Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Public Policy Related Abstracts

24 Public Policy for Quality School Lunch Development in Thailand

Authors: W. Kongnoo, J. Loysongkroa, S. Chotivichien, N. Viriyautsahakul, N. Saiwongse

Abstract:

Obesity, stunting and wasting problems among Thai school-aged children are increasing due to inappropriate food consumption behavior and poor environments for desirable nutritional behavior. Because of a low school lunch budget of only 0.40 USD per person per day, food quality is not up to nutritional standards. Therefore, the Health Department with the Education Ministry and the Thai Health Promotion Foundation have developed a quality school lunch project during 2009–2013. The program objectives were development and management of public policy to increase school lunch budget. The methods used a healthy public policy motivation process and movement in 241 local administrative organizations and 538 schools. The problem and solution research was organized to study school food and nutrition management, create a best practice policy mobilization model and hold a public hearing to motivate an increase of school meal funding. The results showed that local public policy has been motivated during 2009-2011 to increase school meal budget using local budgets. School children with best food consumption behavior and exercise increased from 13.2% in 2009 to 51.6% in 2013 and stunting decreased from 6.0% in 2009 to 4.7% in 2013. As the result of national policy motivation (2012-2013), the cabinet meeting on October 22, 2013 has approved an increase of school lunch budget from 0.40 USD to 0.62 USD per person per day. Thus, 5,800,469 school children nationwide have benefited from the budget increase.

Keywords: Public Policy, Obesity, Thailand, quality school lunch

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23 Text Analysis to Support Structuring and Modelling a Public Policy Problem-Outline of an Algorithm to Extract Inferences from Textual Data

Authors: Osama Ibrahim, Claudia Ehrentraut, Hercules Dalianis

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Policy making situations are real-world problems that exhibit complexity in that they are composed of many interrelated problems and issues. To be effective, policies must holistically address the complexity of the situation rather than propose solutions to single problems. Formulating and understanding the situation and its complex dynamics, therefore, is a key to finding holistic solutions. Analysis of text based information on the policy problem, using Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Text analysis techniques, can support modelling of public policy problem situations in a more objective way based on domain experts knowledge and scientific evidence. The objective behind this study is to support modelling of public policy problem situations, using text analysis of verbal descriptions of the problem. We propose a formal methodology for analysis of qualitative data from multiple information sources on a policy problem to construct a causal diagram of the problem. The analysis process aims at identifying key variables, linking them by cause-effect relationships and mapping that structure into a graphical representation that is adequate for designing action alternatives, i.e., policy options. This study describes the outline of an algorithm used to automate the initial step of a larger methodological approach, which is so far done manually. In this initial step, inferences about key variables and their interrelationships are extracted from textual data to support a better problem structuring. A small prototype for this step is also presented.

Keywords: Public Policy, Algorithm, natural language processing, Qualitative Analysis, Problem Structuring, inference extraction

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22 Education in Schools and Public Policy in India

Authors: Sujeet Kumar

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Education has greater importance particularly in terms of increasing human capital and economic competitiveness. It plays a crucial role in terms of cognitive and skill development. Its plays a vital role in process of socialization, fostering social justice, and enhancing social cohesion. Policy related to education has been always a priority for developed countries, which is later adopted by developing countries also. The government of India has also brought change in education polices in line with recognizing change at national and supranational level. However, quality education is still not become an open door for every child in India and several reports are produced year to year about level of school education in India. This paper is concerned with schooling in India. Particularly, it focuses on two government and two private schools in Bihar, but reference has made to schools in Delhi especially around slum communities. The paper presents brief historical context and an overview of current school systems in India. Later, it focuses on analysis of current development in policy in reference with field observation, which is anchored around choice, diversity, market – orientation and gap between different groups of pupils. There is greater degree of difference observed at private and government school levels in terms of quality of teachers, method of teaching and overall environment of learning. The paper concludes that the recent policy development in education particularly Sarva Siksha Abhiyaan (SAA) and Right to Education Act (2009) has required renovating new approach to bridge the gap through broader consultation at grassroots and participatory approach with different stakeholders.

Keywords: Education, Public Policy, participatory approach

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21 Functions of Public Policy in Private International Law

Authors: Fedorova Elena

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In this article, we draw a distinction between two important functions of public policy in private international law. The first function is widely recognized and relates to the prevention of application of foreign laws and enforcement of foreign court judgments whenever their effects are incompatible with the domestic legal system of the forum. This effectively protects sovereign rights of the forum state as it allows to resist against the undesirable effects of foreign law-making and law-enforcement policies. The second function is less obvious, but not less important. As the internal private legal relationships, international private relationships are usually governed by rules of public policy, to which the parties can not derogate by mutual agreement. Thefore, for international private law relations public policy has a different function than previously mentioned: in this case, the public policy acts as a defense against unacceptable effects of the party autonomy. Thus, this second function of public policy consists in the limitation of the party autonomy wich effects would be unacceptable for the local legal system. In the frame of this second function the author will analyse two types of public policy which can limit the party autonomy: « substantial » public policy (which regulates the substance of international legal relationship) and « conflictual » public policy (which regulates the party autonomy to choose the law applicable for the substance of relationship). The author provides an analysis of these functions of the public policy in the field of international contract law because of the important role of the principle of party autonomy for international contract relations.

Keywords: Public Policy, general theory of private international law, substantial public policy, conflictual public policy

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20 Factors Leading to Recividism

Authors: Maria Kralova, Michal Palecek

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We have detected factors leading to recidivism (the Czech Republic data). The employment during imprisonment turned out to be the most significant predictor with a positive effect on reduction of a rate of recidivism. Accordingly, we mainly focus on this predictor and its economic consequences. Smart public policy can cut government costs dramatically as more than a half of prisoners in the Czech Republic are recidivists. The operating cost cut of the Czech prison service could be CZK 127,680,000 (USD 5,889,623) in 2013 if a public policy had been set smarter.

Keywords: Public Policy, Optimal, effective, cost-cut, reducing recidivism

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19 Governance Question and the Participatory Policy Making: Making the Process Functional in Nigeria

Authors: Albert T. Akume, P. D. Dahida

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This paper examines the effect of various epochs of governments on policy making in Nigeria. The character of governance and public policy making of both epochs was exclusive, non-participatory and self-centric. As a consequence the interests of citizenry were not represented, neither protected nor sought to meet fairly the needs of all groups. The introduction of the post-1999 democratic government demand that the hitherto skewed pattern of policy making cease to be a character of governance. Hence, the need for citizen participation in the policy making process. The question then is what mode is most appropriate to engender public participation so as to make the policy making process functional? Given the prevailing social, economic and political dilemmas the utilization of the direct mode of citizen participation to affect policy outcome is doubtful if not unattainable. It is due to these predicament that this paper uses the documentary research design argues for the utilization of the indirect mode of citizen participation in the policy making process so as to affect public policy outcome appropriately and with less cost, acrimony and delays.

Keywords: Governance, Public Policy, Civil Society, Representation, Participation

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18 Housing Recovery in Heavily Damaged Communities in New Jersey after Hurricane Sandy

Authors: Chenyi Ma

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Background: The second costliest hurricane in U.S. history, Sandy landed in southern New Jersey on October 29, 2012, and struck the entire state with high winds and torrential rains. The disaster killed more than 100 people, left more than 8.5 million households without power, and damaged or destroyed more than 200,000 homes across the state. Immediately after the disaster, public policy support was provided in nine coastal counties that constituted 98% of the major and severely damaged housing units in NJ overall. The programs include Individuals and Households Assistance Program, Small Business Loan Program, National Flood Insurance Program, and the Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA) Public Assistance Grant Program. In the most severely affected counties, additional funding was provided through Community Development Block Grant: Reconstruction, Rehabilitation, Elevation, and Mitigation Program, and Homeowner Resettlement Program. How these policies individually and as a whole impacted housing recovery across communities with different socioeconomic and demographic profiles has not yet been studied, particularly in relation to damage levels. The concept of community social vulnerability has been widely used to explain many aspects of natural disasters. Nevertheless, how communities are vulnerable has been less fully examined. Community resilience has been conceptualized as a protective factor against negative impacts from disasters, however, how community resilience buffers the effects of vulnerability is not yet known. Because housing recovery is a dynamic social and economic process that varies according to context, this study examined the path from community vulnerability and resilience to housing recovery looking at both community characteristics and policy interventions. Sample/Methods: This retrospective longitudinal case study compared a literature-identified set of pre-disaster community characteristics, the effects of multiple public policy programs, and a set of time-variant community resilience indicators to changes in housing stock (operationally defined by percent of building permits to total occupied housing units/households) between 2010 and 2014, two years before and after Hurricane Sandy. The sample consisted of 51 municipalities in the nine counties in which between 4% and 58% of housing units suffered either major or severe damage. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to determine the path from vulnerability to the housing recovery, via multiple public programs, separately and as a whole, and via the community resilience indicators. The spatial analytical tool ArcGIS 10.2 was used to show the spatial relations between housing recovery patterns and community vulnerability and resilience. Findings: Holding damage levels constant, communities with higher proportions of Hispanic households had significantly lower levels of housing recovery while communities with households with an adult >age 65 had significantly higher levels of the housing recovery. The contrast was partly due to the different levels of total public support the two types of the community received. Further, while the public policy programs individually mediated the negative associations between African American and female-headed households and housing recovery, communities with larger proportions of African American, female-headed and Hispanic households were “vulnerable” to lower levels of housing recovery because they lacked sufficient public program support. Even so, higher employment rates and incomes buffered vulnerability to lower housing recovery. Because housing is the "wobbly pillar" of the welfare state, the housing needs of these particular groups should be more fully addressed by disaster policy.

Keywords: Public Policy, Community Resilience, community social vulnerability, hurricane

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17 An Economic Analysis of Bottled Drinking Water Industry in India

Authors: Swadhin Mondal

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While safe drinking water is an effective defense against the infection of water borne diseases, a large number of populations suffering from these diseases do not have access to safe drinking water due inadequacy of supply. Private entrepreneurs entered this sector and made bottled drinking water available by supplying various kinds of bottled water. In this study we found that the bottled drinking water industry has experienced a spectacular growth over the past two decades and it has a huge growth potential because of rising demand for safe drinking. High profit margin (217 %) is the main attraction to the entrepreneur to invest in this industry. Health awareness, lack of safe drinking water facilities, rising income, urbanization, migration and rising trend in tourism industries are the major influencing factors of demand for bottled drinking water (BDW). This industry also partially fulfills the demand for drinking water. More than 2 percent of household’s demands were met by this industry and many more households (additional 4 percent) coping with BDW during water crisis. Poor households spend around 4 percent of their total monthly household’s consumption expenditure on BDW which may have an adverse impact on household because households could have spent this for purchasing other goods. Like other developed counties, a large section of Indian households are shifting from their traditional sources of water to BDW. However, there are some concerns about the quality of BDW. Many cases, BDW contains chemical toxins at more than permissible level that can be harmful for health. Hence, there is an urgent need for appropriate intervention to regulate price, reduce potential harm and improve the quality of water provided by this industry.

Keywords: Development, Public Policy, Privatization, drinking water, public health public failure

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16 Public Procurement and Innovation: A Municipal Approach

Authors: M. Moso-Diez, J. L. Moragues-Oregi, K. Simon-Elorz

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Innovation procurement is designed to steer the development of solutions towards concrete public sector needs as a driver for innovation from the demand side (in public services as well as in market opportunities for companies), is horizontally emerging as a new policy instrument. In 2014 the new EU public procurement directives 2014/24/EC and 2014/25/EC reinforced the support for Public Procurement for Innovation, dedicating funding instruments that can be used across all areas supported by Horizon 2020, and targeting potential buyers of innovative solutions: groups of public procurers with similar needs. Under this programme, new policy adapters and networks emerge, aiming to embed innovation criteria into new procurement processes. As these initiatives are in process, research related to is scarce. We argue that Innovation Public Procurement can arise as an innovative policy instrument to public procurement in different policy domains, in spite of existing institutional and cultural barriers (legal guarantee versus innovation). The presentation combines insights from public procurement to supply management chain management in a sustainability and innovation policy arena, as a means of providing understanding of: (1) the circumstances that emerge; (2) the relationship between public and private actors; and (3) the emerging capacities in the definition of the agenda. The policy adopters are the contracting authorities that mainly are at municipal level where they interact with the supply management chain, interconnecting sustainability and climate measures with other policy priorities such as innovation and urban planning; and through the Competitive Dialogue procedure. We found that geography and territory affect both the level of municipal budget (due to municipal income per capita) and its institutional competencies (due to demographic reasons). In spite of the relevance of institutional determinants for public procurement, other factors play an important role such as human factors as well as both public policy and private intervention. The experience is a ‘city project’ (Bilbao) in the field of brownfield decontamination. Brownfield sites typically refer to abandoned or underused industrial and commercial properties—such as old process plants, mining sites, and landfills—that are available but contain low levels of environmental contaminants that may complicate reuse or redevelopment of the land. This article concludes that Innovation Public Procurement in sustainability and climate issues should be further developed both as a policy instrument and as a policy research line that could enable further relevant changes in public procurement as well as in climate innovation.

Keywords: Innovation, Public Policy, public procurement, city projects

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15 Access to Climate Change Information Through the Implementation of the Paris Agreement

Authors: Ana Cristina A. P. Carvalho, Solange Teles Da Silva

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In April, 174 countries signed the Paris Agreement, a multilateral agreement on climate change which deals with greenhouse gas emissions, mitigation, adaptation, finance, access to information, transparency, among other subjects related to the environment. Since then, Parties shall cooperate in taking measures, as appropriate, to enhance climate change education, training, public awareness, public participation and public access to information, recognizing the importance of these steps with respect to enhancing actions under this Agreement. This paper aims to analyze the consequences of this new rule in terms of the implementation of the Agreement, collecting data from Brazilian and Canadian legislations in order to identify if these countries have rules complying with the Treaty, the steps that have been already taken and if they could be used as examples for other countries. The analysis will take into consideration the different kinds of climate change information, means of transparency, reliability of the data and how to spread the information. The methodology comprehends a comparative legal research based on both the Paris Agreement and domestic laws of Brazil and Canada, as well as on doctrine and Court decisions. The findings can contribute to the implementation of the Paris Agreement through compliance with this Treaty at countries’ domestic and policy level.

Keywords: Public Policy, climate change information, domestic legislation, Paris Agreement

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14 Social Media and Political Mobilization in Nigeria: A Study in E-Participation

Authors: Peter Amobi Chiamogu

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Communication has subsisted as the basis for mass mobilization and political education through history with the media as a generic concept. Revolutions in ICTs have occasioned a limitless environment for the dissemination of information and ideas especially with the use of a seemingly pervasive access, penetration and use of the internet which has engendered a connected society. This study seeks to analyze the prospects and challenges for the adaptation of social media for free election and how this process can enhance public policy making, implementation and evaluation in a developing state.

Keywords: Social Media, Public Policy, E-Participation, political mobilization, electioneering

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13 Non-Cooperative Game Theory Approach for Ensuring Community Satisfaction on Public-Private Partnership Projects

Authors: Jason Salim, Zhouyang Lu

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Private sector involvement in Public Private Partnership (PPP) projects may raise public suspicion, as PPP is often mistaken as merely a partnership between private and government agencies without consideration for greater “public” (community). This public marginalization is crucial to be dealt with because undermining opinion of majority may cause problems such as protests and/ or low demand. Game theory approach applied in this paper shows that probability of public acceptance towards a project is affected by overall public’s perception on Private sectors’ possible profit accumulation from the project. On the contrary, goodwill of the government and private coalition alone is not enough to minimize the probability of public opposition towards a PPP project. Additionally, the threat of loss or damage raised from public opposition does not affect the profit-maximization behavior of Private sectors.

Keywords: Public Policy, Game theory, community satisfaction, PPP, non-cooperative

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12 The Public Policy of Energy Subsidies Reform in Egypt

Authors: Doaa Nounou

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This research examines the public policy energy subsidies reform efforts in Egypt since 2014. Egypt’s widely used energy subsidies have been controversial since they were first introduced, as they inadequately target the poorest part of the population. Also, their effect on economic development and democratic transition became very challenging in recent years. This research argues that although subsidy reform is a highly politicalized issue in democratizing countries, there are still a number of pragmatic public policies that can be applied to make the subsidy system function more efficiently and at the same time decrease inequality which could facilitate a more orderly and peaceful transition to democracy. Therefore, this research attempts to study the role of the executive branch in reforming the subsidy programmes to support the poor and bring about structural changes to achieve social justice and economic growth. This research also attempts to analyze the role of the military and civil society in reforming the subsidy system. Moreover, it attempts to discuss the role of the state media in social mobilization to rationalize consumption and its contribution to subsidies reform.

Keywords: Public Policy, Equality, Political Economy, Democratization, subsidies

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11 Mechanisms and Process of an Effective Public Policy Formulation in Islamic Economic System

Authors: Md Abu Saieed

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Crafting and implementing public policy is one of the indispensable works in any form of state and government. But the policy objectives, methods of formulation and tools of implementation might be different based on the ideological nature, historical legacy, structure and capacity of administration and management and other push and factors. Public policy in Islamic economic system needs to be based on the key guidelines of divine scriptures along with other sources of sharia’h. As a representative of Allah (SWT), the governor and other apparatus of the state will formulate and implement public policies which will enable to establish a true welfare state based on justice, equity and equality. The whole life of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and his policy in operating state of affairs in Madina is the practical guidelines for the policy actors and professionals in Islamic system of economics. Moreover, policy makers need to be more meticulous in formulating Islamic public policy which meets the needs and demands of contemporary worlds as well.

Keywords: Public Policy, Islam, Formulation, policy factors, Sharia’h

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10 Humanity in Public Policy: The Polemic of Death Penalty Policy in Indonesia

Authors: Alvian R. E. Purnomo, K. Noni Srijati, Hernawan Adi

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Government regulation is a result of agreement on the struggle of ideas, interests, and ideologies among elites in state institution. The polemic about death penalty policy in Indonesia is still becoming an interesting discussion and also a complex issue. There are pros/ cons of whether the policy is humane or not. Indonesia becomes the concern of the world’s community because the policy of death penalty applied is considered not reflecting the values of Indonesian culture including tolerance, mutual cooperation, and love. This paper examines them using literature study on how public policy theories respond to humanity issues and how Indonesian government should take steps to the issue of the death penalty that has become polemic until now.

Keywords: Public Policy, Humanity, Government Regulation, death penalty policy

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9 Reconstruction of Performace-Based Budgeting in Indonesian Local Government: Application of Soft Systems Methodology in Producing Guideline for Policy Implementation

Authors: Deddi Nordiawan

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Effective public policy creation required a strong budget system, both in terms of design and implementation. Performance-based Budget is an evolutionary approach with two substantial characteristics; first, the strong integration between budgeting and planning, and second, its existence as guidance so that all activities and expenditures refer to measurable performance targets. There are four processes in the government that should be followed in order to make the budget become performance-based. These four processes consist of the preparation of a vision according to the bold aspiration, the formulation of outcome, the determination of output based on the analysis of organizational resources, and the formulation of Value Creation Map that contains a series of programs and activities. This is consistent with the concept of logic model which revealed that the budget performance should be placed within a relational framework of resources, activities, outputs, outcomes and impacts. Through the issuance of Law 17/2003 regarding State Finance, local governments in Indonesia have to implement performance-based budget. Central Government then issued Government Regulation 58/2005 which contains the detail guidelines how to prepare local governments budget. After a decade, implementation of performance budgeting in local government is still not fully meet expectations, though the guidance is completed, socialization routinely performed, and trainings have also been carried out at all levels. Accordingly, this study views the practice of performance-based budget at local governments as a problematic situation. This condition must be approached with a system approach that allows the solutions from many point of views. Based on the fact that the infrastructure of budgeting has already settled, the study then considering the situation as complexity. Therefore, the intervention needs to be done in the area of human activity system. Using Soft Systems Methodology, this research will reconstruct the process of performance-based budget at local governments is area of human activity system. Through conceptual models, this study will invite all actors (central government, local government, and the parliament) for dialogue and formulate interventions in human activity systems that systematically desirable and culturally feasible. The result will direct central government in revise the guidance to local government budgeting process as well as a reference to build the capacity building strategy.

Keywords: Public Policy, Soft Systems Methodology, Indonesia, performance-based budgeting

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8 Impact and Implementation of Privatization of State-Owned Enterprise Sustainability in Indonesia

Authors: Afri Ananda Nugroho

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Privatization is one of the public policies closely related to the role of government in the economy due to the failure of the centralized system in the communist countries. This paper will discuss the basic issues of privatization as a global trend, the purpose of privatization, implementation, and impact on the success of State-Owned Enterprises (BUMN) in Indonesia. The analysis is done by looking at some important issues about the privatization problem, and some public policies are being applied such as why and how privatization is necessary and what impact it has. This paper also discusses the implications for top leaders of State-Owned Enterprises.

Keywords: Public Policy, Privatization, Indonesia, state-owned enterprises

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7 Household Knowledge, Attitude, and Determinants in Solid Waste Segregation: The Case of Sfax City

Authors: Younes Boujelbene, Leila Kharrat

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In recent decades, solid waste management (SWM) has become a global concern because rapid population growth and overexploitation of non-renewable resources have generated enormous amounts of waste far exceeding carrying capacity; too, it poses serious threats to the environment and health. However, it is still difficult to combat the growing amount of solid waste before assessing the condition of people. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes, perception, and practices on the separation of solid waste in Sfax City. Nowadays, GDS is essential for sustainable development, hence the need for intensive research. Respondents from seven different districts in the city of Sfax were analyzed through a questionnaire survey with 342 households. This paper presents a qualitative exploratory study on the behavior of the citizens in the field of waste separation. The objective knows the antecedents of waste separation and the representation that individuals have about sorting waste on a specific territory which presents some characteristics regarding waste management in Sfax city. Source separation is not widely practiced and people usually sweep their places throwing waste components into the streets or neighboring plots. The results also indicate that participation in solid waste separation activities depends on the level of awareness of separating activities in the area, household income and educational level. It is, therefore, argued that increasing quality of municipal service is the best means of promoting positive attitudes to solid waste separation activities. One of the effective strategies identified by households that can be initiated by policymakers to increase the rate of participation in separation activities and eventually encourage them to participate in recycling activities is to provide a financial incentive in all residential areas in Sfax city.

Keywords: Public Policy, Solid waste management, waste separation, econometric modelling

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6 The Impact of Globalization on the Development of Israel Advanced Changes

Authors: Erez Cohen

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The study examines the socioeconomic impact of development of an advanced industry in Israel. The research method is based on data collected from the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics and from the National Insurance Institute (NII) databases, which provided information that allows to examine the Economic and Social Changes during the 1990s. The study examined the socioeconomic effects of the development of advanced industry in Israel. The research findings indicate that as a result of globalization processes, the weight of traditional industry began to diminish as a result of factory closures and the laying off of workers. These circumstances led to growing unemployment among the weaker groups in Israeli society, detracting from their income and thus increasing inequality among different socioeconomic groups in Israel and enhancement of social disparities.

Keywords: Public Policy, Globalization, socio-economic indicators, Israeli advanced industry

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5 Big Data Analytics and Public Policy: A Study in Rural India

Authors: Vasantha Gouri Prathapagiri

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Innovations in ICT sector facilitate qualitative life style for citizens across the globe. Countries that facilitate usage of new techniques in ICT, i.e., big data analytics find it easier to fulfil the needs of their citizens. Big data is characterised by its volume, variety, and speed. Analytics involves its processing in a cost effective way in order to draw conclusion for their useful application. Big data also involves into the field of machine learning, artificial intelligence all leading to accuracy in data presentation useful for public policy making. Hence using data analytics in public policy making is a proper way to march towards all round development of any country. The data driven insights can help the government to take important strategic decisions with regard to socio-economic development of her country. Developed nations like UK and USA are already far ahead on the path of digitization with the support of Big Data analytics. India is a huge country and is currently on the path of massive digitization being realised through Digital India Mission. Internet connection per household is on the rise every year. This transforms into a massive data set that has the potential to improvise the public services delivery system into an effective service mechanism for Indian citizens. In fact, when compared to developed nations, this capacity is being underutilized in India. This is particularly true for administrative system in rural areas. The present paper focuses on the need for big data analytics adaptation in Indian rural administration and its contribution towards development of the country on a faster pace. Results of the research focussed on the need for increasing awareness and serious capacity building of the government personnel working for rural development with regard to big data analytics and its utility for development of the country. Multiple public policies are framed and implemented for rural development yet the results are not as effective as they should be. Big data has a major role to play in this context as can assist in improving both policy making and implementation aiming at all round development of the country.

Keywords: Public Policy, Digital India Mission, public service delivery system, Indian administration

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4 Scope of Public Policies in Promoting Resource-Recovery Sanitation Systems to Answer the Open Defecation Challenges of Indian Cities: Case of Ahmedabad

Authors: Isalyne Gennaro

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The lack of access to basic sanitation services and improper water infrastructure pollute the environment and expose people to water-borne diseases. In 2014, to address these concerns, the central government of India launched five-years urban development and sanitation programs. The national vision seemed to encourage the use of technologies which recycle and reuse wastewater for achieving open defecation free cities. As we approach 2019, it is time to reflect on these objectives. This research critically looked at the actual scope and limitations of policies and regulations to promote resource-recovery sanitation systems. This study was based on the case of the fast-growing city of Ahmedabad, Gujarat. The analysis examined the actions and priorities, financial and institutional arrangements and technologies promoted at the national, sub-national and local levels. The research work concluded that a paradigm shift is required, from providing infrastructures in a supply-driven manner to creating inclusive planning framework which focuses on local challenges and generates a demand-responsiveness from the potential users targeted.

Keywords: Public Policy, Urban Sanitation, India, resource-recovery

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3 Bridging the Gap between M and E, and KM: Towards the Integration of Evidence-Based Information and Policy Decision-Making

Authors: Xueqing Ivy Chen, Christo De Coning

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It is clear from practice that a gap exists between Result-Based Monitoring and Evaluation (RBME) as a discipline, and Knowledge Management (KM) on the other hand. Whereas various government departments have institutionalised these functions, KM and M&E has functioned in isolation from each other in a practical sense in the public sector. It’s therefore necessary to explore the relationship between KM and M&E and the necessity for integration, so that a convergence of these disciplines can be established. An integration of KM and M&E will lead to integration and improvement of evidence-based information and policy decision-making. M&E and KM process models are available but the complementarity between specific process steps of these process models are not exploited. A need exists to clarify the relationships between these functions in order to ensure evidence based information and policy decision-making. This paper will depart from the well-known policy process models, such as the generic model and consider recent on the interface between policy, M&E and KM.

Keywords: Information Systems, Knowledge Management, Public Policy, institutional arrangement, result-based monitoring and evaluation, RBME, evident based decision making

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2 Environmental Law and Payment for Environmental Services: Perceptions of the Family Farmers of the Federal District, Brazil

Authors: Kever Bruno Paradelo Gomes, Rosana Carvalho Cristo Martins

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Payment for Environmental Services (PSA) has been a strategy used since the late 1990s by Latin American countries to finance environmental conservation. Payment for Environmental Services has been absorbing a growing amount of time in the discussions around environmentally sustainable development strategies in the world. In Brazil, this theme has permeated the discussions since the publication of the new Forest Code. The objective of this work was to verify the perception of the resident farmers in the region of Ponte Alta, Gama, Federal District, Brazil, on environmental legislation and Payments for Environmental Services. The work was carried out in 99 rural properties of the family farmers of the Rural Nucleus Ponte Alta, Administrative Region of Gama, in the city of Brasília, Federal District, Brazil. The present research is characterized methodologically as a quantitative, exploratory, and descriptive nature. The data treatment was performed through descriptive statistical analysis and hypothesis testing. The perceptions about environmental legislation in the rural area of Ponte Alta, Gama, DF respondents were positive. Although most of the family farmers interviewed have some knowledge about environmental legislation, it is perceived that in practice, the environmental adequacy of property is ineffective given the current situation of sustainable rural development; there is an abyss between what is envisaged by legislation and reality in the field. Thus, as in the reports of other researchers, it is verified that the majority of respondents are not aware of PSA (62.62%). Among those interviewed who were aware of the subject, two learned through the course, three through the university, two through TV and five through other people. The planting of native forest species on the rural property was the most informed practice by farmers if they received some Environmental Service Payment (PSA). Reflections on the environment allow us to infer that the effectiveness and fulfillment of the incentives and rewards in the scope of public policies to encourage the maintenance of environmental services, already existing in all spheres of government, are of great relevance to the process of environmental sustainability of rural properties. The relevance of the present research is an important tool to promote the discussion and formulation of public policies focused on sustainable rural development, especially on payments for environmental services; it is a space of great interest for the strengthening of the social group dedicated to production. Public policies that are efficient and accessible to the small rural producers become decisive elements for the promotion of changes in behavior in the field, be it economic, social, or environmental.

Keywords: Public Policy, Sustainable Agriculture, Rural development, forest code

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1 Agent-Based Modeling to Simulate the Dynamics of Health Insurance Markets

Authors: Haripriya Chakraborty

Abstract:

The healthcare system in the United States is considered to be one of the most inefficient and expensive systems when compared to other developed countries. Consequently, there are persistent concerns regarding the overall functioning of this system. For instance, the large number of uninsured individuals and high premiums are pressing issues that are shown to have a negative effect on health outcomes with possible life-threatening consequences. The Affordable Care Act (ACA), which was signed into law in 2010, was aimed at improving some of these inefficiencies. This paper aims at providing a computational mechanism to examine some of these inefficiencies and the effects that policy proposals may have on reducing these inefficiencies. Agent-based modeling is an invaluable tool that provides a flexible framework to model complex systems. It can provide an important perspective into the nature of some interactions that occur and how the benefits of these interactions are allocated. In this paper, we propose a novel and versatile agent-based model with realistic assumptions to simulate the dynamics of a health insurance marketplace that contains a mixture of private and public insurers and individuals. We use this model to analyze the characteristics, motivations, payoffs, and strategies of these agents. In addition, we examine the effects of certain policies, including some of the provisions of the ACA, aimed at reducing the uninsured rate and the cost of premiums to move closer to a system that is more equitable and improves health outcomes for the general population. Our test results confirm the usefulness of our agent-based model in studying this complicated issue and suggest some implications for public policies aimed at healthcare reform.

Keywords: Public Policy, Agent-Based Modeling, healthcare reform, insurance markets

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