Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Psychological Adjustment Related Abstracts

4 Developing a Multidimensional Adjustment Scale

Authors: Nadereh Sohrabi Shegefti, Siamak Samani


Level of adjustment is the first index to check mental health. The aim of this study was developing a valid and reliable Multidimensional Adjustment Scale (MAS). The sample consisted of 150 college students. Multidimensional adjustment scale and Depression, Anxiety, and stress scale (DASS) were used in this study. Principle factor analysis, Pearson correlation coefficient, and Cornbach's Alpha were used to check the validity and reliability of the MAS. Principle component factor analysis showed a 5 factor solution for the MAS. Alpha coefficients for the MAS sub scales were ranged between .69 to .83. Test-retest reliability for MAS was .88 and the mean of sub scales- total score correlation was .88. All these indexes revealed an acceptable reliability and validity for the MAS. The MAS is a short assessment instrument with good acceptable psychometric properties to use in clinical filed.

Keywords: Validity, Psychological Adjustment, psychometric properties, Pearson correlation

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3 Parental Rejection and Psychological Adjustment among Adolescents: Does the Peer Rejection Mediate?

Authors: Sultan Shujja, Farah Malik


The study examined the mediating role of peer rejection in direct relationship of parental rejection and psychological adjustment among adolescents. Researchers used self-report measures e.g., Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire (PARQ), Children Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire (PARQ), and Personality Assessment Questionnaire (PAQ) to assess perception of parent-peer rejection, psychological adjustment among adolescents (14-18 years). Findings revealed that peer rejection did not mediate the parental rejection and psychological adjustment whereas parental rejection emerged as strong predictor when demographic variables were statistically controlled. On average, girls were psychologically less adjusted than that of boys. Despite of equal perception of peer rejection, girls more anxiously anticipated peer rejection than did the boys. It is suggested that peer influence on adolescents, specifically girls, should not be underestimated.

Keywords: Applied Psychology, Psychological Adjustment, peer relationships, parental perception

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2 University Climate and Psychological Adjustment: African American Women’s Experiences at Predominantly White Institutions in the United States

Authors: Faheemah N. Mustafaa, Tamarie Macon, Tabbye Chavous


A major concern of university leaders worldwide is how to create environments where students from diverse racial/ethnic, national, and cultural backgrounds can thrive. Over the past decade or so in the United States, African American women have done exceedingly well in terms of college enrollment, academic performance, and completion. However, the relative academic successes of African American women in higher education has in some ways overshadowed social challenges many Black women continue to encounter on college campuses in the United States. Within predominantly White institutions (PWIs) in particular, there is consistent evidence that many Black students experience racially hostile climates. However, research studies on racial climates within PWIs have mostly focused on cross-sectional comparisons of minority and majority group experiences, and few studies have examined campus racial climate in relation to short- and longer-term well-being. One longitudinal study reported that African American women’s psychological well-being was positively related to their comfort in cross-racial interactions (a concept closely related to campus climate). Thus, our primary research question was: Do African American women’s perceptions of campus climate (tension and positive association) during their freshman year predict their reports of psychological distress and well-being (self-acceptance) during their sophomore year? Participants were part of a longitudinal survey examining African American college students’ academic identity development, particularly in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields. The final subsample included 134 self-identified African American/Black women enrolled in PWIs. Accounting for background characteristics (mother’s education, family income, interracial contact, and prior levels of outcomes), we employed hierarchical regression to examine relationships between campus racial climate during freshman year and psychological adjustment one year later. Both regression models significantly predicted African American women’s psychological outcomes (for distress, F(7,91)= 4.34, p < .001; and for self-acceptance, F(7,90)= 4.92, p < .001). Although none of the controls were significant predictors, perceptions of racial tension on campus were associated with both distress and self-acceptance. More perceptions of tension were related to African American women’s greater psychological distress the following year (B= 0.22, p= .01). Additionally, racial tension predicted later self-acceptance in the expected direction: Higher first-year reports of racial tension were related to less positive attitudes toward the self during the sophomore year (B= -0.16, p= .04). However, perceptions that it was normative for Black and White students to socialize on campus (or positive association scores) were unrelated to psychological distress or self-acceptance. Findings highlight the relevance of examining multiple facets of campus racial climate in relation to psychological adjustment, with possible emphasis on the import of racial tension on African American women’s psychological adjustment. Results suggest that negative dimensions of campus racial climate may have lingering effects on psychological well-being, over and above more positive aspects of climate. Thus, programs targeted toward improving student relations on campus should consider addressing cross-racial tensions.

Keywords: Higher Education, Psychological Adjustment, university students, university climate

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1 The Relation Between Social Class, Race Homophily and Mental Health Outcomes of Black College Students

Authors: Omari W. Keeles


Attention to social class and race processes could illuminate within- group differences in Black students' experiences that help explain variation in adjustment. Of interest is how social class relates to development of intragroup connections with other Black students on campus in ways that promote or inhibit well-being. The present study’s findings suggest that students from lower class backgrounds may be more restrictive or limited in opportunities around their intragroup friendship networks than more affluent students. Furthermore, Black social relationship networks were related to positive mental health adjustment important to healthy psychological functioning and development.

Keywords: Social Class, Psychological Adjustment, black students, homophily

Procedia PDF Downloads 321