Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

protozoa Related Abstracts

3 Paramecuim as a Model for the Evaluation of Toxicity (Growth, Total Proteins, Respiratory and GSH Bio Marker Changes) Observed after Treatment with Essential Oils Isolated from Artemisia herba-alba Plant of Algeria

Authors: Bouchiha Hanene, Rouabhi Rachid, Bouchama Khaled, Djebar Berrebbah Houraya, Djebar Mohamed Reda


Recently, some natural products such as essentials oils (EOs) have been used in the fields as alternative to synthetic compounds, to minimize the negative impacts to the environment. This fact has led to questions about the possible impact of EOs on ecosystems. Currently in toxicology, the use of alternative models can help to understand the mechanisms of toxic action, at different levels of organization of ecosystems. Algae, protozoa and bacteria form the base of the food chain and protozoan cells are used as bioindicators often of pollution in environment. Unicellular organisms offer the possibility of direct study of independent cells with specific characteristics of individual cells and whole organisms at the same time. This unicellular facilitates the study of physiological processes, and effects of pollutants at the cellular level, which makes it widely used to assess the toxic effects of various xenobiotics. This study aimed to verify the effects of EOs of one famous plant used tremendously in our folk medicine, namely Artemisia herba alba in causing acute toxicity (24 hours) and chronic (15 days) toxicity for model cellular (Paramecium sp). To this end, cellular’s of paramecium were exposed to various concentrations (Three doses were chosen) of EOs extracted from plant (Artemisia herba alba). In the first experiment, the cellular s cultures were exposed for 48 hours to different concentrations to determine the median lethal concentration (DL50). We followed the evolution of physiological parameters (growth), biochemical (total proteins, respiratory metabolism), as well as the variations of a bio marker the GSH. Our results highlighted a light inhibition of the growth of the protozoa as well as a disturbance of the contents of total proteins and a reduction in the reduced rate of glutathione. The polarographic study revealed a stimulation of the consumption of O2 and this at the treated cells.

Keywords: Toxicity, Growth, Proteins, essential oils, protozoa, bio indicators, bio marker, polarographic

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2 A Review on Biological Control of Mosquito Vectors

Authors: Asim Abbasi, Muhammad Sufyan, Iqra, Hafiza Javaria Ashraf


The share of vector-borne diseases (VBDs) in the global burden of infectious diseases is almost 17%. The advent of new drugs and latest research in medical science helped mankind to compete with these lethal diseases but still diseases transmitted by different mosquito species, including filariasis, malaria, viral encephalitis and dengue are serious threats for people living in disease endemic areas. Injudicious and repeated use of pesticides posed selection pressure on mosquitoes leading to development of resistance. Hence biological control agents are under serious consideration of scientific community to be used in vector control programmes. Fish have a history of predating immature stages of different aquatic insects including mosquitoes. The noteworthy examples in Africa and Asia includes, Aphanius discolour and a fish in the Panchax group. Moreover, common mosquito fish, Gambusia affinis predates mostly on temporary water mosquitoes like anopheline as compared to permanent water breeders like culicines. Mosquitoes belonging to genus Toxorhynchites have a worldwide distribution and are mostly associated with the predation of other mosquito larvae habituating with them in natural and artificial water containers. These species are harmless to humans as their adults do not suck human blood but feeds on floral nectar. However, their activity is mostly temperature dependent as Toxorhynchites brevipalpis consume 359 Aedes aegypti larvae at 30-32 ºC in contrast to 154 larvae at 20-26 ºC. Although many bacterial species were isolated from mosquito cadavers but those belonging to genus Bacillus are found highly pathogenic against them. The successful species of this genus include Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus sphaericus. The prime targets of B. thuringiensis are mostly the immatures of genus Aedes, Culex, Anopheles and Psorophora while B. sphaericus is specifically toxic against species of Culex, Psorophora and Culiseta. The entomopathogenic nematodes belonging to family, mermithidae are also pathogenic to different mosquito species. Eighty different species of mosquitoes including Anopheles, Aedes and Culex proved to be highly vulnerable to the attack of two mermithid species, Romanomermis culicivorax and R. iyengari. Cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus was the first described pathogenic virus, isolated from the cadavers of mosquito specie, Culex tarsalis. Other viruses which are pathogenic to culicine includes, iridoviruses, cytopolyhedrosis viruses, entomopoxviruses and parvoviruses. Protozoa species belonging to division microsporidia are the common pathogenic protozoans in mosquito populations which kill their host by the chronic effects of parasitism. Moreover, due to their wide prevalence in anopheline mosquitoes and transversal and horizontal transmission from infected to healthy host, microsporidia of the genera Nosema and Amblyospora have received much attention in various mosquito control programmes. Fungal based mycopesticides are used in biological control of insect pests with 47 species reported virulent against different stages of mosquitoes. These include both aquatic fungi i.e. species of Coelomomyces, Lagenidium giganteum and Culicinomyces clavosporus, and the terrestrial fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. Hence, it was concluded that the integrated use of all these biological control agents can be a healthy contribution in mosquito control programmes and become a dire need of the time to avoid repeated use of pesticides.

Keywords: protozoa, entomopathogenic nematodes, Toxorhynchites, vector-borne

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1 Risk Factors Associated with Ectoprotozoa Infestation of Wild and Farmed Cyprinids

Authors: M. A. Peribanez, G. Illan, I. De Blas, A. Muniesa, I. Ruiz-Zarzuela


Intensive aquaculture is commonly associated with increased incidence of parasites. However, in Spain, the recent intensification of cyprinid production has not led to knowledge of the parasites that develop in the aquaculture facilities, the factors that affect their development and spread and the transmission between wild and cultivated fish species. The present study focuses on the knowledge of environmental factors, as well as host dependent factors, and their possible influence as risk factors in the incidence and intensity of parasitic infections. This work was conducted in the Duero River Basin, NW Spain. A total of 114 tenches (Tinca tinca) were caught in a fish farm and 667 specimens belonging to six species of cyprinid, not tench, in five rivers. An exhaustive search and microscopic identification of protozoa on skin and gills were carried out. Physical, chemical, and biological parameters of water samples from the capture points were determined. Only two ectoprotozoa were identified, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Tripartiella sp. In I. multifiliis, a high intensity of infection (more than 40 parasites on the body surface and more than 80 on gills) was determined in farmed tench (14%) and in Iberian barbel (Luciobarbus bocagei) (91%) and Duero nase (Pseudochondrostoma duriense) (71%) of middle stretches of rivers. The prevalence was similar between farmed tenches and cyprinids of middle courses. Tripartiella sp. was only found in barbels (prevalence in middle stretches, 0.7%) and in farmed tenches (63%), this species resulting in a high risk factor (odds ratio, OR= 1143) in the presence of the ciliate. There were no differences between the two species relative to the intensity of parasitization. Some of the physical, chemical and microbiological water quality parameters appear to be risk factors in the presence of I. multifiliis, with maximum OR of 8. Nevertheless, in Tripartiella sp., the risk is multiplied by 720 when the pH value exceeds 8.4, if we consider the total of the data, and it is increased more than 500 times if we only consider the values recorded in the fish farm (529 by nitrates > 3 mg/l; 530 by total coliforms > 100 CFU/100 ml). However, the high prevalence and risk of infection by I. multifiliis and Tripartiella sp. in fish farms should be related to environmental factors that dependent upon sampling point rather than in direct influence of the physical-chemical and biological parameters of the water. The high pH value recorded in the fish farm (9.62 ± 0.76) is the only parameter that we consider may have a substantial direct influence. Chronic exposure to alkaline pH levels can be a chronic stress generator, predisposing to parasitization by Tripartiella sp. In conclusion, often minor changes in ecosystem conditions, both natural and man-made, can modify the host-parasite relationship, resulting in an increase in the prevalence and intensity of parasitic infections in populations of cyprinids, sometimes causing disease outbreaks.

Keywords: Fish, Parasites, Risk Factors, protozoa, cyprinids

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