Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

psychosocial Related Abstracts

9 Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum: The Role of Neuropsychological Assessment with Implications to Psychosocial Rehabilitation

Authors: Ron Dick, P. S. D. V. Prasadarao, Glenn Coltman

Abstract:

Agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) is a failure to develop corpus callosum - the large bundle of fibers of the brain that connects the two cerebral hemispheres. It can occur as a partial or complete absence of the corpus callosum. In the general population, its estimated prevalence rate is 1 in 4000 and a wide range of genetic, infectious, vascular, and toxic causes have been attributed to this heterogeneous condition. The diagnosis of ACC is often achieved by neuroimaging procedures. Though persons with ACC can perform normally on intelligence tests they generally present with a range of neuropsychological and social deficits. The deficit profile is characterized by poor coordination of motor movements, slow reaction time, processing speed and, poor memory. Socially, they present with deficits in communication, language processing, the theory of mind, and interpersonal relationships. The present paper illustrates the role of neuropsychological assessment with implications to psychosocial management in a case of agenesis of the corpus callosum. Method: A 27-year old left handed Caucasian male with a history of ACC was self-referred for a neuropsychological assessment to assist him in his employment options. Parents noted significant difficulties with coordination and balance at an early age of 2-3 years and he was diagnosed with dyspraxia at the age of 14 years. History also indicated visual impairment, hypotonia, poor muscle coordination, and delayed development of motor milestones. MRI scan indicated agenesis of the corpus callosum with ventricular morphology, widely spaced parallel lateral ventricles and mild dilatation of the posterior horns; it also showed colpocephaly—a disproportionate enlargement of the occipital horns of the lateral ventricles which might be affecting his motor abilities and visual defects. The MRI scan ruled out other structural abnormalities or neonatal brain injury. At the time of assessment, the subject presented with such problems as poor coordination, slowed processing speed, poor organizational skills and time management, and difficulty with social cues and facial expressions. A comprehensive neuropsychological assessment was planned and conducted to assist in identifying the current neuropsychological profile to facilitate the formulation of a psychosocial and occupational rehabilitation programme. Results: General intellectual functioning was within the average range and his performance on memory-related tasks was adequate. Significant visuospatial and visuoconstructional deficits were evident across tests; constructional difficulties were seen in tasks such as copying a complex figure, building a tower and manipulating blocks. Poor visual scanning ability and visual motor speed were evident. Socially, the subject reported heightened social anxiety, difficulty in responding to cues in the social environment, and difficulty in developing intimate relationships. Conclusion: Persons with ACC are known to present with specific cognitive deficits and problems in social situations. Findings from the current neuropsychological assessment indicated significant visuospatial difficulties, poor visual scanning and problems in social interactions. His general intellectual functioning was within the average range. Based on the findings from the comprehensive neuropsychological assessment, a structured psychosocial rehabilitation programme was developed and recommended.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, Neuropsychology, psychosocial, corpus, agenesis, callosum

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8 The World of Fireworks Factory Working Children in Bocaue, Bulacan

Authors: Agnes Crisostomo, Alvin Joseph Mapoy

Abstract:

This is a qualitative study which focuses on ten (10) children, with a mean age of 13.6, working in fireworks factories in Bocaue, Bulacan. The municipality of Bocaue was chosen since it is the center of trade for fireworks, and child laborers can easily penetrate in factories here. The researcher wanted to know what the possible negative effects are caused by working at an early age of a child in the physical, psychosocial, intellectual and emotional aspects of life. Results showed that social status of their parents and their lack of income forced the children to work for their family. Second, the child laborers still allot time for studying. They still do not give up in pursuing education even if they experience fatigue and illness which affect their physical development. Third, working has a great influence to the child’s life. Fourth, through socializing with others, they become more aware of life’s hardships. Usually, their co-workers are also their family members and friends; this is how they know the social status is their place, that due to poverty even the children should work for a living. Fifth, these child laborers are still hoping for a better future. Despite of their poor situation, they are still hoping that they can turn it upside down through education, perseverance and determination.

Keywords: psychosocial, Emotional, intellectual, Child labor

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7 Psychosocial Effect of Body-Contouring Surgery on Patients after Weight Loss

Authors: Abdullah Kattan, Khalid Alzahrani, Saud Alsaleh, Loui Ezzat, Khalid Murad, Bader Alghamdi

Abstract:

Background and Significance: Patients are often bothered by the excess skin laxity and redundancy that they are left with after losing weight. Body-contouring surgery offers a solution to this problem; however, there is scarce literature on the psychological and social effects of these surgeries. This study was conducted to assess the psychosocial impact of body-contouring surgery on patients after weight loss. Methodology: In this cross-sectional study, a specifically designed questionnaire was administered to forty three patients whom have undergone body-contouring surgery. All included patients had lost no less than 20 Kg before body-contouring surgery, and were interviewed at least 6 months after surgery. The twenty-question interviewer based questionnaire was used to assess the psychosocial status of the patients before and after undergoing body-contouring surgery. The questionnaire assessed the quality of life (social life, job performance and sexual activity), presence of symptoms of depression and overall satisfaction. Data was analyzed as paired variables in SPSS using McNemar’s test. Results: Among the 43 participants, 19 (44.2%) have undergone mammoplasty, 12 (27.9%) have undergone abdominoplasty and the remainder of the patients have undergone other various procedures including brachioplasty, thigh lifts and nick liposuction. The mean age of patients was 34 +/- 10, the sample included 24 (55.8%) females and 19 (44.2%) males. The patients’ quality of life significantly improved in the following areas; social life (P<0.001), job performance (P<0.002) and sexual activity (P<0.001). Moreover, 17 (39.5%) patients suffered symptoms of depression before body-contouring surgery; however, only 1 (2.3%) patient suffered symptoms of depression after surgery. Overall satisfaction rate was found to be 62.8%; with mammoplasty being the highest satisfaction rate procedure (66.6 %). Conclusion: Body-contouring surgery after weight loss has shown to improve the psychological and social aspects in patients. These findings have been found to be consistent with the majority of relevant published studies, further increasing reliability of our study.

Keywords: psychosocial, Abdominoplasty, body-contouring, mammoplasty

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6 Indigenizing Social Work Practice: Best Practice of Family Service Agency (LK3) State Islamic University (UIN) Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta

Authors: Siti Napsiyah, Ismet Firdaus, Lisma Dyawati Fuaida, Ellies Sukmawati

Abstract:

This paper examines the existence, role, and challenge of Family Service Agency, in Bahasa Indonesia known as Lembaga Konsultasi Kesejahteraan Keluarga (LK3) of Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University (UIN) Jakarta. It has been established since 2012. It is an official agency under the Ministry of Social Affairs of Indonesia. The establishment of LK3 aims to provide psychosocial services for families of students who has psychosocial problem in their life. The study also aims to explore the trend of psychosocial problems of its client (student) for the past three years (2014-2016). The research method of the study is using a qualitative social work research method. A review of selected data of the client of LK3 UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta around five main issues: Family background, psychosocial mapping, potential resources, student coping mechanism strategy, client strength and network. The study also uses a review of academic performance report as well as an interview and observation. The findings show that the trend of psychosocial problems of the client of LK3 UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta vary as follow: bad academic performance, low income family, broken home, domestic violence, disability, mental disorder, sexual abuse, and the like. LK3 UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta has significant roles to provide psychosocial support and services for the survival of the students to deal with their psychosocial problems. Social worker of LK3 performs indigenous social work practice: individual counseling, family counseling, group therapy, home visit, case conference, Islamic Spiritual Approach, and Spiritual Emotional Freedom Technique (SEPT).

Keywords: Resiliency, psychosocial, coping mechanism, indigenizing social work

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5 Mental Health and Psychosocial Needs of Palestine Refugees in Lebanon and Syria

Authors: Cosette Maiky

Abstract:

Background: In the context of the Syrian crisis, the past few years have witnessed an exponential growth in the number of refugee mental health studies, which have essentially focused either on the affected Syrian population and/or host communities. However, the Palestinian communities in the region did not receive sufficient that much of attention. Aim: The study aimed at identifying trends and patterns of mental health and and psychosocial conditions among Palestinian refugees in the context of the Syrian crisis, including the recognition of gaps in appropriate services. Methods: The research model comprised a systematic documentary review, a mapping of available contextual analyses, a quantitative survey, focus group discussions as well as key informant interviews (with relevant stakeholders and beneficiaries). Findings: Content analysis revealed multiple effects of transgenerational transmission of trauma among Palestinian refugees in the context of the Syrian crisis, which showed to be neither linear nor one-dimensional occurrence. In addition to highlights on exposure to traumatic events and psychological sequelae, the review outlines the most prevailing coping mechanisms and essential protective factors. Conclusion: Away from a trauma-centered or symptom-focused exercise, practitioners may take account of the present study to better focus research and intervention methodologies.

Keywords: Mental Health, psychosocial, Palestine refugees, Syria crisis

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4 Conceptualizing Psycho-Social Intervention with Juvenile Offenders as Attachment Therapy: A Practical Approach

Authors: Genziana Lay

Abstract:

A wide majority of older children and adolescents who enter the juvenile court system present with an array of problematic symptoms and behaviors including anxiety, depression, aggressive acting out, detachment, and substance abuse. Attachment theory offers a framework for understanding normative and pathological functioning, which during development is influenced by emotional, social and cognitive elements. There is clear evidence that children and adolescents with the highest risk of developing adaptation problems present an insecure attachment profile. Most offending minors have experienced dysfunctional family relationships as well as social and/or economic deprivation. Their maladaptive attachment develops not only through their relationship with caregivers but with the environment at large. Activation of their faulty attachment system leads them to feel emotionally overwhelmed and engage in destructive behaviors and decision-making. A psycho-social intervention with this population conceptualized as attachment therapy is a multi-faceted, practical approach that has shown excellent results in terms of increased psychological well-being and drastically reduced rates of re-offense/ destructive behavior. Through several; components including psychotherapy, monitoring, volunteering, meditation and socialization, the program focuses on seven dimensions: self-efficacy, responsibility, empathy/reparation, autonomy/security, containment/structure, insight building, and relational health. This paper presents the program and illustrates how the framework of attachment theory practically applied to psycho-social intervention has great therapeutic and social reparation potential. Preliminary evidence drawn from the Sassari Juvenile Court is very promising; this paper will illustrate these results and propose an even more comprehensive, applicable approach to psycho-social reparative intervention that leads to greater psychological health and reduced recidivism in the child and adolescent population.

Keywords: Crime, Child, Adolescent, psychosocial, attachment, juvenile

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3 The Relevance of Psychology in South Africa: A Content Analysis of Psychology Masters Theses from 1998 to 2017

Authors: Elron Fouten

Abstract:

Recently, debates surrounding the social relevance of psychology in South Africa have focussed on how the growing neoliberal rationality within academia has again resulted in the discipline catering to the needs of powerful social groupings to protect its own economic interests, rather than producing socially relevant knowledge. Consequently, this study aimed to conduct a content analysis of the recent research output of psychology masters students, to establish whether it has produced research that addresses local and national psychosocial issues and as such deemed socially relevant knowledge. The study sampled clinical, counselling, and research psychology masters theses from 16 South African universities submitted between 1998 and 2017. Overall, 2001 theses were sampled, which were analysed using qualitative content analysis predominantly based on the descriptive categories identified in similar studies using published journal articles. Results indicated that empirical qualitative theses, using systems-oriented theory and post-modern frameworks were most prevalent. Further, traditional topics within psychology had relatively more weighting compared to more social topics. Although a significant number of theses recruited participants from working-class or poor backgrounds, there was an overreliance on participants from urban areas located in some of the country’s wealthiest provinces. Despite a strong adult-centric focus, trends regarding participants’ race and gender roughly resembled current population demographics. Overall, the results indicate that psychology in South Africa, at least at university-level, is to some extent trying to engage with national psychosocial concerns. However, there are still several key areas which need to be addressed to ensure the continued social relevance of the discipline.

Keywords: Content Analysis, psychosocial, relevance, adult-centric

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2 Critical Psychosocial Risk Treatment for Engineers and Technicians

Authors: R. Berglund, T. Backström, M. Bellgran

Abstract:

This study explores how management addresses psychosocial risks in seven teams of engineers and technicians in the midst of the fourth industrial revolution. The sample is from an ongoing quasi-experiment about psychosocial risk management in a manufacturing company in Sweden. Each of the seven teams belongs to one of two clusters: a positive cluster or a negative cluster. The positive cluster reports a significantly positive change in psychosocial risk levels between two time-points and the negative cluster reports a significantly negative change. The data are collected using semi-structured interviews. The results of the computer aided thematic analysis show that there are more differences than similarities when comparing the risk treatment actions taken between the two clusters. Findings show that the managers in the positive cluster use more enabling actions that foster and support formal and informal relationship building. In contrast, managers that use less enabling actions hinder the development of positive group processes and contribute negative changes in psychosocial risk levels. This exploratory study sheds some light on how management can influence significant positive and negative changes in psychosocial risk levels during a risk management process.

Keywords: Risk management, psychosocial, group process model, risk treatment

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1 Effect of Media on Psycho-Social Interaction among the Children with Their Parents of Urban People in Dhaka

Authors: Nazma Sultana

Abstract:

Social media has become an important part of our daily life. It has a significance influences on the people who use them in their daily life frequently. The number of people using social network sites has been increasing continuously. For this frequent utilization has started to affect our social life. This study examine whether the use of social network sites affects the psychosocial interaction between children and their parents. At first parents introduce their children to the internet and different type of device in their early childhood. Many parents use device for feeding their children by watching rhyme or cartoon. As a result children are habituate with it. In Bangladesh 70% people are heavy internet users. About 23 percent of them spend more than five hours on the social networking sites a day. Media are increasing pervasive in the lives of children-roughly the average child today spends nearly about 45 hours per week with media, compared with 17 hours with parents and 30 hours in school. According to a social learning theory, children & adolescents learn by observing & imitating what they see on screen particularly when these behaviors are realistic or are rewarded. The influence of the media on the psychosocial development of children is profound. Thus it is important for parents to provide guidance on age-appropriate use of all media, including television, radio, music, video games and the internet.

Keywords: Social Media, Adolescents, Technology, psychosocial, Youth, Social Relationship, Parent, teenage

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