Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

psychological well-being Related Abstracts

26 Impact of Meaning in Life on Stress and Psychological Well-Being

Authors: Aisha Bano, Rizwan Nazir


The present study aimed at exploring the impact of meaning in life on psychological well-being and stress among university students. Victor Frankl's paradigm provided the theoretical foundation for this study. A sample of 560 university students was drawn from Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad. The sample was drawn using stratified random sampling technique. Data were collected using Existence Scale, Warwick-Edinburg Mental Well-Being Scale, and Stress Scale. Results of linear regression analysis reveals that high perception of meaning in life will lead to high psychological well-being and low stress among university students. Non-significant differences are found on meaning in life variable with regard to gender in the sample using t-test. Together these results suggest that meaning in life independent of gender, is a significant predictor of the levels of stress and psychological well-being being directly related to psychological well-being and inversely related to stress levels.

Keywords: stress, students, existential meaning in life, psychological well-being

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25 A Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) Intervention Programme for Excessive Internet Use among Young Adults

Authors: Ke Guek Nee, Wong Siew Fan, Nigel V. Marsh


Excessive use of the Internet has become a cause for concern in many countries, including Malaysia. Such behaviour is reported to be more prevalent amongst young adults who are reported to be spending large amount of time on the Internet. The present study has three objectives. First one is designing a manual-based Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) programme to reduce problematic Internet use among young adults in Malaysia. Second one is examining the effectiveness of a manual-based CBT programme at the pilot study stage. Thirdly, the programme focuses on reducing the level of stress and anxiety in problematic Internet users. We adopted CBT with single subject experimental design method. A total of six participants completed the entire program. They were asked to report their daily Internet use and software was installed on their devices to record actual use. The data collection involved three time frame measurements: T1 (baseline), T2 (immediately during the last session of the intervention sessions), and T3 (follow-up). Three scales were used to measure the effectiveness of the program: Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS), Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS), and Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ). The results revealed that the intervention programme has significantly improved two dimensions of problematic Internet use which were obsession and control disorder. The participants’ mental health also showed a deduction in means scores for depression, anxiety and stress with depression showing the greatest improvement after the intervention programme. The participants’ social anxiety showed a slight deduction in means scores. We concluded that the intervention programme designed was effective. However, its limitations need to be addressed in future research.

Keywords: psychological well-being, excessive internet use, cognitive behavioral thearapy (CBT), young adults

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24 Psychological Well-Being and Perception of Disease Severity in People with Multiple Sclerosis, Who Underwent a Program of Self-Regulation to Promote Physical Activity

Authors: Luísa Pedro, José Pais-Ribeiro, João Páscoa Pinheiro


Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the central nervous system that affects more often young adults in the prime of his career and personal development, with no cure and unknown causes. The most common signs and symptoms are fatigue, muscle weakness, changes in sensation, ataxia, changes in balance, gait difficulties, memory difficulties, cognitive impairment and difficulties in problem solving. MS is a relatively common neurological disorder in which various impairments and disabilities impact strongly on function and daily life activities. The aim of this study is to examine the implications of the program of self-regulation in the perception of illness and mental health (psychological well-being domain) in MS patients. MS is a relatively common neurological disorder in which various impairments and disabilities impact strongly on function and daily life activities. The aim of this study is to examine the implications of the program of self-regulation in the perception of illness and mental health (psychological well-being domain) in MS patients. After this, a set of exercises was implemented to be used in daily life activities, according to studies developed with MS patients. We asked the subjects the question “Please classify the severity of your disease?” and used the domain of psychological well-being, the Mental Health Inventory (MHI-38) at the beginning (time A) and end (time B) of the program of self-regulation. We used the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. A non-parametric statistical hypothesis test (Wilcoxon test) was used for the variable analysis. The intervention followed the recommendations of the Helsinki Declaration. The age range of the subjects was between 20 and 58 years with a mean age of 44 years. 58.3 % were women, 37.5 % were currently married, 67% were retired and the mean level of education was 12.5 years. In the correlation between the severity of the disease perception and psychological well before the self-regulation program, an obtained result (r = 0.26, p <0.05), then the self-regulation program, was (r = 0.37, p <0.01), from a low to moderate correlation. We conclude that the program of self-regulation for physical activity in patients with MS can improve the relationship between the perception of disease severity and psychological well-being.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Multiple Sclerosis, Self-regulation, psychological well-being

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23 The Psychological and Subjective Well-being of Ethiopian adults: Correlates, Explanations, and Cross-Cultural Constructions

Authors: Kassahun Tilahun


The purpose of the study was two-fold: to examine the socio-demographic and psychological predictors of well-being and formulate a socio-culturally sound approach explaining the meaning and experience of psychological well-being among Ethiopian adults. Ryan and Deci’s Self-Determination Theory was duly considered as a theoretical framework of the study. The study followed a sequential explanatory mixed method design. Both quantitative and qualitative data were obtained, via scales and open-ended questionnaires, from 438 civil servants working in Addis Ababa. 30 interviews were also conducted to gain further information. An in-depth analysis of the reliability and validity of instruments was made before employing them to the main study. The results showed that adults were better off in both their scores of psychological and subjective well-being. Besides, adults’ well-being was found to be quite a function of their gender, age, marital status, educational level and household income. Males had a healthier psychological well-being status than females, where as females were better in their subjective well-being. A significant difference in psychological well-being was also observed between emerging and young adults, in favor of the young; and between cohabitated and married adults, married being advantageous. A significant difference in subjective well-being measures was also noticed among single, cohabitated and married adults, in favor of the married adults in all measures. The finding revealed that happiness level of adults decrease as their educational status increases while the reverse is true to psychological well-being. Besides, as adults’ household income boosts, so do their psychological well-being and satisfaction in life. The regression analysis also produced significant independent contributions of household income to overall well-being of adults. As such, subjective well-being was significantly predicted by dummy variable of sex and marital status. Likewise, the agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness dimensions of personality were notable significant predictors of adults’ psychological well-being where as extraversion and agreeableness were significant predictors of their subjective well-being. Religiosity was also a significant predictor of adults’ psychological well-being. Besides, adults’ well-being was significantly predicted by the interaction between conscientiousness and religiosity. From goal pursuit dimensions, attainment of extrinsic life goals was a significant predictor of both psychological and subjective well-being. Importance and attainment of intrinsic life goals also significantly predicts adults’ psychological well-being. Finally, the subjective well-being of adults was significantly predicted by environmental mastery, positive relations with others, self-acceptance and overall psychological well-being scores of adults. The thematic analysis identified five major categories of themes, which are essential in explaining the psychological well-being of Ethiopian adults. These were; socio-cultural harmony, social cohesion, security, competence and accomplishment, and the self. Detailed discussion on the rational for including these themes was made and appropriate implications were proposed. Researchers are encouraged to expand the findings of this research and in turn develop a suitable approach taping the psychological well-being of adults living in countries like Ethiopia.

Keywords: subjective well-being, psychological well-being, Ethiopia, adulthood

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22 The Association between Facebook Emotional Dependency with Psychological Well-Being in Eudaimonic Approach among Adolescents 13-16 Years Old

Authors: Somayyeh Naeemi, Ezhar Tamam


In most of the countries, Facebook allocated high rank of usage among other social network sites. Several studies have examined the effect of Facebook intensity on individuals’ psychological well-being. However, few studies have investigated its effect on eudaimonic well-being. The current study explored how emotional dependency to Facebook relates to psychological well-being in terms of eudaimonic well-being. The number of 402 adolescents 13-16 years old who studied in upper secondary school in Malaysia participated in this study. It was expected to find out a negative association between emotional dependency to Facebook and time spent on Facebook and psychological well-being. It also was examined the moderation effects of self-efficacy on psychological well-being. The results by Structural Equation Modeling revealed that emotional dependency to Facebook has a negative effect on adolescents’ psychological well-being. Surprisingly self-efficacy did not have moderation effect on the relationship between emotional dependency to Facebook and psychological well-being. Lastly, the emotional dependency to Facebook and not the time spent on Facebook lessen adolescents’ psychological well-being, suggesting the value of investigating Facebook usage among college students in future studies.

Keywords: Adolescent, Self-efficacy, psychological well-being, emotional dependency to facebook, eudaimonic well-being

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21 Humanistic Psychology Workshop to Increase Psychological Well-Being

Authors: Nidia Thalia Alva Rangel, Ferran Padros Blazquez, Ma. Ines Gomez Del Campo Del Paso


Happiness has been since antiquity a concept of interest around the world. Positive psychology is the science that begins to study happiness in a more precise and controlled way, obtaining wide amount of research which can be applied. One of the central constructs of Positive Psychology is Carol Ryff’s psychological well-being model as eudaimonic happiness, which comprehends six dimensions: autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relations with others, purpose in life, and self-acceptance. Humanistic psychology is a clear precedent of Positive Psychology, which has studied human development topics and it features a great variety of intervention techniques nevertheless has little evidence with controlled research. Therefore, the present research had the aim to evaluate the efficacy of a humanistic intervention program to increase psychological well-being in healthy adults through a mixed methods study. Before and after the intervention, it was applied Carol Ryff’s psychological well-being scale (PWBS) and the Symptom Check List 90 as pretest and posttest. In addition, a questionnaire of five open questions was applied after each session. The intervention program was designed in experiential workshop format, based on the foundational attitudes defined by Carl Rogers: congruence, unconditional positive regard and empathy, integrating humanistic intervention strategies from gestalt, psychodrama, logotherapy and psychological body therapy, with the aim to strengthen skills in the six dimensions of psychological well-being model. The workshop was applied to six volunteer adults in 12 sessions of 2 hours each. Finally, quantitative data were analyzed with Wilcoxon statistic test through the SPSS program, obtaining as results differences statistically significant in pathology symptoms between prettest and postest, also levels of dimensions of psychological well-being were increased, on the other hand for qualitative strand, by open questionnaires it showed how the participants were experiencing the techniques and changing through the sessions. Thus, the humanistic psychology program was effective to increase psychological well-being. Working to promote well-being prompts to be an effective way to reduce pathological symptoms as a secondary gain. Experiential workshops are a useful tool for small groups. There exists the need for research to count with more evidence of humanistic psychology interventions in different contexts and impulse the application of Positive Psychology knowledge.

Keywords: Positive Psychology, Humanistic psychology, Happiness, psychological well-being, workshop

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20 The Impact of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy on the Improvement of the Psychological Wellbeing of Family Supervisor Women

Authors: Kaveh Qaderi Bagajan, Osman Khanahmadi, Ziba Mamaghani Chaharborj, Majid Chenaparchi


The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of the solution-focused brief therapy on improving the psychological wellbeing of family supervisor woman. This study has been carried out by semi-experimental method and in the form of pre-test, post-test performance on two groups (experimental and control), so that one sample group of 30 individuals was randomly achieved and were randomly divided in two groups of experimental (n=15) and control (n=15). To collect data, Ryff scale psychological wellbeing was used. After conducting pre-test (RSPWB) for two experimental and control groups, Solution-focused brief therapy interference was conducted on the experimental group during five two-hour sessions. Finally, Ryff scale psychological wellbeing was reused for the two groups as post-test and achieved outcomes that were analyzed using covariance. The results indicated that the significant increase of average marks of the experimental group in psychological wellbeing had better function than that of the control group. Finally, solution-focused brief therapy for improving psychological well-being of family supervisor women has a suitable capability and could be used in this way.

Keywords: solution-focused brief therapy, psychological well-being, short-term therapy, family supervisor women

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19 Mental Health Surveys on Community and Organizational Levels: Challenges, Issues, Conclusions and Possibilities

Authors: László L. Lippai


In addition to the fact that mental health bears great significance to a particular individual, it can also be regarded as an organizational, community and societal resource. Within the Szeged Health Promotion Research Group, we conducted mental health surveys on two levels: The inhabitants of a medium-sized Hungarian town and students of a Hungarian university with a relatively big headcount were requested to participate in surveys whose goals were to define local government priorities and organization-level health promotion programmes, respectively. To facilitate professional decision-making, we defined three, pragmatically relevant, groups of the target population: the mentally healthy, the vulnerable and the endangered. In order to determine which group a person actually belongs to, we designed a simple and quick measurement tool, which could even be utilised as a smoothing method, the Mental State Questionnaire validity of the above three categories was verified by analysis of variance against psychological quality of life variables. We demonstrate the pragmatic significance of our method via the analyses of the scores of our two mental health surveys. On town level, during our representative survey in Hódmezővásárhely (N=1839), we found that 38.7% of the participants was mentally healthy, 35.3% was vulnerable, while 16.3% was considered as endangered. We were able to identify groups that were in a dramatic state in terms of mental health. For example, such a group consisted of men aged 45 to 64 with only primary education qualification and the ratios of the mentally healthy, vulnerable and endangered were 4.5, 45.5 and 50%, respectively. It was also astonishing to see to what a little extent qualification prevailed as a protective factor in the case of women. Based on our data, the female group aged 18 to 44 with primary education—of whom 20.3% was mentally healthy, 42.4% vulnerable and 37.3% was endangered—as well as the female group aged 45 to 64 with university or college degree—of whom 25% was mentally healthy, 51.3 vulnerable and 23.8% endangered—are to be handled as priority intervention target groups in a similarly difficult position. On organizational level, our survey involving the students of the University of Szeged, N=1565, provided data to prepare a strategy of mental health promotion for a university with a headcount exceeding 20,000. When developing an organizational strategy, it was important to gather information to estimate the proportions of target groups in which mental health promotion methods; for example, life management skills development, detection, psychological consultancy, psychotherapy, would be applied. Our scores show that 46.8% of the student participants were mentally healthy, 42.1% were vulnerable and 11.1% were endangered. These data convey relevant information as to the allocation of organizational resources within a university with a considerable headcount. In conclusion, The Mental State Questionnaire, as a valid smoothing method, is adequate to describe a community in a plain and informative way in the terms of mental health. The application of the method can promote the preparation, design and implementation of mental health promotion interventions. 

Keywords: Health Promotion, psychological well-being, mental health promotion, mental state questionnaire

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18 The Links between Cardiovascular Risk and Psychological Wellbeing in Elderly

Authors: Laura Sapranaviciute-Zabazlajeva, Abdonas Tamosiunas, Dalia Luksiene, Dalia Virviciute


The cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the EU, especially in the middle aged and elderly population. Psychological wellbeing (PWB) has been linked with better cardiovascular health and survival in the elderly. The aim of the study is to evaluate associations between CVD risk and PWB in middle-aged and elderly population. 10,940 middle aged and older Lithuanians of age 45-74 years, were invited to participate in the study. A study sample was a random and stratified by gender and age. In 2006-2008 7,087 responders participated in the survey, so the response rate was 64.8%. A follow-up study was conducted from 2006 till 2015. New CVD cases and deaths from CVD were evaluated using the Kaunas population-based CVD register and death register of Kaunas. Study results revealed that good PWB predicts longer life in female participants (Log Rank = 13.7, p < 0.001). In the fully adjusted model for socio-demographic, social and CVD risk factors, hazard ratio for CVD mortality risk was lower amongst women with good PWB (HR = 0.28, 95% CI 0.11-0.72), but not significantly for men. Our study concludes, that lower CVD mortality rates is being associated with better PWB in female aged 45-74 years.

Keywords: Cardiovascular Disease, Elderly, Survival, psychological well-being

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17 Implementing a Prevention Network for the Ortenaukreis

Authors: Klaus Froehlich-Gildhoff, Ullrich Boettinger, Katharina Rauh, Angela Schickler


The Prevention Network Ortenaukreis, PNO, funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research, aims to promote physical and mental health as well as the social inclusion of 3 to 10 years old children and their families in the Ortenau district. Within a period of four years starting 11/2014 a community network will be established. One regional and five local prevention representatives are building networks with stakeholders of the prevention and health promotion field bridging the health care, educational and youth welfare system in a multidisciplinary approach. The regional prevention representative implements regularly convening prevention and health conferences. On a local level, the 5 local prevention representatives implement round tables in each area as a platform for networking. In the setting approach, educational institutions are playing a vital role when gaining access to children and their families. Thus the project will offer 18 month long organizational development processes with specially trained coaches to 25 kindergarten and 25 primary schools. The process is based on a curriculum of prevention and health promotion which is adapted to the specific needs of the institutions. Also to ensure that the entire region is reached demand oriented advanced education courses are implemented at participating day care centers, kindergartens and schools. Evaluation method: The project is accompanied by an extensive research design to evaluate the outcomes of different project components such as interview data from community prevention agents, interviews and network analysis with families at risk on their support structures, data on community network development and monitoring, as well as data from kindergarten and primary schools. The latter features a waiting-list control group evaluation in kindergarten and primary schools with a mixed methods design using questionnaires and interviews with pedagogues, teachers, parents, and children. Results: By the time of the conference pre and post test data from the kindergarten samples (treatment and control group) will be presented, as well as data from the first project phase, such as qualitative interviews with the prevention coordinators as well as mixed methods data from the community needs assessment. In supporting this project, the Federal Ministry aims to gain insight into efficient components of community prevention and health promotion networks as it is implemented and evaluated. The district will serve as a model region, so that successful components can be transferred to other regions throughout Germany. Accordingly, the transferability to other regions is of high interest in this project.

Keywords: Physical Health, Health Promotion, Social Inclusion, psychological well-being, childhood research, prevention network

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16 A Comparative Study of Spirituality and Psychological Well-Being among Senior Secondary Male and Female Students

Authors: Farzana Parveen, Shahina Maqbool


Nowadays most of the researchers focused on adolescents that were the most crucial and critical stage of their life’s. In this study, we want to know to what extent does spirituality and psychological well-being plays a vital role in adolescent’s life, and to what extent both were correlated. The first objective of the present study is to examine difference between the mean scores of male and female students on spirituality and Psychological well-being. The second objective of this study is to find out the relationship between Spirituality and Psychological Well-being. The participants of the present study comprised N=100 students who are further divided n=50 male and n=50 female and they were from senior secondary schools and recruited from Metropolitan cities, their age ranged from 13 to 18 years. Data were collected through Spirituality questionnaire and Psychological well-being questionnaire. Results showed that there was insignificant difference between male and female students on spirituality and significant difference between male and female students on psychological well-being. Relationship showed that there was positive correlation between spirituality and psychological well-being. Result was analyzed by SPSS version 20.0 software. Insignificant difference was found between males and females students on Spirituality and significant difference showed between males and females students on Psychological well-being. There was positive correlation between Spirituality and psychological well-being.

Keywords: Spirituality, students, psychological well-being, male and female

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15 The Role of Hemoglobin in Psychological Well Being and Academic Achievement of College Female Students

Authors: Ramesh Adsul, Vikas Minchekar


The present study attempts to explore the differences in academic achievement and psychological well being and its components – satisfaction, efficiency, sociability, mental health, interpersonal relations in low and moderate level of hemoglobin of college female students. It also tries to find out how hemoglobin, psychological well –being and academic achievement correlate to each other. For this study 200 (100 low hemoglobin level and 100 moderate hemoglobin level) college female students were selected by random sampling method. This sample is collected from the project ‘Health awareness and hemoglobin improvement programme’, which is being collaboratively conducted by ‘Akshyabhasha, MESA, U.S.A. and Smt. M.G. Kanya Mahavidyalaya, Sangli, Maharashtra, India. Psychological Well-Being Scale was used to collect the data. Students’ academic achievement was collected through college record, and hemoglobin level of female students was collected from project record. Data was analyzed by using independent ‘t’ test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The finding of the study revealed significant differences between low hemoglobin and moderate hemoglobin groups regarding efficiency and mental health. No significant difference was observed on satisfaction, sociability and interpersonal relations. It is also found that there is significant difference between low hemoglobin and moderate hemoglobin groups on academic achievement. The study revealed positive correlation between hemoglobin and academic achievement and psychological well-being and academic achievement. Moderate hemoglobin level create more efficiency, better mental health and good academic achievement in female students. One could say that there is significant role hemoglobin plays in psychological well being and academic achievement of college female students. Anemia is widely prevalent in all the states if India among all age groups. In India, college girls contribute major portion of population. It has been reported that 80% female population has hemoglobin deficiency, due to illiteracy of female, family structure, status of women, diet habits, gender discrimination and various superstitions. The deficiency of hemoglobin affects physical and mental health, general behavior and academic performance of students. This study is useful to educational managements, counselors, parents, students and Government also. In the development of personality physical as well as psychological health is essential. This research findings will create awareness about physical and mental health among people and society.

Keywords: Academic Achievement, psychological well-being, hemoglobin, college female students

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14 Generative Behaviors and Psychological Well-Being in Mexican Elders

Authors: Ana L. Gonzalez-Celis, Edgardo Ruiz-Carrillo, Karina Reyes-Jarquin, Margarita Chavez-Becerra


Since recent decades, the aging has been viewed from a more positive perspective, where is not only about losses and damage, but also about being on a stage where you can enjoy life and live with well-being and quality of life. The challenge to feel better is to find those resources that seniors have. For that reason, psychological well-being has shown interest in the study of the affect and life satisfaction (hedonic well-being), while from a more recent tradition, focus on the development of capabilities and the personal growth, considering both as the main indicators of the quality of life. A resource that can be used in the later age is generativity, which refers to the ability of older people to develop and grow through activities that contribute with the improvement of the context in which they live and participate. In this way the generative interest is understood as a favourable attitude that contribute to the common benefit while strengthening and enriching the social institutions, to ensure continuity between generations and social development. On the other hand, generative behavior, differentiating from generative interest, is the expression of that attitude reflected in activities that make a social contribution and a benefit for generations to come. Hence the purpose of the research was to test if there is an association between the generative behaviour type and the psychological well-being with their dimensions. For this reason 188 Mexican adults from 60 to 94 years old (M = 69.78), 67% women, 33% men, completed two instruments: The Ryff’s Well-Being Scales to measure psychological well-being with 39 items with two dimensions (Hedonic and Eudaimonic well-being), and the Loyola’s Generative Behaviors Scale, grouped in five categories: Knowledge transmitted to the next generation, things to be remember, creativity, be productive, contribution to the community, and responsibility of other people. In addition, the socio-demographic data sheet was tested, and self-reported health status. The results indicated that the psychological well-being and its dimensions were significantly associated with the presence of generative behavior, where the level of well-being was higher when the frequency of some generative behaviour excelled; finding that the behavior with greater psychological well-being (M = 81.04, SD = 8.18) was "things to be remembered"; while with greater hedonic well-being (M = 73.39, SD = 12.19) was the behavior "responsibility of other people"; and with greater Eudaimonic well-being (M = 84.61, SD = 6.63), was the behavior "things to be remembered”. The most important findings highlight the importance of generative behaviors in adulthood, finding empirical evidence that the generativity in the last stage of life is associated with well-being. However, by finding differences in the types of generative behaviors at the level of well-being, is proposed the idea that generativity is not situated as an isolated construct, but needs other contextualized and related constructs that can simultaneously operate at different levels, taking into account the relationship between the environment and the individual, encompassing both the social and psychological dimension.

Keywords: psychological well-being, eudaimonic well-being, generativity, hedonic well-being, Mexican elders

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13 Optimism, Hope and Mental Health: Optimism, Hope, Psychological Well-Being and Psychological Distress among Students, University of Pune, India

Authors: Mustafa Jahanara


The purpose of the current study is to examine the relationships between hope, optimism and mental health (psychological well-being and psychological distress) among students. A total of 222 students (132 males and 90 females) at the University of Pune from India completed inventories Revision of the Life Orientation Test (LOT-R), the Trait Hope Scale (THS) and the Mental Health Inventory (MHI) that assessed their optimism, hope and psychological well-being and psychological distress. The results of the study showed that optimism and hope were significantly correlated with each other. Optimism is positively related to psychological well-being and optimism is negatively related to psychological distress. Also, hope was positively related to psychological well-being. However, the findings suggest that optimism and hope could influence on mental health.

Keywords: Psychological distress, psychological well-being, hope, optimism

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12 Exploration of FOMO, or the 'Fear of Missing out' and the Use of Mindfulness and Values-Based Interventions for Alleviating Its Effects and Bolstering Well-Being

Authors: Chasity O'Connell


The use of social media and networking sites play a significant role in the lives of adolescents and adults. While research supports that social support and connectedness in general is beneficial; the nature of communication and interaction through social media and its subsequent benefits and impacts could be arguably different. As such, this research aims to explore a specific facet of social media interaction called fear of missing out, or 'FOMO' and investigate its relationship within the context of life stressors, social media usage, anxiety and depressive-symptoms, mindfulness, and psychological well-being. FOMO is the 'uneasy and sometimes all-consuming feeling that you’re missing out—that your peers are doing, in the know about, or in possession of more or something better than you'. Research suggests that FOMO can influence an individual’s level of engagement with friends and social media consumption, drive decisions on participating in various online or offline activities, and ultimately impact mental health. This study hopes to explore the potentially mitigating influence of mindfulness and values-based interventions in reducing the discomfort and distress that can accompany FOMO and increase the sense of psychological well-being in allowing for a more thoughtful and deliberate engagement in life. This study will include an intervention component wherein participants (comprised of university students and adults in the community) will partake in a six-week, group-based intervention focusing on learning practical mindfulness skills and values-exploration exercises (along with a waitlist control group). In doing so, researchers hope to understand if interventions centered on increasing one’s awareness of the present moment and one’s internal values impact decision-making and well-being with regard to social interaction and relationships.

Keywords: Values, Intervention, stress, Distress, Mindfulness, psychological well-being, FOMO

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11 Effects of Arts-Mediated Mother-Child Dyads Mindfulness-Based Intervention for Korean Children with ADHD: On Behaviors in Children and Subjective Psychological States in Mothers

Authors: Jeongil Kim


The present study examined the effects of arts-mediated mother-child dyads mindfulness-based intervention for Korean children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their mothers, on behaviors in children and subjective psychological states in mothers. Four elementary school boys with ADHD and their mothers participated in the study. Using a multiple baseline design across four mother-child dyads, data were collected on the target behaviors (disruptive behavior, on-task behavior, and compliance in class) in children using a 10-second partial interval recording system and on the subjective psychological states in mothers using four questionnaires (on perceived stress, burnout, mindfulness, and satisfaction with life). The intervention consisted of a) mindfulness training, b) mindfulness practice, and c) mindful management of body and feeling. The arts activities, making a coiled clay pot and Korean traditional music performance, were utilized to facilitate the environment to help each participant to understand the content and progress of the intervention program. The results showed that all four dyads showed improvement in adaptive behaviors in the children (increase in on-task behavior; decrease in disruptive behavior) and positive change in subjective psychological states in the mothers (increase in scores of mindfulness and satisfaction with life; decrease in scores of perceived stress and burnout). The changes in the children’s behaviors and in the mothers’ subjective psychological states were maintained when the intervention was drawn and generalized in novel settings. The results suggest that arts-mediated mother-child dyads mindfulness-based intervention would be a mutual benefiting strategy to support both children with ADHD and their mothers who experience diverse challenges in behavioral and psychological aspects.

Keywords: Behavior, Mindfulness, psychological well-being, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), arts-mediated, child-mother

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10 Self-Efficacy, Self-Knowledge, Empathy and Psychological Well-Being as Predictors of Workers’ Job Performance in Food and Beverage Industries in the South-West, Nigeria

Authors: Michael Ayodeji Boyede


Studies have shown that workers’ job performance is very low in Nigeria, especially in the food and beverage industry. This trend had been partially attributed to low workers’ self-efficacy, poor self-knowledge, lack of empathy and poor psychological well-being. The descriptive survey design was adopted. Four factories were purposively selected from three states in Southwestern, Nigeria (Lagos, Ogun and Oyo States). Proportionate random sampling techniques were used in selecting 1,820 junior and supervisory cadre workers in Nestle Plc (369), Coca-Cola Plc (392), Cadbury Plc (443) and Nigeria Breweries (616). The five research instruments used were: Workers’ self-efficacy (r=0.81), Workers’ self-knowledge (r=0.78), Workers’ empathy (r=0.74), Workers’ psychological well-being (r=0.70) and Workers’ performance rating (r=0.72) scales. Quantitative data were analysed using Pearson product moment correlation, Multiple regression at 0.05 level of significance. Findings show that there were significant relationships between Workers’ job performance and self-efficacy (r=.56), self-knowledge (r=.54), Empathy (r=.55) and Psychological Well-being (r=.69) respectively. Self-efficacy, self-knowledge, empathy and psychological well-being jointly predict workers’ job performance (F (4,1815) = 491.05) accounting for 52.0% of its variance. Psychological well-being (B=.52). Self-efficacy (B=.10), self-knowledge (B=.11), empathy (B=. 09) had predictive relative weights on workers’ job performance. Inadequate knowledge and training of the supervisors led to a mismatch of workers thereby reducing workers’ job performance. High self-efficacy, empathy, psychological well-being and good self-knowledge influence workers job performance in the food and beverage industry. Based on the finding employers of labour should provide work environment that would enhance and promote the development of these factors among the workers.

Keywords: Empathy, Self-efficacy, Job Performance, psychological well-being, self-knowledge

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9 Comparisons of Depressive Symptoms and Cognitive Appraisals in Different Age Groups under Abusive Leadership

Authors: Shao-Ying Wang, Shin-I Shih, Chi-Cheng Wu


Background: By following to the maturity theory about age, the manifestation of depression in different age groups under occupational stressors still remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the depression within four main symptoms clusters: cognition, affect, physical complaints and interpersonal difficulty among the different age groups. Additionally, this study also used the stress appraisal theory, through the examination of challenge and hindrance appraisals, the effects of cognitive factors were expected to give therapeutic indication for the future treatment of depression under abusive leadership. Methods (Participants and Procedure): The data were collected in two waves from employees of local companies in Taiwan. The participants (58 males and 167 females) were native Chinese speakers, ranging in age from 20 to 59 years (M= 36.51). Up to 80% educational level of participants were above senior high. The married population was approximately at 43%. Measures; 1. Abusive Leadership: To measure abusive leadership, we used 15-item scale of abusive supervision which anchored on a 7-point Likert-type scale. (α= .96) 2. Depression: We used Taiwanese Depression Scale to measure the 4 clusters (cognition, affect, physical complaints and interpersonal difficulty) of symptoms. Participants responded for depression anchored on a 7-point Likert-type scale (α= .96). 3. Stress Appraisal Scale: To measure challenge and hindrance types of appraisal, participants responded to 33-item measure anchored on a 7-point Likert-type scale. (Challenge appraisal; α= .90; hindrance appraisal α= .87). Results: The results of correlation showed that there was a significant and negative correlation between abusive leadership and age (r = - .21, p < .01). Abusive leadership was positive correlated significantly with hindrance appraisal (r = .52, p < .01) and depression (r = .20, p < .01). The results also showed that hindrance appraisal was correlated to depression positively (r = .36, p < .01). A one-way ANOVA was conducted to compare the effect of lower/middle/order age groups on each cluster of depressive symptoms. The results showed that the effect of age groups on cognition was significant F (2, 157) =3.66, P < .05. Older age group (M=13.43 SD=6.84) reported less cognitive symptoms of depression than the middle (M=16.77 SD=7.49) and lower age (M=16.91 SD=6.97) groups. Besides, the effect of age groups on affect was also significant F (2,157)= 4.09 P < .05. Older age group (M=18.68 SD=8.98) reported less affective symptoms of depression than the middle (M=22.01 SD=7.96) and lower age (M=23.56 SD=7.67) groups. Moreover, the main effect of hindrance appraisal was found F (2, 157) =3.81, P < .05. Older age group (M=9.44 SD=2.89) reported fewer score on hindrance appraisals than the middle (M=11.06 SD=4.02) and lower age (M=9.62 SD=3.17) groups. To conclude, the severity of depression symptoms varies across different age groups. Maturity seems to be the protective factor to depression, accompanying with lower hindrance appraisals.

Keywords: psychological well-being, affective commitment, abusive leadership, depression symptoms

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8 Disentangling the Relationship between Sustainable Consumption and Psychological Well-Being

Authors: Isabel Carrero, Raquel Redondo, Carmen Valor


An unclosed issue in sustainable consumption (SC) literature is the relationship between SC and well-being. This paper seeks to address three limitations in past research. First, well-being has been measured as a single-faceted construct. However, other authors have defended the need to broaden the well-being construct since it goes beyond the emotional experiences and life satisfaction. By examining the relationship between SC and the multifaceted construct of psychological well-being, past contradictory results may be reconciled. To illustrate, past studies have shown that sustainable consumers experience negative emotions when they become aware of the harm that human beings inflict on the planet but they realize they have limited power to solving the problem or when they find limited alternatives or useful information to make sustainable decisions. Thus, these experiences may negatively affect the dimension of well-being 'environmental mastery'. However, as past studies have demonstrated that sustainable consumers feel meaningful, their assessment of the dimension 'purpose in life' would be positive. Thus, we need to understand how SC impinge on the different facets of psychological well-being, in order to better understand the relationship between SC and well-being. Another limitation of past research is that most studies failed to distinguish among different pro-environmental actions under SC (i.e., boycotting, buycotting) among others. For instance, activists have been found to experience higher levels of well-being and sense of meaning than less committed sustainable consumers but also burnt-out and social rejection, which should affect negatively the dimension of 'positive relations'. Finally, the influence of gender has been overlooked in the literature of SC and well-being when it has been identified consistently as a moderator variable in SC. Therefore, this study aims to (1) investigate the effect of SC on the six facets of psychological well-being, (2) distinguish between conventional SC behaviors vs. activism to examine whether these behaviors influence psychological well-being differently (3) and test gender as a moderator variable. It does so by surveying 861 individuals. This paper contributes to existing literature by showing that the relationship between well-being and SC is more intricate than it has been presented in previous literature, as it depends on the facet, the type of behavior carried out and gender.

Keywords: Gender, Sustainable Consumption, psychological well-being, structural equation modelling, activism

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7 The Relationship between the Personality Traits and Self-Compassion with Psychological Well-Being in Iranian College Students

Authors: Abdolamir Gatezadeh, Rezvan K. A. Mohamamdi, Arash Jelodari


It has been well established that personality traits and self-compassion are associated with psychological well-being. Thus, the current research aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms in a collectivist culture. Method: One hundred and fifty college students were chosen and filled out Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scale, the NEO Personality Inventory, and Neff's Self-Compassion Scale. Results: The results of correlation analysis showed that there were significant relationships between the personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) and self-compassion (self-kindness, isolation, mindfulness, and the total score of self-compassion) with psychological well-being. The regression analysis showed that neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness significantly predicted psychological well-being. Discussion and conclusion: The cultural implications and future orientations have been discussed.

Keywords: Personality Traits, psychological well-being, college students, self-compassion

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6 The Effectiveness of Mindfulness Education on Emotional, Psychological, and Social Well-Being in 12th Grade Students in Tehran City

Authors: Fariba Dortaj, H. Bashir Nejad, Akram Dortaj,


Investigate the Effectiveness of Mindfulness Education on Emotional, Psychological, and Social Well-being in 12th grade students in Tehran city is the aim of present study. The research method is semi-experimental with pretest-posttest design with control group. The statistical population of the study includes all 12th grade students of the 12th district of Tehran city in the academic year of 2017 to 2018. From the mentioned population, 60 students had earned low scores in three dimensions of Subjective Well-Being Questionnaire of Keyes and Magyar-Moe (2003) by using random sampling method and they were selected and randomly assigned into 2 experimental and control groups. Then experimental groups were received a Mindfulness protocol in 8 sessions during 2 hours. After completion of the sessions, all subjects were re-evaluated. Data were analyzed by using multivariate analysis of covariance. The findings of this study showed that in the emotional well-being aspect with the components of positive emotional affection (P < 0.025, F = 17/80) and negative emotions (P <0.025, F = 5/41), in the psychological well-being of the components Self-esteem (P < 0.008, F = 25.26), life goal (P < 0.008, F = 38.19), environmental domination (P <0.008, F=82.82), relationships with others (P < 0.008, F = 19.12), personal development with (P < 0.008, F = 87.38), and in the social well-being aspect, the correlation coefficients with (P<0.01, F=12/21), admission and acceptability with (P <0.01, F =18.09) and realism with (P <0.01, F = 11.30), there was a significant difference between the experimental and control groups and it can be said that the education of mindfulness affects the improvement of components of psychological, social and emotional well-being in students.

Keywords: Mindfulness, psychological well-being, social well-being, emotional well-being

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5 Cyberbullying among College Students: Prevalence and Effects on Psychological Well-Being

Authors: Jeyaseelan Maria Michael


This study investigated the prevalence of cyberbullying among college female students and its effects on their psychological well-being. The respondents were from the age group of 17 and 18, doing the first-year college in Tamilnadu, India. In this study, 110 participants were selected through simple random sampling. The standardized questionnaire of David Alvare-Garcia’s Cybervictimization Questionnaire for Adolescents (CYVIC) and Ryff’s Psychological Well-Being (PWB) were administered for data collection. CYVIC has four subdomains namely, impersonation, visual-sexual cybervictimization, written-verbal cybervictimization, online exclusion. Ryff’s PWB has six domains namely, autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relations with others, purpose in life, and self- acceptance. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS v.23. The results indicate that cyberbullying prevails among college female students (M=1.24, SD= .21). Among the participants, 17 are scored one standard deviation above the mean (1.45). Among the subdomains of the CYVIC, the respondents have the highest score (M=1.40, SD= .38) in written-verbal cybervictimization. Cyber victimization has a significant correlation at the 0.01 level with psychological well-being.

Keywords: Cyberbullying, psychological well-being, college students, cyber victimization

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4 Israeli Palestinian Adolescents' Exposure to Community Violence and their Academic Achievements: The Indirect Effects of Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms and Parental Psychological Well-Being

Authors: Neveen Ali-Saleh Darawsha


Exposure to community violence (CV) is alarmingly high and emphasizes negative consequences. The present study examines the rates and consequences of exposure to community violence, among Palestinian adolescents from Israel, age ranged 14-18. Specifically, it examines whether exposure to community violence is indirectly related to academic achievement through internalizing and externalizing symptoms among adolescents; and whether the indirect effects of exposure to CV and academic achievements will differ when the parents have different levels of psychological well-being. Method: Semi systematic random sample of 760 Palestinian adolescents in Israel, (320 boys, and 440 girls) filled out a self-administration questionnaire. Most of the adolescents had witnessed community violence during the last year and during their lifetime, and more than one third had directly experienced such violence during lifetime compared with 19.6% during the last year. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the indirect effects of exposure to CV and academic achievement. Results revealed that externalizing symptoms mediated the association between exposure to CV and academic achievement. There were no indirect effects through internalizing symptoms. Moreover, parental psychological well-being moderated the indirect effects between externalizing symptoms and academic achievements. Conclusion: Findings highlight the importance of targeting externalizing symptoms for adolescents that could improve their behaviors and also their academic achievements as well. limitations of the study, implications for the practice and recommendations for future research are discussed.

Keywords: Academic Achievement, psychological well-being, community violence, witnessing violence, direct personal experiencing, Palestinian adolescents

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3 Effect of Mindfulness Training on Psychological Well-Being: An Experimental Study Using a Mobile App as Intervention

Authors: Beeto W. C. Leung, Nicole C. Y. Lee


It was well known that college students experienced a high level of stress and anxiety. College athletes, a special group of college students, may even encounter a higher level of pressure and distress due to their dual endeavors in academic and athletic settings. Due to the high demands and costs of mental health services, easily accessible, web-based self-help interventions are getting more popular. The aim of the present experimental study was to examine the potential intervention effect of a mindfulness-based self-help mobile App, called 'Smiling Mind', on mindfulness and psychological well-being. Forty-six college athletes, recruited from athletic teams of two local universities in Hong Kong, were randomly assigned to the Mindfulness App Group (MAG) and the Control Group (CG). All participants were administered the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale, and Perceived Stress Scale-10 before the study (Time 1, T1) and after the 4-week intervention (Time 2, T2). MAG was requested to use the app and follow the instructions every day for at least 5 days per week. Participants were also asked to record their daily app usage time. Results showed that, for MAG, from T1 to T2, mindfulness has been increased from 3.25 to 3.92; depressive symptoms and stress has been significantly decreased from 8.6 to 5.1 and 24.8 to 13.5 respectively while for the CG, mindfulness has been decreased slightly from 3.29 to 3.13; depressive symptoms and stress has been slightly increased from 7.1 to 7.3 and 24.1 to 27.1 respectively. Three mixed-design ANOVAs with time (T1, T2) as the within-subjects factor and intervention group (MAG, CG) as the between-subjects factor revealed a main effect of time on mindfulness, F(1, 41) = 10.28, p < 0.01, depressive symptoms, F(1, 41) = 6.55, p < 0.02 and stress, F(1, 41) = 16.96, p < 0.001 respectively. Both predicted interaction between time and intervention group on mindfulness, F(1, 41) = 26.6, p < 0.001, ηp 2 =0.39, depressive symptoms, F(1, 41) = 8.00, p < 0.01, ηp 2 =0.16 and Stress F(1, 41) = 49.3, p < 0.001, ηp 2 =0.55 were significant meaning that participants using the Mindfulness Mobile App in the intervention did experienced a significant increase in mindfulness and significant decrease in depressive symptoms and perceived level of stress after the 4-week intervention when compared with the control group. The present study provided encouraging empirical support for using Smiling Mind, a self-help mobile app, to promote mindfulness and mental health in a cost-effective way. Further studies should examine the potential use of Smiling Mind in different samples, including children and adolescence, as well as, investigate the lasting effects of using the app on other psychosocial outcomes such as emotional regulations.

Keywords: experimental study, psychological well-being, college athletes, mindfulness mobile apps

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2 Adapting to College: Exploration of Psychological Well-Being, Coping, and Identity as Markers of Readiness

Authors: Marit D. Murry, Amy K. Marks


The transition to college is a critical period that affords abundant opportunities for growth in conjunction with novel challenges for emerging adults. During this time, emerging adults are garnering experiences and acquiring hosts of new information that they are required to synthesize and use to inform life-shaping decisions. This stage is characterized by instability and exploration, which necessitates a diverse set of coping skills to successfully navigate and positively adapt to their evolving environment. However, important sociocultural factors result in differences that occur developmentally for minority emerging adults (i.e., emerging adults with an identity that has been or is marginalized). While the transition to college holds vast potential, not all are afforded the same chances, and many individuals enter into this stage at varying degrees of readiness. Understanding the nuance and diversity of student preparedness for college and contextualizing these factors will better equip systems to support incoming students. Emerging adulthood for ethnic, racial minority students presents itself as an opportunity for growth and resiliency in the face of systemic adversity. Ethnic, racial identity (ERI) is defined as an identity that develops as a function of one’s ethnic-racial group membership. Research continues to demonstrate ERI as a resilience factor that promotes positive adjustment in young adulthood. Adaptive coping responses (e.g., engaging in help-seeking behavior, drawing on personal and community resources) have been identified as possible mechanisms through which ERI buffers youth against stressful life events, including discrimination. Additionally, trait mindfulness has been identified as a significant predictor of general psychological health, and mindfulness practice has been shown to be a self-regulatory strategy that promotes healthy stress responses and adaptive coping strategy selection. The current study employed a person-centered approach to explore emerging patterns across ethnic identity development and psychological well-being criterion variables among college freshmen. Data from 283 incoming college freshmen at Northeastern University were analyzed. The Brief COPE Acceptance and Emotional Support scales, the Five Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire, and MIEM Exploration and Affirmation measures were used to inform the cluster profiles. The TwoStep auto-clustering algorithm revealed an optimal three-cluster solution (BIC = 848.49), which classified 92.6% (n = 262) of participants in the sample into one of the three clusters. The clusters were characterized as ‘Mixed Adjustment’, ‘Lowest Adjustment’, and ‘Moderate Adjustment.’ Cluster composition varied significantly by ethnicity X² (2, N = 262) = 7.74 (p = .021) and gender X² (2, N = 259) = 10.40 (p = .034). The ‘Lowest Adjustment’ cluster contained the highest proportion of students of color, 41% (n = 32), and male-identifying students, 44.2% (n = 34). Follow-up analyses showed higher ERI exploration in ‘Moderate Adjustment’ cluster members, also reported higher levels of psychological distress, with significantly elevated depression scores (p = .011), psychological diagnoses of depression (p = .013), anxiety (p = .005) and psychiatric disorders (p = .025). Supporting prior research, students engaging with identity exploration processes often endure more psychological distress. These results indicate that students undergoing identity development may require more socialization and different services beyond normal strategies.

Keywords: Resilience, Coping, psychological well-being, adjustment, emerging adulthood, college, ethnic-racial identity

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1 The Relationship between Transcendence and Psychological Well-Being: A Systematic Scientific Literature Review

Authors: Monir Ahmed


The main purpose of this literature review was to investigate the existing quantitative clinical studies on the relationship between transcendence and psychological well-being. The primary objective of the literature review is to determine whether the existing studies adequately demonstrate the relationship between transcendence and psychological well-being, including spiritual well-being. A further objective of this literature review is to see if the ‘creatio ex nihilo’ doctrine is necessary to understand transcendence and its relationship with psychological well-being. Systematic literature review methods including studies identified from search engines, extracting data from the studies and assessing their quality for the planned review were used. The outcome of this literature review indicates that self-transcendence (STa), spiritual transcendence (STb) are positively related to psychological well-being. However, such positive relationships present limited scope for understanding transcendence and its relationship with well-being. The findings of this review support the need for further research in the area of transcendence and well-being. This literature review reveals the importance of developing a new transcendence tool for determining an individual’s ability to transcend and the relationship between his/her ability for transcendence and psychological well-being. The author of this paper proposes that the inclusion of the theological doctrine (‘creatio ex nihilo’) in understanding transcendence and psychological well-being is crucial, necessary and unavoidable.

Keywords: Self-transcendence, Transcendence, psychological well-being, spiritual transcendence, ‘creatio ex nihilo’

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