Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Psoriasis Related Abstracts

6 Detection of Oral Mucosal Lesions in Cutaneous Psoriatic Patients

Authors: Rania A. R. Soudan, Easter Joury


Introduction: Psoriasis is a common chronic dermatologic disease. It may affect the mucous membranes. The presence of oral mucosal lesions has been a subject of controversy. The aim: To determine possible association between oral mucosal lesions and psoriasis, and to correlate the same with different types of psoriasis and severity of the disease. Materials and Methods: The oral mucosa was clinically examined in 100 randomly selected Syrian psoriatic patients presented to the Dermatological Diseases Hospital in Damascus University, Syria (February 2009 - December 2010), and in 100 matched controls. PASI index was used to evaluate the disease severity. Chi-square and Student t-test were used to compare differences between groups. Results: Oral mucosal lesions were observed in 72% of the psoriasis cases, while 46% of the control group’s subjects had oral lesions. Fissured tongue, geographic tongue, and red lesions were detected in 36%, 25%, and 7% of the examined psoriatics, respectively. These lesions were significantly more frequent in the psoriatics than in the controls. A correlation was found between furred tongue and the age of the psoriasis patients. However, an association was observed for fissured tongue, furred tongue with the severity of the disease, and for fissured tongue, white lesions, cheilitis with nail involvement. However, no correlation with the psoriasis types was recorded. Conclusion: Some oral mucosal lesions were associated with psoriasis, so these lesions may be considered as oral manifestations of this disease, and should be taken into account in new studies as possible predictors or markers of this dermatitis. Further studies are recommended to confirm these oral manifestations.

Keywords: Psoriasis, tongue, mucosa, lesions

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5 Treatment of Psoriasis through Thai Traditional Medicine

Authors: Boonsri Lertviriyachit


The objective of this research is to investigate the treatment of psoriasis through Thai traditional medicine in the selected areas of 2 east coast provinces; Samudprakarn Province and Chantaburi Province. The informants in this study were two famous and accepted Thai traditional doctors, who have more than 20 year experiences. Data were collected by in depth interviews and participant-observation method. The research instrument included unstructured interviews, camera, and cassette tape to collect data analyzed by descriptive statistics. The results revealed that the 2 Thai traditional doctors were 54 and 85 years old with 25 and 45 years of treatment experiences. The knowledge of Thai traditional medicine was transferred from generations to generations in the family. The learning process was through close observation as an apprentice with the experience ones and assisted them in collecting herbs and learning by handling real case in individual situations. Before being doctors, they had to take exam to get the Thai traditional medical certificate. Knowledge of being Thai traditional doctors included diagnosis and find to the suitable way of treatment. They have to look into disorder physical fundamental factors such as blood circulation, lymph, emotion, and food consumption habit. It is important that the treatment needs to focus on balancing the fundamental factors and to observe contraindication.

Keywords: Psoriasis, Thai traditional medicine, Samudprakarn Province, Chantaburi Province

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4 Development of Methotrexate Nanostructured Lipid Carriers for Topical Treatment of Psoriasis: Optimization, Evaluation, and in vitro Studies

Authors: Yogeeta O. Agrawal, Hitendra S. Mahajan, Sanjay J. Surana


Methotrexate is effective in controlling recalcitrant psoriasis when administered by the oral or parenteral route long-term. However, the systematic use of this drug may provoke any of a number of side effects, notably hepatotoxic effects. To reduce these effects, clinical studies have been done with topical MTx. It is useful in treating a number of cutaneous conditions, including psoriasis. A major problem in topical administration of MTx currently available in market is that the drug is hydrosoluble and is mostly in the dissociated form at physiological pH. Its capacity for passive diffusion is thus limited. Localization of MTx in effected layers of skin is likely to improve the role of topical dosage form of the drug as a supplementary to oral therapy for treatment of psoriasis. One of the possibilities for increasing the penetration of drugs through the skin is the use of Nanostructured lipid Carriers. The objective of the present study was to formulate and characterize Methotrexate loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carriers (MtxNLCs), to understand in vitro drug release and evaluate the role of the developed gel in the topical treatment of psoriasis. MtxNLCs were prepared by solvent diffusion technique using 3(2) full factorial design.The mean diameter and surface morphology of MtxNLC was evaluated. MtxNLCs were lyophilized and crystallinity of NLC was characterized by Differential Scanning Calorimtery (DSC) and powder X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The NLCs were incorporated in 1% w/w Carbopol 934 P gel base and in vitro skin deposition studies in Human Cadaver Skin were conducted. The optimized MtxNLCs were spherical in shape, with average particle size of 253(±9.92)nm, zeta potential of -30.4 (±0.86) mV and EE of 53.12(±1.54)%. DSC and XRD data confirmed the formation of NLCs. Significantly higher deposition of Methotrexate was found in human cadaver skin from MtxNLC gel (71.52 ±1.23%) as compared to Mtx plain gel (54.28±1.02%). Findings of the studies suggest that there is significant improvement in therapeutic index in treatment of psoriasis by MTx-NLCs incorporated gel base developed in this investigation over plain drug gel currently available in the market.

Keywords: Psoriasis, methotrexate, NLCs, hepatotoxic effects

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3 Control of IL-23 Release in Dendritic Cells Protects Mice from Imiquimod-Induced Psoriasis

Authors: Xingxin Wu, Fenli Shao, Tao Tan, Yang Tan, Yang Sun, Qiang Xu


Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects about 2% of the world's population. IL-23 signaling plays a key role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Control of IL-23 release by small molecule compounds during developing psoriasis has not been well established. Here, we show that compound 1, a small molecule nature product, protected mice from imiquimod-induced psoriasis with improved skin lesions, reduced skin thickness, and reduced IL-23 mRNA expression in the skin tissue. FACS results showed compound 1 reduced the number of dendritic cells in the skin. Interestingly, compound 1 was not able to ameliorate IL-23-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation in mice. Further, compound 1 inhibited MyD88-dependent IL-23 mRNA expression induced by LPS, CpG and imiquimod in BMDC cells, but not MyD88-independent CD80 and CD86 expression induced by LPS. The methods included real-time PCR, western blot, H & E staining, FACS and ELISA et al. In conclusion, compound 1 regulates MyD88-dependent signaling to control IL-23 release in dendritic cells, which improves imiquimod-induced psoriasis.

Keywords: Psoriasis, Dendritic cells, IL-23, toll-like receptor signaling

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2 Psoriasis Diagnostic Test Development: Exploratory Study

Authors: Salam N. Abdo, Orien L. Tulp, George P. Einstein


The purpose of this exploratory study was to gather the insights into psoriasis etiology, treatment, and patient experience, for developing psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis diagnostic test. Data collection methods consisted of a comprehensive meta-analysis of relevant studies and psoriasis patient survey. Established meta-analysis guidelines were used for the selection and qualitative comparative analysis of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis research studies. Only studies that clearly discussed psoriasis etiology, treatment, and patient experience were reviewed and analyzed, to establish a qualitative data base for the study. Using the insights gained from meta-analysis, an existing psoriasis patient survey was modified and administered to collect additional data as well as triangulate the results. The hypothesis is that specific types of psoriatic disease have specific etiology and pathophysiologic pattern. The following etiology categories were identified: bacterial, environmental/microbial, genetic, immune, infectious, trauma/stress, and viral. Additional results, obtained from meta-analysis and confirmed by patient survey, were the common age of onset (early to mid-20s) and type of psoriasis (plaque; mild; symmetrical; scalp, chest, and extremities, specifically elbows and knees). Almost 70% of patients reported no prescription drug use due to severe side effects and prohibitive cost. These results will guide the development of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis diagnostic test. The significant number of medical publications classified psoriatic arthritis disease as inflammatory of an unknown etiology. Thus numerous meta-analyses struggle to report any meaningful conclusions since no definitive results have been reported to date. Therefore, return to the basics is an essential step to any future meaningful results. To date, medical literature supports the fact that psoriatic disease in its current classification could be misidentifying subcategories, which in turn hinders the success of studies conducted to date. Moreover, there has been an enormous commercial support to pursue various immune-modulation therapies, thus following a narrow hypothesis/mechanism of action that is yet to yield resolution of disease state. Recurrence and complications may be considered unacceptable in a significant number of these studies. The aim of the ongoing study is to focus on a narrow subgroup of patient population, as identified by this exploratory study via meta-analysis and patient survey, and conduct an exhaustive work up, aiming at mechanism of action and causality before proposing a cure or therapeutic modality. Remission in psoriasis has been achieved and documented in medical literature, such as immune-modulation, phototherapy, various over-the-counter agents, including salts and tar. However, there is no psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis diagnostic test to date, to guide the diagnosis and treatment of this debilitating and, thus far, incurable disease. Because psoriasis affects approximately 2% of population, the results of this study may affect the treatment and improve the quality of life of a significant number of psoriasis patients, potentially millions of patients in the United States alone and many more millions worldwide.

Keywords: Etiology, phototherapy, Biologics, Psoriasis, early diagnosis, psoriatic arthritis, immune disease, immune modulation therapy, inflammation skin disorder, plaque psoriasis, psoriasis classification, psoriasis disease marker, psoriasis diagnostic test, psoriasis marker, psoriasis mechanism of action, psoriasis treatment, psoriatic disease, psoriatic disease marker, psoriatic patient experience, psoriatic patient quality of life, remission, salt therapy, targeted immune therapy

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1 Investigation of the IL23R Psoriasis/PsA Susceptibility Locus

Authors: Shraddha Rane, Richard Warren, Stephen Eyre


L-23 is a pro-inflammatory molecule that signals T cells to release cytokines such as IL-17A and IL-22. Psoriasis is driven by a dysregulated immune response, within which IL-23 is now thought to play a key role. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a number of genetic risk loci that support the involvement of IL-23 signalling in psoriasis; in particular a robust susceptibility locus at a gene encoding a subunit of the IL-23 receptor (IL23R) (Stuart et al., 2015; Tsoi et al., 2012). The lead psoriasis-associated SNP rs9988642 is located approximately 500 bp downstream of IL23R but is in tight linkage disequilibrium (LD) with a missense SNP rs11209026 (R381Q) within IL23R (r2 = 0.85). The minor (G) allele of rs11209026 is present in approximately 7% of the population and is protective for psoriasis and several other autoimmune diseases including IBD, ankylosing spondylitis, RA and asthma. The psoriasis-associated missense SNP R381Q causes an arginine to glutamine substitution in a region of the IL23R protein between the transmembrane domain and the putative JAK2 binding site in the cytoplasmic portion. This substitution is expected to affect the receptor’s surface localisation or signalling ability, rather than IL23R expression. Recent studies have also identified a psoriatic arthritis (PsA)-specific signal at IL23R; thought to be independent from the psoriasis association (Bowes et al., 2015; Budu-Aggrey et al., 2016). The lead PsA-associated SNP rs12044149 is intronic to IL23R and is in LD with likely causal SNPs intersecting promoter and enhancer marks in memory CD8+ T cells (Budu-Aggrey et al., 2016). It is therefore likely that the PsA-specific SNPs affect IL23R function via a different mechanism compared with the psoriasis-specific SNPs. It could be hypothesised that the risk allele for PsA located within the IL23R promoter causes an increase IL23R expression, relative to the protective allele. An increased expression of IL23R might then lead to an exaggerated immune response. The independent genetic signals identified for psoriasis and PsA in this locus indicate that different mechanisms underlie these two conditions; although likely both affecting the function of IL23R. It is very important to further characterise these mechanisms in order to better understand how the IL-23 receptor and its downstream signalling is affected in both diseases. This will help to determine how psoriasis and PsA patients might differentially respond to therapies, particularly IL-23 biologics. To investigate this further we have developed an in vitro model using CD4 T cells which express either wild type IL23R and IL12Rβ1 or mutant IL23R (R381Q) and IL12Rβ1. Model expressing different isotypes of IL23R is also underway to investigate the effects on IL23R expression. We propose to further investigate the variants for Ps and PsA and characterise key intracellular processes related to the variants.

Keywords: Psoriasis, snp, psoriatic arthritis, IL23R

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