Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Public Related Abstracts

8 Modelling Public Knowledge and Attitude towards Genetically Modified Maize in Kenya

Authors: Ezrah Kipkirui Tonui, George Otieno Orwa


A survey of 138 farmers was conducted in Rift valley, Kenya, in November and December 2013 in three counties (Uasin-gishu, Elgeyo-marakwet, and Tranzoia) to determine public knowledge and attitude towards genetically modified (GM) maize. Above two third (70%) of the respondents had knowledge of GM maize, mostly those educated and male. Female was found to be having low knowledge on GM maize. Public acknowledged the technology’s potential positive impacts, with more than 90% willing to adopt and more than 98% willing to buy GM seedlings at any given price. A small percentage less than 3% were of a negative opinion about willing to buy and adopt GM seeds. We conclude that GM technology has a role to play in food security in Kenya. However, the public needs more information about the technology, which can be provided through established sources of information and training. Finally, public knowledge and attitude on GM maize should be studied on a regular basis, and the survey population broadened to 47 counties.

Keywords: Knowledge, attitudes, Public, GM maize, Kenya

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7 The Impact of Rapid Urbanisation on Public Transport Systems in the Gauteng Region of South Africa

Authors: J. Chakwizira, P. Bikam, T. A. Adeboyejo


This paper seeks to illustrate the impact of rapid urbanization (in terms of both increase in people and vehicles) in the Gauteng region (which includes Johannesburg, Pretoria and Ekurhuleni). The impact that existing transport systems and options place on the capacity of residents from low income areas to travel and conduct various socio-economic activities is discussed. The findings are drawn from a 2013 analysis of a random transport household survey of 1550 households carried out in Gauteng province. 91.4% of the study respondents had access to public transport, while 8.6% had no access to public transport. Of the 91.4% who used public transport, the main reason used to explain this state of affairs was that it was affordable (54.3%), convenient (15.9%), Accessible (11.9%), lack of alternatives (6.4%) and reliable at 4.1%. Recommendations advanced revolve around the need to reverse land use and transportation effects of apartheid planning, growing and developing a sustainable critical mass of public transport interventions supported by appropriate transport systems that are environmentally sustainable through proper governance. 38.5% of the respondents indicated that developing compact, smart and integrated urban land spaces was key to reducing travel challenges in the study area. 23.4% indicated that the introduction and upgrading of BRT buses to cover all areas in the study area was a step in the right direction because it has great potential in shifting travel patterns to favor public modes of transport. 15.1% indicated that all open spaces should be developed so that fragmentation of land uses can be addressed. This would help to fight disconnected and fragmented space and trip making challenges in Gauteng. 13.4% indicated that improving the metro rail services was critical since this is a mass mover of commuters. 9.6% of the respondents highlighted that the bus subsidy policy has to be retained in the short to medium term since the spatial mismatches and challenges created by apartheid are yet to be fully reversed.

Keywords: Population, Urbanisation, Transport Systems, Public, Gauteng

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6 A Comparative Analysis of Residential Quality of Public and Private Estates in Lagos

Authors: S. Akinde, Jubril Olatunbosun


In recent years, most of the urban centers in Nigeria are fast experiencing housing problems such as unaffordable housing and environmental challenges, all of which determine the nature of housing quality. The population continues to increase and the demand for quality housing increases probably at the same rate. Several kinds of houses serve various purposes; the objectives of the low cost housing schemes as the name suggests is to make houses quality to both the middle and lower classes of people in Lagos. A casual look into the study area of Iba Low Cost Housing Estate and the Unity Low Cost Housing Estate, Ojo and Alimosho respectively in Lagos State have shown a huge demands for houses. The study area boasts of a large population all engaged in various commercial activities with income at various levels. It would be fair to say that these people are mainly of the middle class and lower class. This means the low cost housing scheme truly serves these purposes. A Low Cost Housing Scheme of Iba which is publicly owned and Low Cost Housing Scheme of Unity Estate (UE) is privately owned.  

Keywords: Housing, Public, residential quality, low cost housing scheme, private estates

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5 Determinants of Pupils' Performance in the National Achievement Test in Public Elementary Schools of Cavite City

Authors: Florenda B. Cardinoza


This study was conducted to determine the determinants of Grade III and grade VI pupils’ performance in the National Achievement Test in the Division of Cavite City, School Year 2011-2012. Specifically, the research aimed to: (1) describe the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of age, sex, birth order, family size, family income, and occupation of parents; (2) determine the level of attitude towards NAT; and (3) describe the degree of relationship between the following variables: school support, teachers’ support, and lastly family support for the pupils’ performance in 2012 NAT. The study used the descriptive-correlation research method to investigate the determinants of pupils’ performance in the National Achievement Test of Public Elementary Schools in the Division of Cavite City. The instrument used in data gathering was a self-structured survey. The NAT result for SY 2011-2012 provided by NETRC and DepEd Cavite City was also utilized. The statistical tools used to process and analyze the data were frequency distribution, percentage, mean, standard deviation, Kruskall Wallis, Mann-Whitney, t-test for independent samples, One-way ANOVA, and Spearman Rank Correlational Coefficient. Results revealed that there were more female students than males in the Division of Cavite City; out of 659 respondents, 345 were 11 years old and above; 390 were females; 283 were categorized as first child in the family; 371 of the respondents were from small family; 327 had Php5000 and below family income; 450 of the fathers’ respondents were non professionals; and 431 of the mothers respondents had no occupation. The attitude towards NAT, with a mean of 1.65 and SD of .485, shows that respondents considered NAT important. The school support towards NAT, with a mean of 1.89 and SD of .520, shows that respondents received school support. The pupils had a very high attitude towards teachers’ support in NAT with a mean of 1.60 and SD of .572. Family support, with t-test of 16.201 with a p-value of 0.006, shows significant at 5 percent level. Thus, the determinants of pupils’ performance in NAT in terms of family support for NAT preparation is not significant according to their family income. The grade level, with the t-test is 4.420 and a p-value of 0.000, is significant at 5 percent level. Therefore, the determinants of pupils’ performance in NAT in terms of grade level for NAT preparation vary according to their grade level. For the determinants of pupils’ performance of NAT sample test for attitude towards NAT, school support, teachers’ support, and family support were noted highly significant with a p value of 0.000.

Keywords: Test, Performance, National, Public, determinants, achievement, pupils'

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4 Status and Image of the Nurse as Perceived by the Public

Authors: Salam Hadid, Mohammad Khatib


The International Council of Nurses-ICN defined nursing as a sphere integrating autonomous and collaborative care intended for the individual, family and community within and outside of the care setting. Nursing as a care profession has developed broadly over recent decades in terms of its essentials, expertise and primarily academically. Despite the impressive growth of the profession, there is still extreme diversity in the public’s perceptions and opinions of the profession and its professionals and in the knowledge on the fundamentals of its true function and spheres of engagement. The current study examines the existing knowledge among the general population regarding the nursing profession. The population consisted of 498 respondents, 236 women and 262 men, age 18-81. The respondents noted that nursing focuses on the technical, and the emotional aspects and promotion of health for the patient are not the nurse’s responsibility. Most of the respondents saw nurses working mainly in hospital and community-based clinic settings. They considered nursing to be a high prestige profession in general, but less prestigious among respondents exposed to healthcare provision. Most of the respondents considered nursing to be a humane profession but without independence and with no need for academic studies. The findings are incompatible with the definition of nursing and its spheres of action as defined in the ICN Code of Ethics. Two suggestions are to work through nursing schools addressing the student nurses, as ambassadors for the profession. The second is using the healthcare encounter between the nursing staff and the public to improve the image of nurses.

Keywords: Nursing, Ethics, Public, nurse image

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3 Assigning Moral Positions Caused by Environmental Degradation in San Buenaventura Public Housing Complex in Ixtapaluca, State of Mexico, Mexico

Authors: Ángel O. Aldape, José M. Bustos, José G. Guízar


Building companies providing public housing in Mexico, such as INFONAVIT, Casas GEO, Casas ARA, among others, provide low-interest home loans for thousands of Mexican families and individuals to buy a home. However, once this goal is achieved, these companies are not responsible for the care and maintenance of green areas and waste collection services because, technically, it is the local municipalities’ responsibility to provide these services to the community. However, this does not always occur with local municipalities. To study this problem, the San Buenaventura public housing complex was selected. This housing complex is located in the municipality of Ixtapaluca, State of Mexico (Estado de Mexico), Mexico. To our best knowledge, there are currently no formal studies about San Buenaventura that can offer effective options and/or better ways of sorting and disposing households’ wastes, as well as improving local green areas (community gardens and parks). Only a few web-blogs and periodical reports have addressed these serious problems that directly affect the social and psychological well-being of residents. The main goal of this research project aims to improve our understanding towards the existing ontological elements that emerge from residents’ discourses (in the form of informal talks and gossip) and discover the socio-physical elements that they use to assign moral positions onto others or onto themselves. The theoretical framework used in this study is based on two constructionist theories: positioning theory and site ontology. The first theory offered the opportunity to explore the rights, duties, and obligations assigned to a social role (or moral position) of the participants. The second theory provided a constructionist philosophical base that includes various socio-physical elements that are considered to assign personal or community meanings to particular contexts. Both theories contributed to defining personal dispositions and/or attitudes to carry out concrete social action or practice. The theoretical framework was guided by a relativistic ontology that allowed the researcher to better interpret the reality of the participants of this study. A descriptive-interpretative methodology was used, and two qualitative methods were arranged based on the theoretical framework proposed as follows: a semi-structured focus group interview, and direct observations. The semi-structured focus group was carried out with four residents of San Buenaventura and covert observations of public spaces and houses were carried out. These were analysed and interpreted by the researcher and assisted by NVivo software. The results suggest that the participants assigned moral traits of responsibility to other residents regarding the problem of the neglect of the green areas and waste pollution. The results suggest that all participants agreed to assign moral traits to other residents making them liable for the environmental degradation and the decay of green areas. They neither assigned any moral duty nor responsible moral traits onto themselves towards environmental protection or destruction. Overall, the participants in this study pointed out that external ontological elements such as the local government, infrastructure or cleaning services were not main cause of these environmental problems but rather the general lack of moral duty and disposition of other residents.

Keywords: Housing, Environment, Ontology, Public, Position, moral, conversation, site, talks

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2 A Study of Police Culture Themes Towards the Public Among South African Police Service

Authors: Nkosingiphile M. Mbhele, Jean Steyn


A focus group discussion was implemented, which comprised of senior South African Police Service managers and police academics in South Africa. The measurement of solidarity, isolation, and cynicism among functional South African Police Service officials and a thirty-item questionnaire came about by reviewing the literature. This research uses a survey format to assess the police culture theme of solidarity, isolation, and cynicism among South African Police Service officers in 9 South African provinces. Although a survey format is used in research, it engages in a quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test repeated measures research (longitudinal) design. Although there are differences among South African Police Service police (SAPS) officers, overall, there are signs of solidarity, isolation, and cynicism among SAPS members. Attitudes of solidarity, isolation, and cynicism are present among most police officials and have been presented from the start of training and held, maintained, or strengthened for the next years of their SAPS careers. This issue is problematic to society with regard to community-orientated policing since they have to interact with the members of the community. To author’s best knowledge, longitudinal studies of police culture are rare to find; not much has been researched on this topic. However, this paper offers to bridge that gap by providing answers to longitudinal police attitudes towards the public within the police culture themes of isolation and cynicism attitudes.

Keywords: Isolation, Public, solidarity, cynicism, South African police service, police culture

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1 The Feasibility of a Protected Launch Site near Melkbosstrand for a Public Transport Ferry across Table Bay, Cape Town

Authors: Mardi Falck, André Theron


Traffic congestion on the Northern side of Table Bay is a major problem. In Gauteng, the implementation of the Gautrain between Pretoria and Johannesburg, solved their traffic congestion. In 2002 two entrepreneurs endeavoured to implement a hovercraft ferry service across the bay from Table View to the Port of Cape Town. However, the EIA process proved that disgruntled residents from the area did not agree with their location for a launch site. 17 years later the traffic problem has not gone away, but instead the congestion has increased. While property prices in the City Bowl of Cape Town are ever increasing, people tend to live more on the outskirts of the CBD and commute to work. This means more vehicles on the road every day and the public transport services cannot keep up with the demand. For this reason, the study area of the previous hovercraft plans is being extended further North. The study’s aim is thus to determine the feasibility of a launch site North of Bloubergstrand to launch and receive a public transport ferry across Table Bay. The feasibility is being established by researching ferry services across the world and on what makes them successful. Different types of ferries and their operational capacities in terms of weather and waves are researched and by establishing the offshore and nearshore wind and wave climate for the area, an appropriate protected launch site is determined. It was concluded that travel time could potentially be halved. A hovercraft proved to be the most feasible ferry type, because it does not require a conventional harbour. Other types of vessels require a protected launch site because of the wave climate. This means large breakwaters that influence the cost substantially. The Melkbos Cultural Centre proved to be the most viable option for the location of the launch site, because it already has buildings and infrastructure. It is recommended that, if a harbour is chosen for the proposed ferry service, it could be used for more services like fishing, eco-tourism and leisure. Further studies are recommended to optimise the feasibility of such a harbour.

Keywords: Public, Cape Town, ferry, Table Bay

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