Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Psychiatry Related Abstracts

9 The Concept of Community Participation and Identified Tertiary Education Problems, Strategies and Methods

Authors: Ada Adoga James

Abstract:

This paper discussed the concept of community participation and identified tertiary education problems; strategies and methods communities could be involved to reduce conflict witnessed in our tertiary institutions of learning due to government inability to fund education. The paper pointed out that community participation through the use of Parent Teachers Association (PTA), age grade, traditional leaders, village based associations, religious and political organs could be sensitized to raise financial resources. The paper identified different sources of conflicts, the outcome of which causes prolonged academic activities, destruction of lives and properties and in some cased render school environment completely insecure for serious academic activities. It recommends involvement of community participation in assisting government, proper handling of tertiary institutions in management, and more democratic procedure in conflict resolution like cordial relationship between staff, students and trade unions in decision making process.

Keywords: Psychology, Psychiatry, Community, Conflict Resolution, tertiary education

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8 Psycho-Social Issues: Drug Use and Abuse as a Social Problem among Secondary School Youths in Urban Centres of Benue State, Nigeria

Authors: Ode Kenneth Ogbu

Abstract:

This study was designed as a survey to investigate the incidence of use and abuse of drug as a social problem among the Nigeria youths in the secondary schools in urban centres of Benue state. 500 SS 3 and fresh secondary school graduates in remedial science class of Benue State University Makurdi with mean age of 16.8 were randomly sampled for the study. An instrument called drug use and abuse perception questionnaire (DAPQ) with a reliability coefficient of 74 were administered to the students. Only 337 copies of the questionnaire were properly completed and returned which reduced the sample size of 337. The data were subjected to factor analysis. X2 statistic and frequency distribution using split half method. The result of the analysis showed that: the DAPQ yield seven baseline factors responsible for drug use and abuse; there was appreciable evidence that the study subjects used drugs (42.1%); alcohol topped the list of the drugs consumed; most students use their pocket money to buy drugs; drugs were purchased from unconventional, hidden places and 13 out of the 20 items of DAPQ were perceived as significant factors in drug use and abuse. The paper recommends proper intervention of government, parents and NGO’S among students to reduce cases of drug abuse.

Keywords: Psychology, Psychiatry, Drug abuse, students

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7 Mental Disorders and Physical Illness in Geriatric Population

Authors: Vinay Kumar, M. Kishor, Sathyanarayana Rao Ts

Abstract:

Background: Growth of elderly people in the general population in recent years is termed as ‘greying of the world’ where there is a shift from high mortality & fertility to low mortality and fertility, resulting in an increased proportion of older people as seen in India. Improved health care promises longevity but socio-economic factors like poverty, joint families and poor services pose a psychological threat. Epidemiological data regarding the prevalence of mental disorders in geriatric population with physical illness is required for proper health planning. Methods: Sixty consecutive elderly patients aged 60 years or above of both sexes, reporting with physical illness to general outpatient registration counter of JSS Medical College and Hospital, Mysore, India, were considered for the Study. With informed consent, they were screened with General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and were further evaluated for diagnosing mental disorders according to WHO International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) criteria. Results: Mental disorders were detected in 48.3%, predominantly depressive disorders, nicotine dependence, generalized anxiety disorder, alcohol dependence and least was dementia. Most common physical illness was cardiovascular disease followed by metabolic, respiratory and other diseases. Depressive disorders, substance dependence and dementia were more associated with cardiovascular disease compared to metabolic disease and respiratory diseases were more associated with nicotine dependence. Conclusions: Depression and Substance use disorders among elderly population is of concern, which needs to be further studied with larger population. Psychiatric morbidity will adversely have an impact on physical illness which needs proper assessment and management. This will enhance our understanding and prioritize our planning for future.

Keywords: Psychiatry, Mental Disorders, Geriatric, physical illness

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6 Liaison Psychiatry in Baixo Alentejo, Portugal: Reality and Perspectives

Authors: Mariana Mangas, Yaroslava Martins, Ana Matos Pires, M. Suárez, Célia Santos

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Baixo Alentejo is a region of Portugal characterized by an aging population, geographic isolation, social deprivation and a lack of medical staff. It is one of the most problematic regions in regards to mental health, particularly due to the factors mentioned. The aim of this study is a presentation of liaison psychiatry in Hospital José Joaquim Fernandes; a sample of the work done, the current situation and future perspectives. The aim is to present a retrospective study of internal psychiatric emergencies from January 1st, 2016 to August 31st, 2016. Liaison psychiatry of Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health (Psychiatry Service) of ULSBA includes the following activities: internal psychiatry emergencies, HIV consultation (comprised in the general consultation) and liaison psychology (oncology and pain), consisting of a total of 111 internal psychiatry emergencies during the identified period. Gender distribution was uniform. The most prevalent age group was 71-80 years, and 66,6% of patients were 60 years old and over. The majority of the emergency observations was requested by hospital services of medicine (56,8%) and surgery (24,3%). The most frequent reasons for admission were: respiratory disease (18,0%); tumors (15.3%); other surgical and orthopedic pathology (14,5%) and stroke (11,7%). The most frequent psychiatric diagnoses were: neurotic and organic depression (24,3%); delirium (26,1%) and adjustment reaction (14,5%). Major psychiatric pathology (schizophrenia and affective disorders) was found in 10,8%. Antidepressive medication was prescribed in 37,8% patients; antipsychotics in 34,2%. In 9.9% of the cases, no psychotropic drug was prescribed, and 5,4% of patients received psychologic support. Regarding hospital discharge, 42,4% of patients were referred to the general practitioner or to the medical specialist; 22,5% to outpatient gerontopsychiatry; 17,1% to psychiatric outpatient and 14,4% deceased. A future perspective is to start liaison in areas of HIV and psycho oncology in multidisciplinary approach and to improve collaboration with colleagues of other specialties for refining psychiatric referrals.

Keywords: Psychiatry, liaison, internal emergency, psychiatric referral

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5 Preliminary Results of Psychiatric Morbidity for Oncology Outpatients

Authors: Camille Plant, Katherine McGill, Pek Ang

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Oncology patients face a host of unique challenges, which are physical, psychological and philosophical in nature. This preliminary study aimed to explore the psychiatric morbidity of oncology patients in an outpatient setting at a major public hospital in Australia. The study found that 33 patients were referred to a Psychiatrist by a Clinical Psychologist or treating Oncologist. These patients attended an outpatient Psychiatry appointment at the Calvary Mater Hospital, Newcastle, over a 7 month period (June 2017-January 2018). Of these, 45% went on to have a follow-up appointment. The Clinical Global Impressions Scale (CGI) was used to gather symptom severity scores at baseline and at follow-up. The CGI is a clinician determined instrument that provides an assessment of global functioning. It is comprised of two companion one-item measures: the CGI-Severity (CGI-S) rates mental illness severity, and the CGI-Improvement (CGI-I) rates change in condition or improvement from initiation of treatment. Patients referred to a Psychiatrist were observed to be on average in the Markedly ill approaching Severely ill range (CGI-S average of 5.5). However, those patients who attended a follow-up appointment were on average only Moderately Ill at baseline (CGI-S average of 3.9). Despite these follow patients not being severely mentally ill initially, the contact was helpful, as their CGI-S scores improved on average to the Mildly Ill range (CGI-S average of 2.8). A Mixed ANOVA revealed that there was a significant improvement in mental illness severity post-follow-up appointment (Greenhouse-Geisser .000). There was a near even proportion of males and females attending appointments (58% female), and slightly more females attended a follow-up (60% female). Males were on average more mentally ill at baseline compared to females at baseline (male average M=3.86, female average M=3.56), and males had a greater reduction in mental illness severity on average compared to females (male average M=2.71, female average 3.00). This was approaching significance (.073) and would be important to explore with a larger sample size. Change in clinical condition for follow-up patients was also recorded. It was found that more than half of patients (53%) were observed to experience Minimal improvement in attending at least one follow-up appointment. There was no change for 27% of patients, and there were no patients who were worse at follow up. As this was a preliminary study with small sample size, future research conducted could explore whether there are any significant gender differences, such as whether males experience the significantly greater reduction in symptoms of mental illness compared to females, as well as any effects of cancer stage or type on psychiatric outcomes. Future research could also investigate outcomes for those patients who concurrently access a Clinical Psychologist alongside the Psychiatrist. A limitation of the study is that the outcome measure is a brief item rating completed by the clinician.

Keywords: Oncology, Psychiatry, morbidity, outcomes, clinical global impressions scale

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4 Existential Affordances and Psychopathology: A Gibsonian Analysis of Dissociative Identity Disorder

Authors: S. Alina Wang

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A Gibsonian approach is used to understand the existential dimensions of the human ecological niche. Then, this existential-Gibsonian framework is applied to rethinking Hacking’s historical analysis of multiple personality disorder. This research culminates in a generalized account of psychiatric illness from an enactivist lens. In conclusion, reflections on the implications of this account on approaches to psychiatric treatment are mentioned. J.J. Gibson’s theory of affordances centered on affordances of sensorimotor varieties, which guide basic behaviors relative to organisms’ vital needs and physiological capacities (1979). Later theorists, notably Neisser (1988) and Rietveld (2014), expanded on the theory of affordances to account for uniquely human activities relative to the emotional, intersubjective, cultural, and narrative aspects of the human ecological niche. This research shows that these affordances are structured by what Haugeland (1998) calls existential commitments, which draws on Heidegger’s notion of dasein (1927) and Merleau-Ponty’s account of existential freedom (1945). These commitments organize the existential affordances that fill an individual’s environment and guide their thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. This system of a priori existential commitments and a posteriori affordances is called existential enactivism. For humans, affordances do not only elicit motor responses and appear as objects with instrumental significance. Affordances also, and possibly primarily, determine so-called affective and cognitive activities and structure the wide range of kinds (e.g., instrumental, aesthetic, ethical) of significances of objects found in the world. Then existential enactivism is applied to understanding the psychiatric phenomenon of multiple personality disorder (precursor of the current diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder). A reinterpretation of Hacking’s (1998) insights into the history of this particular disorder and his generalizations on the constructed nature of most psychiatric illness is taken on. Enactivist approaches sensitive to existential phenomenology can provide a deeper understanding of these matters. Conceptualizing psychiatric illness as strictly a disorder in the head (whether parsed as a disorder of brain chemicals or meaning-making capacities encoded in psychological modules) is incomplete. Rather, psychiatric illness must also be understood as a disorder in the world, or in the interconnected networks of existential affordances that regulate one’s emotional, intersubjective, and narrative capacities. All of this suggests that an adequate account of psychiatric illness must involve (1) the affordances that are the sources of existential hindrance, (2) the existential commitments structuring these affordances, and (3) the conditions of these existential commitments. Approaches to treatment of psychiatric illness would be more effective by centering on the interruption of normalized behaviors corresponding to affordances targeted as sources of hindrance, the development of new existential commitments, and the practice of new behaviors that erect affordances relative to these reformed commitments.

Keywords: Psychiatry, phenomenology, Psychopathology, Affordance, enaction

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3 Consultation Liasion Psychiatry in a Tertiary Care Hospital

Authors: K. Pankaj, R. K. Chaudhary, B. P. Mishra, S. Kochar

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Introduction: Consultation-Liaison psychiatry is a branch of psychiatry that includes clinical service, teaching and research. A consultation-liaison psychiatrist plays a role in having an expert opinion and linking the patients to other medical professionals and the patient’s bio-psycho-social aspects that may be leading to his/her symptoms. Consultation-Liaison psychiatry has been recognised as 'The guardian of the holistic approach to the patient', underlining its pre-eminent role in the management of patients who are admitted in a tertiary care hospital. Aims/ Objectives: The aim of the study was to analyse the utilization of psychiatric services and reasons for referrals in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: The study was done in a tertiary care hospital. The study included all the cases referred from different Inpatient wards to the psychiatry department for consultation. The study was conducted on 300 patients over a 3 month period. International classification of diseases 10 was used to diagnose the referred cases. Results: The majority of the referral was from the Medical Intensive care unit (22%) followed by general medical wards (18.66%). Majority of the referral was taken for altered sensorium (24.66%), followed by low mood or unexplained medical symptoms (21%). Majority of the referrals had a diagnosis of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (21%) as per International classification of diseases criteria, followed by unipolar Depression and Anxiety disorder (~ 14%), followed by Schizophrenia (5%) and Polysubstance abuse (2.6%). Conclusions: Our study concludes the importance of utilization of consultation-liaison psychiatric services. Also, the study signifies the need for sensitization of our colleagues regarding psychiatric sign and symptoms from time to time and seek psychiatric consult timely to decrease morbidity.

Keywords: Psychiatry, tertiary care hospital, consultation-liaison, referral

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2 A Review of Psychiatric Practices in Issues of Anomalous Experiences

Authors: Prosper Kudzanai Mushauri

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In issues of anomalous experiences commonly referred to as madness or mental illness, attempts have been made to deal with it so that people manage to live their lives in a more functional way. It is in this stance that psychiatry has sort of portraying itself as seeking to ameliorate perturbations which individuals live with via nosological systems and use of medicine to anomalous experiences. It is from this hegemony that has led to the untold harm which people living with madness have endured from antique to contemporary life. The paper reflects via a literature review on the history of psychiatry and argues that it is akin to contemporary psychiatry to be involved in iatrogenic acts. As antique psychiatry meddled with gory issues of inhumanity, deceit and mass murders which some of those the contemporary psychiatry has not weaned itself from such diabolical acts. The objective of the paper is to suggest to psychiatry that it has not comported to the mores of psychological ethics. In doing this, the paper hopes that psychiatry will reflect and reform its curricular and praxis so that it comports to ethical standards in psychological science in ameliorating anomalous experiences.

Keywords: Diagnosis, Psychiatry, Eugenics, nosology, madness

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1 Digital Self-Identity and the Role of Interactivity in Psychiatric Assessment and Treatment

Authors: Kevin William Taylor

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This work draws upon research in the fields of games development and mental health treatments to assess the influence that interactive entertainment has on the populous, and the potential of technology to affect areas of psychiatric assessment and treatment. It will use studies to establish the evolving direction of interactive media in the development of ‘digital self-identity,’ and how this can be incorporated into treatment to the benefit of psychiatry. It will determine that this approach will require collaborative production between developers and psychiatrists in order to ensure precise goals are met, improving the success of serious gaming for psychiatric assessment and treatment. Analysis documents the reach of video games across a growing global community of gamers, highlighting cases of the positives and negatives of video game usage. The games industry is largely oblivious to the psychological negatives, with psychiatrists encountering new conditions such as gaming addiction, which is now recognized by the World Health Organization. With an increasing amount of gamers worldwide, and an additional time per day invested in online gaming and character development, the concept of virtual identity as a means of expressing the id needs further study to ensure successful treatment. In conclusion, the assessment and treatment of game-related conditions are currently reactionary, and while some mental health professionals have begun utilizing interactive technologies to assist with the assessment and treatment of conditions, this study will determine how the success of these products can be enhanced. This will include collaboration between software developers and psychiatrists, allowing new avenues of skill-sharing in interactive design and development. Outlining how to innovate approaches to engagement will reap greater rewards in future interactive products developed for psychiatric assessment and treatment.

Keywords: Virtual Reality, Psychiatry, interactivity, virtual identity

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