine the relationship between the four constructs with innovation performance as a dependent variable. For that purpose, 1,000 sets of self-administrated survey questionnaires were distributed to heads of units and divisions of 22 Federal Ministry and Central Agencies in the administrative, security, social and economic sector. Based on 456 returned questionnaires, the descriptive analysis found that innovation capabilities, wider sector condition, innovation activities and innovation performance were rated by respondents at moderately high level. Based on Structural Equation Modelling, innovation performance was found to be influenced by innovation capability, wider sector condition for innovation and innovation activity. In addition, the analysis also found innovation activity to be the most important construct that influences innovation performance. The implication of the study concluded that the innovation policy implemented in the public sector of Malaysia sparked motivation to innovate and resulted in various forms of innovation. However, the overall achievements were not as well as they were expected to be. Thus, the study suggested for the formulation of a dedicated policy to strengthen innovation capability, wider public sector condition for innovation and innovation activity of the Malaysian public sector. Furthermore, strategic intervention needs to be focused on innovation activity as the construct plays an important role in determining the innovation performance. The success of public sector innovation implementation will not only benefit the citizens, but will also spearhead the competitiveness and sustainability of the country.

Keywords: Innovation, Innovation Policy, Performance, Public Sector

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8 Assessing the Role of Water Research and Development Investment towards Water Security in South Africa: During the Five Years Period (2009/10 - 2013/14)

Authors: Hlamulo Makelane

Abstract:

The study aims at providing new insights regarding research and development (R&D) public and private activities based on the national R&D survey of the past five years. The main question of the study is what role does water R&D plays on water security; to then analyze what lessons could be extracted to improve the security of water through R&D. In particular, this work concentrates on three main aspects of R&D investments: (i) the level of expenditures, (ii) the sources of funding related to water R&D, and (iii) the personnel working in the field, both for the public and private sectors. The nonlinear regression approached will be used for data analysis based on secondary data gathered from the South African nation R&D survey conducted annually by the Centre for science, technology and innovation indicators (CeSTII).

Keywords: Investment, Water, R&D, Public Sector, private sector

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7 Analysis of the Effective Components on the Performance of the Public Sector in Iran

Authors: Mahsa Habibzadeh

Abstract:

The function is defined as the process of systematic and systematic measurement of the components of how each task is performed and determining their potential for improvement in accordance with the specific standards of each component. Hence, evaluation is the basis for the improvement of organizations' functional excellence and the move towards performance excellence depends on performance improvement planning. Because of the past two decades, the public sector system has undergone dramatic changes. The purpose of such developments is often to overcome the barriers of the bureaucratic system, which impedes the efficient use of limited resources. Implementing widespread changes in the public sector of developed and even developing countries has led the process of developments to be addressed by many researchers. In this regard, the present paper has been carried out with the approach of analyzing the components that affect the performance of the public sector in Iran. To achieve this goal, indicators that affect the performance of the public sector and the factors affecting the improvement of its accountability have been identified. The research method in this research is descriptive and analytical. A statistical population of 120 people consists of managers and employees of the public sector in Iran. The questionnaires were distributed among them and analyzed using SPSS and LISREL software. The obtained results indicate that the results of the research findings show that between responsibilities there is a significant relationship between participation of managers and employees, legality, justice and transparency of specialty and competency, participation in public sector functions. Also, the significant coefficient for the liability variable is 3.31 for justice 2.89 for transparency 1.40 for legality of 2.27 for specialty and competence 2.13 and 5.17 for participation 5.17. Implementing indicators that affect the performance of the public sector can lead to satisfaction of the audience.

Keywords: Performance, Public Sector, Components, accountability system

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6 Attributes of Ethical Leadership and Ethical Guidelines in Malaysian Public Sector

Authors: M. Norazamina, A. Azizah, Y. Najihah Marha, A. Suraya

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Malaysian Public Sector departments or agencies are responsible to provide efficient public services with zero corruption. However, corruption continues to occur due to the absence of ethical leadership and well-execution of ethical guidelines. Thus, the objective of this paper is to explore the attributes of ethical leadership and ethical guidelines. This study employs a qualitative research by analyzing data from interviews with key informers of public sector using conceptual content analysis (NVivo11). The study reveals eight attributes of ethical leadership which are role model, attachment, ethical support, knowledgeable, discipline, leaders’ spirituality encouragement, virtue values and shared values. Meanwhile, five attributes (guidelines, communication, check and balance, concern on stakeholders and compliance) of ethical guidelines are identified. These identified attributes should become the ethical identity and ethical direction of Malaysian Public Sector. This could enhance the public trust as well as the international community trust towards the public sector.

Keywords: Public Sector, Ethical Leadership, check and balance, ethical guidelines, spirituality encouragement

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5 Assets Misappropriation in the Malaysian Public and Private Sectors

Authors: I. K. Norziaton, M. D. Ridhuan, A. N. Nur Adura

Abstract:

Assets misappropriation is becoming a major concern in organizations. Over the years, the Malaysian Auditor General has reported high occurrences of assets misappropriation at the federal, state and even local governments. It is surprising that assets misappropriation is not the only major concern in the public sector but it has also indicates a common sight in private sector. The current situation is rather disconcerting because employees are accountable to perform their jobs at the interest of the organizations. Various researches in the past has found that the incidence of assets misappropriation occurs when employees used the official vehicles, internet connection, computers, stationery and facilities for personal and family benefits. The issue of assets misappropriation has continue to be a major concern for organizations and its impact on the reputation and financial health can be enormous. Even though the issue seems to be trivial, yet, if it is left untreated, the symptoms will become an incurable disease that it will cause major leakages to the organizations. Hence, this paper highlights the common practices of assets misappropriation in public and private sectors. It also discusses why the acts of assets misappropriation occurs. Using the data through questionnaire survey, a total of 250 questionnaires were distributed to the private and public sectors employees. However 173 (69.2%) were returned and usable. This paper concludes that it is vital to promote awareness to the public and private sectors employees on issues of assets misappropriation. Assets misappropriation could have been avoided provided that the officers in charge are more vigilant, competent and practice high level of integrity in discharging their responsibilities towards the organizations.

Keywords: Public Sector, private sector, Fraud, assets misappropriation

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4 Knowledge Management Processes as a Driver of Knowledge-Worker Performance in Public Health Sector of Pakistan

Authors: Shahid Razzaq

Abstract:

The governments around the globe have started taking into considerations the knowledge management dynamics while formulating, implementing, and evaluating the strategies, with or without the conscious realization, for the different public sector organizations and public policy developments. Health Department of Punjab province in Pakistan is striving to deliver quality healthcare services to the community through an efficient and effective service delivery system. Despite of this struggle some employee performance issues yet exists in the form of challenge to government. To overcome these issues department took several steps including HR strategies, use of technologies and focus of hard issues. Consequently, this study was attempted to highlight the importance of soft issue that is knowledge management in its true essence to tackle their performance issues. Knowledge management in public sector is quite an ignored area in the knowledge management-a growing multidisciplinary research discipline. Knowledge-based view of the firm theory asserts the knowledge is the most deliberate resource that can result in competitive advantage for an organization over the other competing organizations. In the context of our study it means for gaining employee performance, organizations have to increase the heterogeneous knowledge bases. The study uses the cross-sectional and quantitative research design. The data is collected from the knowledge workers of Health Department of Punjab, the biggest province of Pakistan. A total of 341 sample size is achieved. The SmartPLS 3 Version 2.6 is used for analyzing the data. The data examination revealed that knowledge management processes has a strong impact on knowledge worker performance. All hypotheses are accepted according to the results. Therefore, it can be summed up that to increase the employee performance knowledge management activities should be implemented. Health Department within province of Punjab introduces the knowledge management infrastructure and systems to make effective availability of knowledge for the service staff. This knowledge management infrastructure resulted in an increase in the knowledge management process in different remote hospitals, basic health units and care centers which resulted in greater service provisions to public. This study is to have theoretical and practical significances. In terms of theoretical contribution, this study is to establish the relationship between knowledge management and performance for the first time. In case of the practical contribution, this study is to give an insight to public sector organizations and government about role of knowledge management in employ performance. Therefore, public policymakers are strongly advised to implement the activities of knowledge management for enhancing the performance of knowledge workers. The current research validated the substantial role of knowledge management in persuading and creating employee arrogances and behavioral objectives. To the best of authors’ knowledge, this study contribute to the impact of knowledge management on employee performance as its originality.

Keywords: Knowledge Management, Public Sector, employee performance, soft issues

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3 Evaluation of the Causes of Exposure to Mobbing of Employees in the Public Sector in Turkey

Authors: Taner Cindik, Ferya Tas Ciftci

Abstract:

Mobbing in the public sector and specific issues (i.e., the demand for non-pecuniary damages) regarding mobbing have become very important in the light of the precedents constituted by the Turkish Council of State in 2010. The legal scope of mobbing is not able to be determined since the concept of mobbing is not defined in Turkish law system. This study aims to reveal three major problems caused by the lack of laws related to mobbing in the Turkish legal system. First, the absence of an arrangement for disciplinary penalties leads that general provisions in the disciplinary law are implemented. This situation, therefore, causes difficulties in practice. Second, not being drawn of the lines in the topic concerning mobbing in public sector leads confusions in being direction of hostility. Third, the fact that there is a legal gap on seeking non-pecuniary compensation when employees in public sector are exposed to mobbing might make it difficult to obtain non-pecuniary compensation. Within the context of these major problems, civil servants in Turkey do not have enough protection mechanism. However, some possible legal arrangements will help civil servants to protect against mobbing. This study may be considered important because of the fact that mobbing in the public sector is at a significant level and has not been evaluated in this context before. This research is mainly a study of Turkish legal system and evaluates critically law case to determine legal problems. As a result of this study, three main problems might be identified because there is legal gap regarding mobbing in the public sector. In conclusion, the introduction of the major problems related to mobbing in this study might shed light on making the proper regulations of this subject in Turkish law system. In this respect, the plaintiff will be provided convenience in the point of non-pecuniary damages and this study will guide the assessment of legal liability of those who implement mobbing.

Keywords: Public Sector, Human Rights Violations, mobbing, direction of hostility, non-pecuniary compensation, disciplinary law

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2 Insiders Perspectives of Countering Public Sector Corruption in Nigeria: Identifying and Targeting Its Nature, Characteristics and Fundamental Causes

Authors: Musa Bala Zakari, Mark Button

Abstract:

This paper explores the extent, nature, and characteristics of public sector corruption in Nigeria, and the enhancement of the major anti-corruption initiatives (reforms), thereby providing insight into the types, forms, and causes of corruption in Nigeria. This paper argues that attempts to devise and suggest effective anti-corruption reforms to control systemic corruption in Nigeria require identifying the most prevalent types of corruption targeted and tackling the fundamental country-specific causes. It analyses two types of public sector corruption as it relates to Nigeria and the workings of its inefficient governance system. This paper concludes with the imperative of a collective action against corruption supported by a considerable amount of domestic political will existing in a favourable policy context. In undertaking this, the paper draws upon publicly available documents, case laws review and semi-structured interviews conducted with various personnel working in the field of corruption in the dedicated anti-corruption agencies, academics, and practitioners from other relevant institutions of accountability.

Keywords: Development, Corruption, Good Governance, Public Sector

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1 Reconceptualizing “Best Practices” in Public Sector

Authors: Eftychia Kessopoulou, Styliani Xanthopoulou, Ypatia Theodorakioglou, George Tsiotras, Katerina Gotzamani

Abstract:

Public sector managers frequently herald that implementing best practices as a set of standards, may lead to superior organizational performance. However, recent research questions the objectification of best practices, highlighting: a) the inability of public sector organizations to develop innovative administrative practices, as well as b) the adoption of stereotypical renowned practices inculcated in the public sector by international governance bodies. The process through which organizations construe what a best practice is, still remains a black box that is yet to be investigated, given the trend of continuous changes in public sector performance, as well as the burgeoning interest of sharing popular administrative practices put forward by international bodies. This study aims to describe and understand how organizational best practices are constructed by public sector performance management teams, like benchmarkers, during the benchmarking-mediated performance improvement process and what mechanisms enable this construction. A critical realist action research methodology is employed, starting from a description of various approaches on best practice nature when a benchmarking-mediated performance improvement initiative, such as the Common Assessment Framework, is applied. Firstly, we observed the benchmarker’s management process of best practices in a public organization, so as to map their theories-in-use. As a second step we contextualized best administrative practices by reflecting the different perspectives emerged from the previous stage on the design and implementation of an interview protocol. We used this protocol to conduct 30 semi-structured interviews with “best practice” process owners, in order to examine their experiences and performance needs. Previous research on best practices has shown that needs and intentions of benchmarkers cannot be detached from the causal mechanisms of the various contexts in which they work. Such causal mechanisms can be found in: a) process owner capabilities, b) the structural context of the organization, and c) state regulations. Therefore, we developed an interview protocol theoretically informed in the first part to spot causal mechanisms suggested by previous research studies and supplemented it with questions regarding the provision of best practice support from the government. Findings of this work include: a) a causal account of the nature of best administrative practices in the Greek public sector that shed light on explaining their management, b) a description of the various contexts affecting best practice conceptualization, and c) a description of how their interplay changed the organization’s best practice management.

Keywords: Benchmarking, Public Sector, Critical Realism, action research, best practices

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