Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 40

Psychology Related Abstracts

40 Psychology of Terrorism: Psychology of War

Authors: Saeed Wahass

Abstract:

Terrorism is a universal phenomenon. It is an enemy to the world and humanity, representing the most essential challenges facing developing and developed societies of the world. Terrorism is traumatically a major cause for death and disability. Developing societies are catastrophically suffering more in comparing to developed ones. Importantly, the terrorism may have been emigrated from developing societies; therefore, it cannot be appropriately explained/understood elsewhere. Developing societies have attempts for solutions. These attempts may have contributed somehow to either overcoming temporally terrorism or at least waterless its fountains. It appears these attempts are fallen on personal experiences/local endeavours related to the nature of those societies and cultures. The missing issue is the involvement of the applications of psychological theories for understanding terrorism as a phenomenon. However, terrorism is behaviour, like other behaviours, it can be explained, analysed and predicted while psychology is involved as the science of behaviour and mental process. Later than, solutions whatever they are (intervention/prevention) have to be born from the womb of psychological theories explaining/understanding terrorism. This paper is an endeavour to shed light on psychological theories which may present an explanation for terrorism, as a behavioural phenomenon, looking for the effective evidence-based interventions/prevention. An emphasis will be on the experiences of developing countries which may have made/incubated terrorism.

Keywords: Psychology, Terrorism, Humanity, developing societies

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39 The Effects of Fearing Cancer in Women

Authors: E. Kotrotsiou, A. S. Topsioti, S. Mantzoukas, E. Dragioti, M. Gouva

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Introduction: The literature has demonstrated that individual and psychological factors have a direct effect on the perceptions and attitudes of women with cancer. Objectives: To investigate the relationship between the fear of cancer and anxiety. Aim: To examine the impact of the fear of cancer in women with state and trait anxiety of women. Methods: A community sample of 286 women (mean age 39.6 years, SD = 9.5 ranged 20-60) participated in the current study. The women completed a) State - Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and b) questionnaire concerning socio-demographic information and questions for fear of cancer. Results: The perception of fear in women with cancer is statistically independent from their age (t–test, p = 0.58), their family status (χ2, p = 0.519), their place of residency (χ2, p = 0.148), the manifestation of gynecological cancer (χ2, p = 0.979) or the manifestation of any type of cancer in the family (χ2, p = 0.277). In contrast, it was observed that there was a dependence in relation to a total of phobias (χ2, p = 0.003), the fear of illness (χ2, p< 0.001) and the fear of heights (χ2, p = 0.004). Furthermore, the participants that responded that they feared cancer displayed greater level of stress both as situation (t=-3.462; p=0.001) and as a trait of their personality (t=-4.377; p<0.001), and at the same time they displayed greater levels of depression in comparisons with the other participants. Furthermore, following multiple linear regression analysis it was observed that the participants that responded positively to the question if they feared cancer had 8, 3 units greater stress level as a personality trait in comparison to women that responded negatively to the question if they feared cancer (B=8.3; p=0.016; R2=0.506). Conclusion: Women’s fear of cancer is statistically independent from their age, family status, place of residency, the manifestation of gynaecological cancer and with the manifestation of cancer any type in the family. In contrast, there is a dependency with the total of phobias, fear of illness and fear of heights. Women that state that they have a fear of cancer manifest greater levels of stress from the rest of the participants both as situation and as a trait of their personality (p = 0.001 and p< 0.001 accordingly). In specific, the study demonstrated that the participants that positively to the question if they feared cancer had 8,3 units greater stress level as a personality trait in comparison to women that responded negatively.

Keywords: Psychology, Cancer, Anxiety, Women Health, fear

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38 The Concept of Community Participation and Identified Tertiary Education Problems, Strategies and Methods

Authors: Ada Adoga James

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This paper discussed the concept of community participation and identified tertiary education problems; strategies and methods communities could be involved to reduce conflict witnessed in our tertiary institutions of learning due to government inability to fund education. The paper pointed out that community participation through the use of Parent Teachers Association (PTA), age grade, traditional leaders, village based associations, religious and political organs could be sensitized to raise financial resources. The paper identified different sources of conflicts, the outcome of which causes prolonged academic activities, destruction of lives and properties and in some cased render school environment completely insecure for serious academic activities. It recommends involvement of community participation in assisting government, proper handling of tertiary institutions in management, and more democratic procedure in conflict resolution like cordial relationship between staff, students and trade unions in decision making process.

Keywords: Psychology, Psychiatry, Community, Conflict Resolution, tertiary education

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37 Psycho-Social Issues: Drug Use and Abuse as a Social Problem among Secondary School Youths in Urban Centres of Benue State, Nigeria

Authors: Ode Kenneth Ogbu

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This study was designed as a survey to investigate the incidence of use and abuse of drug as a social problem among the Nigeria youths in the secondary schools in urban centres of Benue state. 500 SS 3 and fresh secondary school graduates in remedial science class of Benue State University Makurdi with mean age of 16.8 were randomly sampled for the study. An instrument called drug use and abuse perception questionnaire (DAPQ) with a reliability coefficient of 74 were administered to the students. Only 337 copies of the questionnaire were properly completed and returned which reduced the sample size of 337. The data were subjected to factor analysis. X2 statistic and frequency distribution using split half method. The result of the analysis showed that: the DAPQ yield seven baseline factors responsible for drug use and abuse; there was appreciable evidence that the study subjects used drugs (42.1%); alcohol topped the list of the drugs consumed; most students use their pocket money to buy drugs; drugs were purchased from unconventional, hidden places and 13 out of the 20 items of DAPQ were perceived as significant factors in drug use and abuse. The paper recommends proper intervention of government, parents and NGO’S among students to reduce cases of drug abuse.

Keywords: Psychology, Psychiatry, Drug abuse, students

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36 Coping Mechanisms of Batangueño Families Facing Cancer

Authors: Aiza G. Clanor, Lotlot B. Hernandez, Jonna Marie T. Ibuna

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This study aimed to know the coping mechanisms of Batangueño families facing cancer, specifically, those from Cancer Warriors Foundation, Inc. Batangas chapter. The researchers used purposive sampling. This study was limited to the responses provided by the Batangueño families of the cancer patients. A family member of the immediate family with a child facing cancer represents the family as a whole. A total number of forty six (46) respondents were given the questionnaires. Upon analysis, most of the respondents came from rural areas and nuclear family and have Php 5000 and below family monthly income. Most of them have their own houses, and 3 to 5 members, one of whom is a cancer patient diagnosed for more than 2 years. The two most frequently utilized coping strategies were mobilizing the family to acquire and accept help, and reframing. Passive appraisal is the least utilized one. There was a significant difference on the coping mechanisms of the family relative to passive appraisal based on the length of time since the illness was first diagnosed. Based from the study, the researchers developed modules with discussions and activities on cancer awareness, ideas on coping and how to deal with the cancer patients that may help the respondents and other Batangueño families overcome the difficulties in facing cancer. The researchers recommend the modules for they are found to be effective ways to help the families relieve stress, reduce anxiety and improve quality of life.

Keywords: Psychology, Cancer, Family, coping with chronic illness

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35 Understanding Mental Constructs of Language and Emotion

Authors: Sakshi Ghai

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The word ‘emotion’ has been microscopically studied through psychological, anthropological and biological lenses and have indubitably been one of the most researched concepts as, in all situations and reactions that constitute human life, emotions form the very niche of our mutual existence. While understanding the social aspects of cognition, one can realize that emotions are deeply interwoven with language and thereby are pivotal in inducing human actions and behavior. The society or the outward social structure is the result of the inward psychological structure of our human relationships, for the individual is the result of the total experience, knowledge and conduct of man. The aim of this paper is threefold: first, to establish the relation between mental representations of emotions and its neuropsychological connection with language on a conscious and sub-conscious level; secondly, to describe how innate, basic and higher cognitive emotions affect the constantly changing state of an agent and peruse its assistance in determining the moral compass within all beings. Lastly, in the course of this paper, the concept of the architecture of mind is explored considering how it has developed an ability to display adaptive emotional states and responses, which are in sync with the language of thought. For every response to the social environment is so deeply determined by the very social milieu in which one is situated, language has a fundamental role in constructing emotions and articulating behavior. Being linguistic beings, we tend to associate emotion, feelings and other aspects of inwards mental states intrinsically with the language we use. This paper aims to devise a discursive approach to understand how emotions are fabricated, intertwined with the mental constructs further expressed and communicated through the various units of language.

Keywords: Psychology, Language, emotion, mental representation

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34 The Impact of School Environment and Peer Relation on Anti-Social Behaviour of Students in Science Secondary Schools in Katsina State

Authors: Umar Mamman

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The study investigated the impact of school environment and peer relations on antisocial behaviour of the students of science secondary schools in Katsina State. The study sought to achieve the following objectives: to determine whether school influences antisocial behaviour among science secondary school students, and to determine whether peer relation influences anti-social behaviour among science secondary school students. The study population composed of all the students in science secondary schools in Katsina State. The study used a sample of 378 students and 18 teachers randomly selected from eleven science secondary schools in Katsina state. Three instruments were used to collect data for the study, thus: socio-economic status background questionnaire, antisocial process screening device (APSD), and inventory of parent and peer relationship questionnaire. The study findings revealed that school environment has significant effect on antisocial behaviour of the students in science secondary school (F (7, 372) = 52.08, p ≤ .01), and there is a significant effect of peer relation on antisocial behaviour of the students in science secondary school (F (7, 372) = 14.229, p ≤ .01). Based on these findings the following major recommendations were made: School environment should be made attractive and conducive for learning and character development. Teachers, as role model, should desist from indecent acts. School environment should be made learner-centered and friendly. Functional guidance and counselling outfits need to be provided in all secondary schools in Katsina state.

Keywords: Psychology, school environment, peer relation, anti-social behaviour

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33 Teaching Speaking Skills to Adult English Language Learners through ALM

Authors: Wichuda Kunnu, Aungkana Sukwises

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Audio-lingual method (ALM) is a teaching approach that is claimed that ineffective for teaching second/foreign languages. Because some linguists and second/foreign language teachers believe that ALM is a rote learning style. However, this study is done on a belief that ALM will be able to solve Thais’ English speaking problem. This paper aims to report the findings on teaching English speaking to adult learners with an “adapted ALM”, one distinction of which is to use Thai as the medium language of instruction. The participants are consisted of 9 adult learners. They were allowed to speak English more freely using both the materials presented in the class and their background knowledge of English. At the end of the course, they spoke English more fluently, more confidently, to the extent that they applied what they learnt both in and outside the class.

Keywords: Cognitive Science, Psychology, teaching English, audio lingual method

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32 Mediation Models in Triadic Relationships: Illness Narratives and Medical Education

Authors: Yoko Yamada, Chizumi Yamada

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Narrative psychology is based on the dialogical relationship between self and other. The dialogue can consist of divided, competitive, or opposite communication between self and other. We constructed models of coexistent dialogue in which self and other were positioned side by side and communicated sympathetically. We propose new mediation models for narrative relationships. The mediation models are based on triadic relationships that incorporate a medium or a mediator along with self and other. We constructed three types of mediation model. In the first type, called the “Joint Attention Model”, self and other are positioned side by side and share attention with the medium. In the second type, the “Triangle Model”, an agent mediates between self and other. In the third type, the “Caring Model”, a caregiver stands beside the communication between self and other. We apply the three models to the illness narratives of medical professionals and patients. As these groups have different views and experiences of disease or illness, triadic mediation facilitates the ability to see things from the other person’s perspective and to bridge differences in people’s experiences and feelings. These models would be useful for medical education in various situations, such as in considering the relationships between senior and junior doctors and between old and young patients.

Keywords: Psychology, Mediation, Medical Education, model, illness narrative

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31 The Embodied World — A Redefinition of "Emptiness" in Heart Sutra from the Perspective of Cognitive Science

Authors: Ke Ma

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Through the long course of history, Buddhism has captivated generations of brilliant minds with its enlightening but elusive discernment. Far from religious dogmas, Buddhism not only represents spiritual revelation, but also logical reasoning.Among all of Buddhism’s concepts, emptiness is the most famous, and abstruse one. This word resulted from an inaccurate translation confuses both Buddhists and religious scholars who understand Heart Sutra based on its English version. In this essay, the idea of “emptiness” will be reinterpreted as “information,” leading not only to a clarification of the ideology of Buddhism, but also to greater correspondence between Buddhism concepts and cognitive science.

Keywords: Cognitive Science, Psychology, Religion, Buddhism

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30 The Psychological Impact of Acute Occupational Hand Trauma

Authors: Michelle Roesler, Ian Glendon, Francis O'Callaghan

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This study expands on recent findings and offers a new perspective on recovery from injury and return to work (RTW) after an acute traumatic occupational hand injury. Recovery is a complex medical and psychosocial process. A number of predictor variables were studied simultaneously to identify the bio-psychosocial variables that impede recovery. An unexpected phenomenon to emerge from this study was the high incidence of complications within the hand-injured patient sample. Twenty six percent (n = 71) of the total sample (N = 263) required a second operation due to complications. This warranted further investigation. Results confirmed that complications not only significantly delayed the RTW outcome but also had a profound psychological impact on the individuals affected. Research has found that surgical complications are usually the result of incorrect early assessment and management. A strategic plan needs to be implemented to ensure the optimal level of surgical care is provided for managing acute traumatic hand injuries to avoid such complications.

Keywords: Psychology, occupational hand trauma, psychological recovery, return to work

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29 Anxiety Factors in the Saudi EFL Learners

Authors: Fariha Asif

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The Saudi EFL learners face a number of problems in EFL learning, anxiety is the most potent one among those. It means that its resolution can lead to better language skills in Saudi students. That’s why, the study is carried out and is considered to be of interest to the Saudi language learners, educators and the policy makers because of the potentially negative impact that anxiety has on English language learning. The purpose of the study is to explore the factors that cause language anxiety in the Saudi EFL learners while learning speaking skills and the influence it casts on communication in the target language. The investigation of the anxiety-producing factors that arise while learning to communicate in the target language will hopefully broaden the insight into the issue of language anxiety and will help language teachers in making the classroom environment less stressful. The study seeks to answer the questions such as what are the psycholinguistic factors that cause language anxiety among ESL/EFL learners in learning and speaking English Language, especially in the context of the Saudi students. What are the socio-cultural factors that cause language anxiety among Saudi EFL learners in learning and speaking English Language? How is anxiety manifested in the language learning of the Saudi EFL learners? And which strategies can be used to successfully cope with language anxiety? The scope of the study is limited to the college and university English Teachers and subject specialists (males and females) in public sectors colleges and universities in Saudi Arabia. Some of the key findings of the study are:, Anxiety plays an important role in English as foreign language learning for the Saudi EFL learners. Some teachers believe that anxiety bears negatives effects for the learners, while some others think that anxiety serves a positive outcome for the learners by giving them an extra bit of motivation to do their best in English language learning. Language teachers seem to have consensus that L1 interference is one of the major factors that cause anxiety among the Saudi EFL learners. Most of the Saudi EFL learners are found to have fear of making mistakes. They don’t take initiative and opt to keep quiet and don’t respond fearing that they would make mistakes and this would ruin their image in front of their peers. Discouraging classroom environment is also counted as one of the major anxiety causing factors. The teachers, who don’t encourage learners positively, make them anxious and they start avoiding class participation. It is also found that English language teachers have their important role to minimize the negative effects of anxiety in the classes. The teachers’ positive encouragement can do wonders in this regard. A positive, motivating and encouraging class environment is essential to produce desired results in English language learning for the Saudi EFL learners.

Keywords: Psychology, speaking, factors, EFL

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28 Utilising Sociodrama as Classroom Intervention to Develop Sensory Integration in Adolescents who Present with Mild Impaired Learning

Authors: Talita Veldsman, Elzette Fritz

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Many children attending special education present with sensory integration difficulties that hamper their learning and behaviour. These learners can benefit from therapeutic interventions as part of their classroom curriculum that can address sensory development and allow for holistic development to take place. A research study was conducted by utilizing socio-drama as a therapeutic intervention in the classroom in order to develop sensory integration skills. The use of socio-drama as therapeutic intervention proved to be a successful multi-disciplinary approach where education and psychology could build a bridge of growth and integration. The paper describes how socio-drama was used in the classroom and how these sessions were designed. The research followed a qualitative approach and involved six Afrikaans-speaking children attending special secondary school in the age group 12-14 years. Data collection included observations during the session, reflective art journals, semi-structured interviews with the teacher and informal interviews with the adolescents. The analysis found improved self-confidence, better social relationships, sensory awareness and self-regulation in the participants after a period of a year.

Keywords: Education, Psychology, Sensory Integration, sociodrama, classroom intervention

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27 Reemergence of Behaviorism in Language Teaching

Authors: Hamid Gholami

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During the years, the language teaching methods have been the offshoots of schools of thought in psychology. The methods were mainly influenced by their contemporary psychological approaches, as Audiolingualism was based on behaviorism and Communicative Language Teaching on constructivism. In 1950s, the text books were full of repetition exercises which were encouraged by Behaviorism. In 1980s they got filled with communicative exercises as suggested by constructivism. The trend went on to nowadays that sees no specific method as prevalent since none of the schools of thought seem to be illustrative of the complexity in human being learning. But some changes can be notable; some textbooks are giving more and more space to repetition exercises at least to enhance some aspects of language proficiency, namely collocations, rhythm and intonation, and conversation models. These changes may mark the reemergence of one of the once widely accepted schools of thought in psychology; behaviorism.

Keywords: Psychology, behaviorism, Schools of thought, language teaching methods

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26 Experiencing Negative Thoughts? Write It, Crumple It and Throw It

Authors: Yasmin Othman Mydin

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When one experiences problems, this may lead to negative thoughts. These thoughts may occur repetitively. The present study investigates the effectiveness of cognitive and behavioural techniques to reduce negative thoughts. 20 undergraduate university students participated as the sample in these experimental therapy sessions. Ten students received the intervention while the other ten students were in control group. 15 items Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire was administered before and after the intervention to test the effectiveness of the techniques. The behavioural techniques applied were such as, write down the negative thoughts, crumple it and throw it away. While the cognitive technique was to imagine that the thoughts are being taken out of the mind while throwing it away. Paired samples t-test analysis revealed that there were significant reductions (t=4.245,df=9, p .003) in the negative thoughts in the group that received the intervention compared to the control group. This indicates that these techniques are effective to reduce the repetitive negative thoughts.

Keywords: Psychology, Writing, behaviour and cognitive intervention, negative thoughts

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25 A Study of Human Communication in an Internet Community

Authors: Andrew Laghos

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The Internet is a big part of our everyday lives. People can now access the internet from a variety of places including home, college, and work. Many airports, hotels, restaurants and cafeterias, provide free wireless internet to their visitors. Using technologies like computers, tablets, and mobile phones, we spend a lot of our time online getting entertained, getting informed, and communicating with each other. This study deals with the latter part, namely, human communication through the Internet. People can communicate with each other using social media, social network sites (SNS), e-mail, messengers, chatrooms, and so on. By connecting with each other they form virtual communities. Regarding SNS, types of connections that can be studied include friendships and cliques. Analyzing these connections is important to help us understand online user behavior. The method of Social Network Analysis (SNA) was used on a case study, and results revealed the existence of some useful patterns of interactivity between the participants. The study ends with implications of the results and ideas for future research.

Keywords: Psychology, Human Communication, internet communities, online user behavior

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24 The Impact of Collective Punishment on Cadets’ Psychology

Authors: Ersegün Ömer Erol

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Since the first civilizations, armies have been the most significant part of the countries. As generally known, in today’s world, people are trying hard to find the best way to educate their armies so as to prepare them effectively for the war. Due to the fact that, as rarely known, collective punishment is in fact one of the methods used commonly in militaries in order to educate personnel and cadets. In this study, it is purposed to find out the constructive and unfavorable impacts of collective punishment on cadets’ psychology and by comparing these impacts to decide whether the collective punishment is functional or not. These impacts are obtained from the questionnaire applied on cadets and personnel. The main goal of the study is to provide new point of views and more scientific information about the discussed education way-the collective punishment.

Keywords: Psychology, army, cadet, collective punishment

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23 A Possible Determinant of Musical Preference in Big Five Personality Traits

Authors: Peter S. Kim

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The increasing availability of music facilitated by new technology and open sourcing has eliminated many traditional limiting factors in musical taste, creating a culture of choice. This study tested 191 international subjects, mostly young adults more decisively shaped by emerging technologies like Facebook, the platform for the study. Using an aggregated Big Five personality test, subjects were asked to self-report on questions related to extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness. Subsequently, subjects listened to five pairs of musical works reflecting opposite extremes of one of five musical qualities: tempo (fast/slow), complexity (simple/complex), degree of dissonance (tonal/atonal), familiarity (familiar/unfamiliar), and extra-musical significance (significant/not significant). Subjects were then asked to record listening times and preferences among the selections. Strikingly, this study shows a relatively high positive correlation between agreeableness and musical preferences (predicting preferences for simple, familiar, and fast music), as compared to extraversion, openness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism. Thus, this research suggests that the not yet well-understood relationship between personality traits and musical qualities merits further study.

Keywords: Cognition, Psychology, Music Perception, Musical preference

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22 Analysis of a Movie about Juvenile Delinquency

Authors: Guliz Kolburan

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Juvenile delinquency studies has a special place and importance in criminality researches. Young adolescents, have not reached psychological, mental and physical maturity, and they cannot understand their roles and duties in society. In this case, if such an adolescent turns into a crime machine as a gang leader, he has the least responsibility of this result. All institutions, like family, school, community and the state as a whole have duties and responsibilities in this regard. While planning the studies about prevention of juvenile delinquency, all institutions related with the development of the children, should be involved in the center of the study. So that effective goals for prevention studies can be determined only in this way. Most of youth who commit homicide feel no attachment to anybody or society except for themselves. Children who committed homicide generally developed defense mechanisms about their guilt, sadness, fear and anger. For this reason, treatment of these children should be based on the awareness of these feelings and copying with them. In the movie, events making the youth realize his own feelings and responsibilities were studied from a theoretical perspective. In this study, some of the dialogs and the scenes in the movie were analyzed and the factors cause the young gang leader to be drawn to crime were evaluated in terms of the science of psychology. The aim of this study is to analyze the process of the youth to being drawn into criminal behavior in terms of social and emotional developmental phases in a theoretical perspective via the movie produced in 2005 (94. Min.). The method of this study is discourse analysis.

Keywords: Psychology, Crime, Child, evaluation (development)

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21 Authentic Connection between the Deity and the Individual Human Being Is Vital for Psychological, Biological, and Social Health

Authors: Sukran Karatas

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Authentic energy network interrelations between the Creator and the creations as well as from creations to creations are the most important points for the worlds of physics and metaphysic to unite together and work in harmony, both within human beings, on the other hand, have the ability to choose their own life style voluntarily. However, it includes the automated involuntary spirit, soul and body working systems together with the voluntary actions, which involve personal, cultural and universal, rational or irrational variable values. Therefore, it is necessary for human beings to know the methods of existing authentic energy network connections to be able to communicate correlate and accommodate the physical and metaphysical entities as a proper functioning unity; this is essential for complete human psychological, biological and social well-being. Authentic knowledge is necessary for human beings to verify the position of self within self and with others to regulate conscious and voluntary actions accordingly in order to prevent oppressions and frictions within self and between self and others. Unfortunately, the absence of genuine individual and universal basic knowledge about how to establish an authentic energy network connection within self, with the deity and the environment is the most problematic issue even in the twenty-first century. The second most problematic issue is how to maintain freedom, equality and justice among human beings during these strictly interwoven network connections, which naturally involve physical, metaphysical and behavioral actions of the self and the others. The third and probably the most complicated problem is the scientific identification and the authentication of the deity. This not only provides the whole power and control over the choosers to set their life orders but also to establish perfect physical and metaphysical links as fully coordinated functional energy network. This thus indicates that choosing an authentic deity is the key-point that influences automated, emotional, and behavioral actions altogether, which shapes human perception, personal actions, and life orders. Therefore, we will be considering the existing ‘four types of energy wave end boundary behaviors’, comprising, free end, fixed end boundary behaviors, as well as boundary behaviors from denser medium to less dense medium and from less dense medium to denser medium. Consequently, this article aims to demonstrate that the authentication and the choice of deity has an important effect on individual psychological, biological and social health. It is hoped that it will encourage new researches in the field of authentic energy network connections to establish the best position and the most correct interrelation connections with self and others without violating the authorized orders and the borders of one another to live happier and healthier lives together. In addition, the book ‘Deity and Freedom, Equality, Justice in History, Philosophy, Science’ has more detailed information for those interested in this subject.

Keywords: Psychology, Biology, Sociology, Power, Justice, Equality, Energy Network, Freedom, Happiness, fear, hope, deity, sadness

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20 Sustainable Renovation and Restoration of the Rural — Based on the View Point of Psychology

Authors: Jin Fang, Luo Jin China

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Countryside has been generally recognized and regarded as a characteristic symbol which presents in human memory for a long time. As a result of the change of times, because of it’s failure to meet the growing needs of the growing life and mental decline, the vast rural area began to decline. But their history feature image which accumulated by the ancient tradition provides people with the origins of existence on the spiritual level, such as "identity" and "belonging", makes people closer to the others in the spiritual and psychological aspects of a common experience about the past, thus the sense of a lack of culture caused by the losing of memory symbols is weakened. So, in the modernization process, how to repair its vitality and transform and planning it in a sustainable way has become a hot topics in architectural and urban planning. This paper aims to break the constraints of disciplines, from the perspective of interdiscipline, using the research methods of systems science to analyze and discuss the theories and methods of rural form factors, which based on the viewpoint of memory in psychology. So, we can find a right way to transform the Rural to give full play to the role of the countryside in the actual use and the shape of history spirits.

Keywords: Psychology, Rural, Restoration, Memory, sustainable renovation

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19 Influence of the Popular Literature on Consciousness of the Person

Authors: Alua Temirbolat, Sergei Kibalnik, Zhuldyz Essimova

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The article is devoted to research of influence of the modern literature on the consciousness of the person. Tendencies and features of the progress of the historical-cultural and artistic process at the end of XX–the beginning of XXI centuries are considered. The object of the analysis is the popular literature which has found last decades greater popularity among readers of different generations. In the article, such genres, as melodramas, female, espionage, criminal, pink, costume-historical novels, thrillers, elements, a fantasy are considered. During research, specific features of the popular literature, its difference from works of classics is revealed. On specific examples, its negative and positive influence on consciousness, psychology of the reader is shown, its role and value in a modern society are defined.

Keywords: Psychology, Consciousness, the popular literature, the person, a genre

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18 The Psychological Impact of Memorials on People: The Case of Northern-Cyprus

Authors: Ma'in Abushaikha

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Memorials are usually a landmark could be either an object, sculpture or a statue. They are built for a specific group or person who has died with historical contribution, or it could refer to an important hub, event or a specific culture, therefore to keep past events alive in the common memory through this kind of physical representation in public areas, or even to satisfy the desire to honour something either it is a person who suffered or died during a conflict or just to honour a group of people or even a whole society in a specific character they used to possess during a specific period of time. The aim behind the research is to look more deeply about the importance of memorials placement and environment for more successful outcomes towards people's psychology, therefore, behavior, manners and characteristics, knowing that in the main, they are usually set for function able purposes so people could be involved meaningfully therefore psychologically more than aesthetically. What contribution either positive or negative does memorialization through its physical/urban elements has towards people? Is it towards locals social reconstruction over time including either their understanding to the current conflicts or is it toward their general behavior, manners and characteristics in terms of psychology? And how important Memorial's placement is for the observer? Moreover, how does that either reduces or increases its value, attractiveness, and its effectiveness? This paper considers taking north Cyprus memorials as the main case study, is good enough as a choice to support the research hypothesis where a comparison between deferent memorials is going to be done as the main approach in trying to address the mentioned questions, by that, the research requires field survey in terms of interviewing both dwellers and general observers as well as library survey by viewing similar studies. As a significant result, this research is about to come up assesses how important memorials placements are, in order to apply its impact to the observers, whereas the most successful placed ones have its more effectiveness on observers psychology by time by introducing several mental reflects by this kind of physical representation.

Keywords: Psychology, Environment, Behavior, Impact, Characteristics, memorials, placement, manners

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17 Teaching English to Engineers: Between English Language Teaching and Psychology

Authors: Irina-Ana Drobot

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Teaching English to Engineers is part of English for Specific Purposes, a domain which is under the attention of English students especially under the current conditions of finding jobs and establishing partnerships outside Romania. The paper will analyse the existing textbooks together with the teaching strategies they adopt. Teaching English to Engineering students can intersect with domains such as psychology and cultural studies in order to teach them efficiently. Textbooks for students of ESP, ranging from those at the Faculty of Economics to those at the Faculty of Engineers, have shifted away from using specialized vocabulary, drills for grammar and reading comprehension questions and toward communicative methods and the practical use of language. At present, in Romania, grammar is neglected in favour of communicative methods. The current interest in translation studies may indicate a return to this type of method, since only translation specialists can distinguish among specialized terms and determine which are most suitable in a translation. Engineers are currently encouraged to learn English in order to do their own translations in their own field. This paper will analyse the issue of the extent to which it is useful to teach Engineering students to do translations in their field using cognitive psychology applied to language teaching, including issues such as motivation and social psychology. Teaching general English to engineering students can result in lack of interest, but they can be motivated by practical aspects which will help them in their field. This is why this paper needs to take into account an interdisciplinary approach to teaching English to Engineers.

Keywords: Cognition, Psychology, Motivation, ESP

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16 Decoding Mental Disorders: The Value of Practical Experience in Perceptions of Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Ryan Tehini

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to explore the value of practical experience with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) as a microcosm of mental disorders, in psychology students’ attempt to fully understand it in all of its intricacies. The study follows a one-year program where students of psychology volunteer at a school for Autistic children of ages 3-18. The individual levels of experience with, and theoretical understanding of, ASD varies measurably amongst the volunteers; these volunteers are then intermittently interviewed, observed and surveyed throughout the program in order to determine any decline or growth in their understanding of Autism Spectrum Disorder. A panel of professionals all of whom are active in the world of ASD (headmasters of Autistic schools, psychologists, child development specialists, special needs teachers, parents of autistic children and Occupational Therapists) were used specifically for this study, in order to develop the guideline for understanding ASD that will be used comparatively against the information gained from the volunteers in order to establish the individual results. The paper concludes by illustrating how psychology has a responsibility to the community to understand disorders past what is academic and theoretical, and how increasing student experience with a disorder can aid in a more holistic psychological approach to mental disorders in the future.

Keywords: Psychology, autism, Mental Disorders, practical experience

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15 Effects of Paternity: A Comparative Study to Analyze the Organization's Support in the Psychological Development of Children in India and USA

Authors: Aayushi Dalal

Abstract:

It is the mother who bears the child in her womb for 9 months. It is typically rooted in the Indian culture that it is solely the responsibility of women to take care of the children and as a result the gender roles are stereotyped. Instead of a 50-50 partnership in parenting the child, it is hackneyed that men take the responsibility of the bread earner while women nurture the children by staying at home. Thus, mothers are considered to be more psychologically connected to the children than fathers. But the current society is observing role dilution of parents which can create a gap in understanding from the organization’s perspective. This is the basis of the study. The emergence of women into the job market has forever changed how society views the traditional roles of fathers and mothers. Feminism and financial power has reformed the classic parenting model. This has given rise to a more open and flexible society consequently emphasizing the father's importance in the emotional well being of the child while also being capable caretakers and disciplinarians. This study focuses on analyzing the comparative differences of the father's role in the psychological development of the child in India and USA while taking into consideration the organization’s support towards them. A sample size of 150 fathers- 75 from India and 75 from USA was selected and a structured survey was carried out which had several open ended as well as closed ended questions probing to the issue. It was made sure that the environmental factors had as minimal effect as possible on the subjects. The findings of this research would materialize a framework for fathers to understand the magnitude of their role in their child's upbringing. This would not only ameliorate the "father-child" relationship but also make organization more sympathetic towards their employees.

Keywords: Psychology, Child Development, Gender Role, paternity, organization policy

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14 Psychology of Learning English and Motivation in EFL Students

Authors: Mohssen Amiri

Abstract:

Lack of motivation among students in learning English can be considered as one of the main obstacles faced by parents, teachers and college/school administrators in Gulf countries and Iran. The question is why this problem still exists among EFL students’ despite of various new methodologies that colleges are implementing by native and non-native instructors. In the paper, it has been explained that why many students fail to know the basic knowledge and conversations of English language even after completing academic levels of colleges. In this study, the answers of all questions have been covered by introducing the concept of the psychology of learning and the importance of motivation which are the main discussions of this study. Additionally, the paper has illustrated that how psychology is the key of success in learning English and how it develops motivation and confidence dramatically among students especially on speaking skill. The study shows that psychology is 70% of success and 30% are the methods and materials that we implement to teach in the classroom. Therefore, this is the role of teachers to develop 70% of positive motivation and psychology among students. The approach of study is descriptive, and the focus will be on speaking skill.

Keywords: Learning, Psychology, Communication, Motivation

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13 Analyze Needs for Training on Academic Procrastination Behavior on Students in Indonesia

Authors: Iman Dwi Almunandar, Nellawaty A. Tewu, Anshari Al Ghaniyy

Abstract:

The emergence of academic procrastination behavior among students in Indonesian, especially the students of Faculty of Psychology at YARSI University becomes a habit to be underestimated, so often interfere with the effectiveness of learning process. The lecturers at the Faculty of Psychology YARSI University have very often warned students to be able to do and collect assignments accordance to predetermined deadline. However, they are still violated it. According to researchers, this problem needs to do a proper training for the solution to minimize academic procrastination behavior on students. In this study, researchers conducted analyze needs for deciding whether need the training or not. Number of sample is 30 respondents which being choose with a simple random sampling. Measurement of academic procrastination behavior is using the theory by McCloskey (2011), there are six dimensions: Psychological Belief about Abilities, Distractions, Social Factor of Procrastination, Time Management, Personal Initiative, Laziness. Methods of analyze needs are using Questioner, Interview, Observations, Focus Group Discussion (FGD), Intelligence Tests. The result of analyze needs shows that psychology students generation of 2015 at the Faculty of Psychology YARSI University need for training on Time Management.

Keywords: Psychology, Behavior, procrastination, analyze needs

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12 Comprehensive Interpretation of Leadership from the Narratives in Literature

Authors: Nidhi Kaushal, Sanjit Mishra

Abstract:

Narrative writings in literature are ample source of knowledge and easily understandable. In every old tradition, we found that people learn ethics from oral tales. They had their leaders and lessons of leadership in their stories. In India, we have sufficient amount of stories of leaders. Whether the story is of an ordinary person or a corporate leader of large firm, it always has a unique message of motivation. The objective of this paper is to elaborate the story lines in literature and get the leadership lessons from them, so that we can set up a new concept of leadership based on scholarship of literature. This is our hypothesis that leadership lessons can be learned from the study of literary writings and it can also act an innovative way of learning the management skills through literature. The role of the leader can be familiarly communicated in the form of the tales. Describing a positive psychological narrative from the text is the best way to manifesting an idea into the minds of people. We accomplished this paper that leadership as an attribute can be learned from the folk psychological literary writings.

Keywords: Psychology, Leadership, Management, Literature

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11 Current Account on Teaching Psychology and Career Psychology in Portuguese Higher Education

Authors: Cristina Costa-Lobo, Sivia Amado Cordeiro, Bruna Rodrigues, Maria Do Ceu Taveira, Catia Marques, Iris Oliveira, Ana Daniela Silva

Abstract:

This work intends to analyse the teaching of Psychology in Portugal and, particularly, the teaching of Career Psychology, reflecting about the changes that have occurred to date. Were analysed the educational offerings of 31 Portuguese higher education institutions, 12 public and 19 private, who teach the course of Psychology. The three degrees of study were considered, namely, bachelors, masters and doctoral. The analysis of the data focused on the curricular plans of the different degrees of studies in Psychology made available online by higher education institutions. Through them, we identified the curricular units with themes related to the teaching of Career Psychology. The results show the existence of 89 higher psychology courses in Portugal, distributed throughout the three degrees of studies. Concerning to the teaching of Career Psychology there were registered 49 curricular units with themes dedicated to this area of knowledge. There were identified 16 curricular units in the bachelor’s degree, 31 in master’s degree, and two in doctoral degree. It was observed a reduction in the number of degrees in Psychology in the last nine years in Portugal. We discuss the current situation of Psychology teaching, particularly the teaching of Career Psychology. The aim is to stimulate reflection about future perspectives of Psychology teaching, and specifically, specialized training in Psychology of Career, in Portugal.

Keywords: Higher Education, Psychology, Portugal, career psychology

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