psoriatic arthritis Related Abstracts
3 Spironolactone in Psoriatic Arthritis: Safety, Efficacy and Effect on Disease Activity
Abstract:Therapeutic approaches used previously relied on disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) that had only partial clinical benefit and were associated with significant toxicity. Spironolactone, an oral aldosterone antagonist, suppresses inflammatory mediators. Clinical efficacy of spironolactone compared with placebo in patients with active psoriatic arthritis despite treatment with prior traditional DMARDs. In the 24-week, placebo-controlled study patients (n=31) were randomized to placebo and spironolactone (2 m/kg/day). Patients on background concurrent DMARDs continued stable doses (methotrexate, leflunomide, and/or sulfasalazine). Primary outcome measures were the assessment of disease activity measures i.e. 28-joint disease activity score (DAS28) and diseases activity in psoriatic arthritis (DAPSA) at week 24. The key secondary endpoint was change from baseline in Health Assessment Questionnaire–Disability Index (HAQ-DI) at week 24. Additional efficacy outcome measures at week 24 included improvements in the markers of inflammation (ESR and CRP) and pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1. At week 24, spironolactone significantly reduced disease activity measure DAS-28 (p<0.001) and DAPSA (p=0.001) compared with placebo. Significant improvements in key secondary measures HAQ-DI (disability index) were evident with spironolactone (p=0.02) versus placebo. After week 24, there was significant reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokines level TNF-α, IL-6 (p<0.01) as compared with placebo group. However, there was no significant improvement in IL-1 in both treatment and placebo groups. There were minor side effects which did not mandate stopping of spironolactone. No change in any biochemical profile was noted after spironolactone treatment. Spironolactone was effective in the treatment of PsA, improving disease activity, physical function and suppressing the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Spironolactone demonstrated an acceptable safety profile and was well tolerated. Procedia PDF Downloads 199
2 Psoriasis Diagnostic Test Development: Exploratory Study
Abstract:The purpose of this exploratory study was to gather the insights into psoriasis etiology, treatment, and patient experience, for developing psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis diagnostic test. Data collection methods consisted of a comprehensive meta-analysis of relevant studies and psoriasis patient survey. Established meta-analysis guidelines were used for the selection and qualitative comparative analysis of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis research studies. Only studies that clearly discussed psoriasis etiology, treatment, and patient experience were reviewed and analyzed, to establish a qualitative data base for the study. Using the insights gained from meta-analysis, an existing psoriasis patient survey was modified and administered to collect additional data as well as triangulate the results. The hypothesis is that specific types of psoriatic disease have specific etiology and pathophysiologic pattern. The following etiology categories were identified: bacterial, environmental/microbial, genetic, immune, infectious, trauma/stress, and viral. Additional results, obtained from meta-analysis and confirmed by patient survey, were the common age of onset (early to mid-20s) and type of psoriasis (plaque; mild; symmetrical; scalp, chest, and extremities, specifically elbows and knees). Almost 70% of patients reported no prescription drug use due to severe side effects and prohibitive cost. These results will guide the development of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis diagnostic test. The significant number of medical publications classified psoriatic arthritis disease as inflammatory of an unknown etiology. Thus numerous meta-analyses struggle to report any meaningful conclusions since no definitive results have been reported to date. Therefore, return to the basics is an essential step to any future meaningful results. To date, medical literature supports the fact that psoriatic disease in its current classification could be misidentifying subcategories, which in turn hinders the success of studies conducted to date. Moreover, there has been an enormous commercial support to pursue various immune-modulation therapies, thus following a narrow hypothesis/mechanism of action that is yet to yield resolution of disease state. Recurrence and complications may be considered unacceptable in a significant number of these studies. The aim of the ongoing study is to focus on a narrow subgroup of patient population, as identified by this exploratory study via meta-analysis and patient survey, and conduct an exhaustive work up, aiming at mechanism of action and causality before proposing a cure or therapeutic modality. Remission in psoriasis has been achieved and documented in medical literature, such as immune-modulation, phototherapy, various over-the-counter agents, including salts and tar. However, there is no psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis diagnostic test to date, to guide the diagnosis and treatment of this debilitating and, thus far, incurable disease. Because psoriasis affects approximately 2% of population, the results of this study may affect the treatment and improve the quality of life of a significant number of psoriasis patients, potentially millions of patients in the United States alone and many more millions worldwide.
Keywords: Etiology, phototherapy, Biologics, Psoriasis, early diagnosis, psoriatic arthritis, immune disease, immune modulation therapy, inflammation skin disorder, plaque psoriasis, psoriasis classification, psoriasis disease marker, psoriasis diagnostic test, psoriasis marker, psoriasis mechanism of action, psoriasis treatment, psoriatic disease, psoriatic disease marker, psoriatic patient experience, psoriatic patient quality of life, remission, salt therapy, targeted immune therapyProcedia PDF Downloads 5
1 Investigation of the IL23R Psoriasis/PsA Susceptibility Locus
Abstract:L-23 is a pro-inflammatory molecule that signals T cells to release cytokines such as IL-17A and IL-22. Psoriasis is driven by a dysregulated immune response, within which IL-23 is now thought to play a key role. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a number of genetic risk loci that support the involvement of IL-23 signalling in psoriasis; in particular a robust susceptibility locus at a gene encoding a subunit of the IL-23 receptor (IL23R) (Stuart et al., 2015; Tsoi et al., 2012). The lead psoriasis-associated SNP rs9988642 is located approximately 500 bp downstream of IL23R but is in tight linkage disequilibrium (LD) with a missense SNP rs11209026 (R381Q) within IL23R (r2 = 0.85). The minor (G) allele of rs11209026 is present in approximately 7% of the population and is protective for psoriasis and several other autoimmune diseases including IBD, ankylosing spondylitis, RA and asthma. The psoriasis-associated missense SNP R381Q causes an arginine to glutamine substitution in a region of the IL23R protein between the transmembrane domain and the putative JAK2 binding site in the cytoplasmic portion. This substitution is expected to affect the receptor’s surface localisation or signalling ability, rather than IL23R expression. Recent studies have also identified a psoriatic arthritis (PsA)-specific signal at IL23R; thought to be independent from the psoriasis association (Bowes et al., 2015; Budu-Aggrey et al., 2016). The lead PsA-associated SNP rs12044149 is intronic to IL23R and is in LD with likely causal SNPs intersecting promoter and enhancer marks in memory CD8+ T cells (Budu-Aggrey et al., 2016). It is therefore likely that the PsA-specific SNPs affect IL23R function via a different mechanism compared with the psoriasis-specific SNPs. It could be hypothesised that the risk allele for PsA located within the IL23R promoter causes an increase IL23R expression, relative to the protective allele. An increased expression of IL23R might then lead to an exaggerated immune response. The independent genetic signals identified for psoriasis and PsA in this locus indicate that different mechanisms underlie these two conditions; although likely both affecting the function of IL23R. It is very important to further characterise these mechanisms in order to better understand how the IL-23 receptor and its downstream signalling is affected in both diseases. This will help to determine how psoriasis and PsA patients might differentially respond to therapies, particularly IL-23 biologics. To investigate this further we have developed an in vitro model using CD4 T cells which express either wild type IL23R and IL12Rβ1 or mutant IL23R (R381Q) and IL12Rβ1. Model expressing different isotypes of IL23R is also underway to investigate the effects on IL23R expression. We propose to further investigate the variants for Ps and PsA and characterise key intracellular processes related to the variants. Procedia PDF Downloads 1