Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Provenance Related Abstracts

5 Rare Earth Element (REE) Geochemistry of Tepeköy Sandstones (Central Anatolia, Turkey)

Authors: Mehmet Yavuz Hüseyinca, Şuayip Küpeli

Abstract:

Sandstones from Upper Eocene - Oligocene Tepeköy formation (Member of Mezgit Group) that exposed on the eastern edge of Tuz Gölü (Salt Lake) were analyzed for their rare earth element (REE) contents. Average concentrations of ΣREE, ΣLREE (Total light rare earth elements) and ΣHREE (Total heavy rare earth elements) were determined as 31.37, 26.47 and 4.55 ppm respectively. These values are lower than UCC (Upper continental crust) which indicates grain size and/or CaO dilution effect. The chondrite-normalized REE pattern is characterized by the average ratios of (La/Yb)cn = 6.20, (La/Sm)cn = 4.06, (Gd/Lu)cn = 1.10, Eu/Eu* = 0.99 and Ce/Ce* = 0.94. Lower values of ΣLREE/ΣHREE (Average 5.97) and (La/Yb)cn suggest lower fractionation of overall REE. Moreover (La/Sm)cn and (Gd/Lu)cn ratios define less inclined LREE and almost flat HREE pattern when compared with UCC. Almost no Ce anomaly (Ce/Ce*) emphasizes that REE were originated from terrigenous material. Also depleted LREE and no Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu*) suggest an undifferentiated mafic provenance for the sandstones.

Keywords: Provenance, REE, central anatolia, rare earth elements, Tepeköy sandstone

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4 Provenance and Paleoweathering Conditions of Doganhisar Clay Beds

Authors: Mehmet Yavuz Hüseyinca

Abstract:

The clay beds are located at the south-southeast of Doğanhisar and northwest of Konya in the Central Anatolia. In the scope of preliminary study, three types of samples were investigated including basement phyllite (Bp) overlain by the clay beds, weathered phyllite (Wp) and Doğanhisar clay (Dc). The Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) values of Dc range from 81 to 88 with an average of 85. This value is higher than that of Post Archean Australian Shale (PAAS) and defines very intense chemical weathering in the source-area. On the other hand, the A-CN-K diagram indicates that Bp underwent high degree post-depositional K-metasomatism. The average reconstructed CIA value of the Bp prior to the K-metasomatism is mainly 81 which overlaps the CIA values of the Wp (83) and Dc (85). Similar CIA values indicate parallel weathering trends. Also, extrapolation of the samples back to the plagioclase-alkali feldspar line in the A-CN-K diagram suggests an identical provenance close to granite in composition. Hereby the weathering background of Dc includes two steps. First one is intense weathering process of a granitic source to Bp with post-depositional K-metasomatism and the latter is progressively weathering of Bp to premetasomatised conditions (formation of Wp) ending with Dc deposition.

Keywords: Provenance, Weathering, clay beds, Doganhisar

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3 Modal Composition and Tectonic Provenance of the Sandstones of Ecca Group, Karoo Supergroup in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

Authors: Christopher Baiyegunhi, Oswald Gwavava, Kuiwu Liu

Abstract:

Petrography of the sandstones of Ecca Group, Karoo Supergroup in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa have been investigated on composition, provenance and influence of weathering conditions. Petrographic studies based on quantitative analysis of the detrital minerals revealed that the sandstones are composed mostly of quartz, feldspar and lithic fragments of metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. The sandstones have an average framework composition of 24.3% quartz, 19.3% feldspar, 26.1% rock fragments, and 81.33% of the quartz grains are monocrystalline. These sandstones are generally very fine to fine grained, moderate to well sorted, and subangular to subrounded in shape. In addition, they are compositionally immature and can be classified as feldspathic wacke and lithic wacke. The absence of major petrographically distinctive compositional variations in the sandstones perhaps indicate homogeneity of their source. As a result of this, it is inferred that the transportation distance from the source area was quite short and the main mechanism of transportation was by river systems to the basin. The QFL ternary diagrams revealed dissected and transitional arc provenance pointing to an active margin and uplifted basement preserving the signature of a recycled provenance. This is an indication that the sandstones were derived from a magmatic arc provenance. Since magmatic provenance includes transitional arc and dissected arc, it also shows that the source area of the Ecca sediments had a secondary sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks from a marginal belt that developed as a result of rifting. The weathering diagrams and semi-quantitative weathering index indicate that the Ecca sandstones are mostly from a plutonic source area, with climatic conditions ranging from arid to humid. The compositional immaturity of the sandstones is suggested to be due to weathering or recycling and low relief or short transport from the source area. The detrital modal compositions of these sandstones are related to back arc to island and continental margin arc. The origin and deposition of the Ecca sandstones are due to low-moderate weathering, recycling of pre-existing rocks, erosion and transportation of debris from the orogeny of the Cape Fold Belt.

Keywords: Provenance, Petrography, Karoo Basin, tectonic setting, Ecca Group

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2 Evaluation and Provenance Studies of Heavy Mineral Deposits in Recent Sediment of Ologe Lagoon, South Western, Nigeria

Authors: Mayowa Philips Ibitola, Abe Oluwaseun Banji, Akinade-Solomon Olorunfemi

Abstract:

Heavy minerals studies were carried out on eighteen sediment samples from Ologe lagoon located at Lagos Barrier complex, with the aim of evaluating the heavy mineral deposits and determining the provenance of the sediments. The samples were subjected to grain analysis techniques in order to collect the finest grain size. Separation of heavy minerals from the samples was done with the aid of bromoform to enable petrographic analyses of the heavy mineral suite, under the polarising microscope. The data obtained from the heavy mineral analysis were used in preparing histograms and pie chart, from which the individual heavy mineral percentage distribution and ZTR index were derived. The percentage composition of the individual heavy mineral analyzed are opaque mineral 63.92%, Zircon 12.43%, Tourmaline 5.79%, Rutile 13.44%, Garnet 1.74% and Staurolite 3.52%. The calculated zircon, tourmaline, rutile index in percentage (ZTR) varied between 76.13 -92.15%, average garnet-zircon index (GZI), average rutile-zircon index (RuZI) and average staurolite-zircon index values in all the stations are 16.18%, 54.33%, 25.11% respectively. The mean ZTR index percentage value is 85.17% indicates that the sediments within the lagoon are mineralogically matured. The high percentage of zircon, rutile, and tourmaline indicates an acid igneous rock source for the sediments. However, the low percentage of staurolite, rutile and garnet occurrence indicates sediment of metamorphic rock source input.

Keywords: Provenance, lagoon, heavy mineral, ZTR index

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1 Evaluation and Selection of Elite Jatropha Genotypes for Biofuel

Authors: Bambang Heliyanto, Rully Dyah Purwati, Hasnam, Fadjry Djufry

Abstract:

Jatropha curcas L., a drought tolerant and monoecious perennial shrub, has received attention worldwide during the past decade. Realizing the facts, the Indonesian government has decided to option for Jatropha and palm oil for in country biofuel production. To support the program development of high yielding jatropha varieties is necessary. This paper reviews Jatropha improvement program in Indonesia using mass selection and hybrid development. To start with, at the end of 2005, in-country germplasm collection was mobilized to Lampung and Nusa Tenggara Barat (NTB) provinces and successfully collected 15 provenances/sub-provenances which serves as a base population for selection. A significant improvement has been achieved through a simple recurrent breeding selection during 2006 to 2007. Seed yield productivity increased more than double, from 0.36 to 0.97 ton dry seed per hectare during the first selection cycle (IP-1), and then increased to 2.2 ton per hectare during the second cycles (IP-2) in Lampung provenance. Similar result was also observed in NTB provenance. Seed yield productivity increased from 0.43 ton to 1 ton dry seed per hectare in the first cycle (IP-1), and then 1.9 ton in the second cycle (IP-2). In 2008, the population IP-3 resulted from the third cycle of selection have been identified which were capable of producing 2.2 to 2.4 ton seed yield per hectare. To improve the seed yield per hectare, jatropha hybrid varieties was developed involving superior provenances. As a result a Jatropha Energy Terbarukan (JET) variety-2 was released in 2017 with seed yield potential of 2.6 ton per hectare. The use of this high yielding genotypes for biofuel is discussed.

Keywords: biofuel, Hybrid, Provenance, jatropha curcas, improve population

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