Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Psychiatric Disorder Related Abstracts

3 The Adverse Effects of Air Pollution on Mental Health in Metropolitans

Authors: Farrin Nayebzadeh, Mohammadreza Eslami Amirabadi

Abstract:

According to technological progress and urban development, the cities of the world are growing to become metropolitans, living in which can be enthusiastic, entertaining and accessibility to the facilities like education, economic factors, hygiene and welfare is high. On the other hand, there are some problems that have been ignored in planning for such high quality of life, most important of which, is human health. Two aspects of human health are physical health and mental health, that are closely associated. Human mental health depends on two important factors: Biological factor and environmental factor. Air pollution is one of the most important environmental risk factors that affects mental health. Psychological and toxic effects of air pollution can lead to psychiatric symptoms, including anxiety and changes in mood, cognition, and behavior, depression and also children's mental disorders like hyperactivity, aggression and agitation. Increased levels of some air pollutants are accompanied by an increase in psychiatric admissions and emergency calls and, in some studies, by changes in behavior and a reduction in psychological well-being. Numerous toxic pollutants interfere with the development and adult functioning of the nervous system. Psychosocial stress can cause symptoms similar to those of organic mental disorders. These factors can cause resonance of psychiatric disorders. So, in cities of developing countries, people challenge with mental health problems due to environmental factors especially air pollution that have not been forecasted in urban planning.

Keywords: Air Pollution, Mental Health, Environmental Factors, Psychiatric Disorder

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2 Effects of Bilateral Electroconvulsive Therapy on Autobiographical Memories in Asian Patients

Authors: Lai Gwen Chan, Yining Ong, Audrey Yoke Poh Wong

Abstract:

Background. The efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) as a form of treatment to a range of mental disorders is well-established. However, ECT is often associated with either temporary or persistent cognitive side-effects, resulting in the failure of wider prescription. Of which, retrograde amnesia is the most commonly reported cognitive side-effect. Most studies found a recalling deficit in autobiographical memories to be short-term, although a few have reported more persistent amnesic effects. Little is known about ECT-related amnesic effects in Asian population. Hence, this study aims to resolve conflicting findings, as well as to better elucidate the effects of ECT on cognitive functioning in a local sample. Method: 12 patients underwent bilateral ECT under the care of Psychological Medicine Department, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore. Participants’ cognition and level of functioning were assessed at four time-points: before ECT, between the third and fourth induced seizure, at the end of the whole course of ECT, and two months after the index course of ECT. Results: It was found that Global Assessment of Functioning scores increased significantly at the completion of ECT. Case-by-case analyses also revealed an overall improvement in Personal Semantic and Autobiographical memory two months after the index course of ECT. A transient dip in both personal semantic and autobiographical memory scores was observed in one participant between the third and fourth induced seizure, but subsequently resolved and showed better performance than at baseline. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that ECT is an effective form of treatment to alleviate the severity of symptoms of the diagnosis. ECT does not affect attention, language, executive functioning, personal semantic and autobiographical memory adversely. The findings suggest that Asian patients may respond to bilateral ECT differently from Western samples.

Keywords: Cognitive Impairment, Psychiatric Disorder, autobiographical memory, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

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1 Psychopathy Evaluation for People with Intellectual Disability Living in Institute Using Chinese Version of the Psychopathology Inventory

Authors: Lin Fu-Gong

Abstract:

Background: As WHO announced, people with intellectual disability (ID) were vulnerable to mental health problems. And there were few custom-made mental health scales for those people to monitor their mental health. Those people with mental problems often accompanied worse prognosis and usually became to be a heavier burden on the caregivers. Purpose: In this study, we intend to develop a psychopathy scale as a practical tool for monitoring the mental health for people with ID living in institute. Methods: In this study, we adopt the Psychopathology Inventory for Mentally Retarded Adults developed by professor Matson with certified reliability and validity in Western countries with Dr. Matson’s agreement in advance. We first translated the inventory into Chinese validated version considering the domestic culture background in the past year. And the validity and reliability evaluation of mental health status using this inventory among the people with intellectual living in the institute were done. Results: The inventory includes eight psychiatric disorder scales as schizophrenic, affective, psychosexual, adjustment, anxiety, somatoform, personality disorders and inappropriate mental adjustment. Around 83% of 40 invested people, who randomly selected from the institute, were found to have at least one disorder who were recommended with medical help by two evaluators. Among the residents examined, somatoform disorder and inappropriate mental adjustment were most popular with 60% and 78% people respectively. Conclusion: The result showed the prevalence psychiatric disorders were relatively high among people with ID in institute and the mental problems need to be further cared and followed for their mental health. The results showed that the psychopathology inventory was a useful tool for institute caregiver, manager and for long-term care policy to the government. In the coming stage, we plan to extend the use of the valid Chinese version inventory among more different type institutes for people with ID to establish their dynamic mental health status including medical need, relapse and rehabilitation to promote their mental health.

Keywords: Mental Health, Intellectual Disability, Psychiatric Disorder, psychopathology inventory, the institute

Procedia PDF Downloads 127