Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

protocol Related Abstracts

11 Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest in Kuala Lumpur: A Mixed Method Study on Incidence, Adherence to Protocol, and Issues

Authors: Mohd Said Nurumal, Sarah Sheikh Abdul Karim


Information regarding out of hospital cardiac arrest incidence include outcome in Malaysia is limited and fragmented. This study aims to identify incidence and adherence to protocol of out of hospital cardiac arrest and also to explore the issues faced by the pre-hospital personnel in regards managing cardiac arrest victim in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A mixed method approach combining the qualitative and quantitative study design was used. The 285 pre-hospital care data sheet of out of hospital cardiac arrest during the year of 2011 were examined by using checklists for identify the incidence and adherence to protocol. Nine semi-structured interviews and two focus group discussions were performed. For the incidence based on the overall out of hospital cardiac arrest cases that occurred in 2011 (n=285), the survival rates were 16.8%. For adherence to protocol, only 89 (41.8%) of the cases adhered to the given protocol and 124 did not adhere to such protocol. The qualitative information provided insight about the issues related to out of hospital cardiac arrest in every aspect. All the relevant qualitative data were merged into few categories relating issues that could affect the management of out of hospital cardiac arrest performed by pre-hospital care team. One of the essential elements in the out of hospital cardiac arrest handling by pre-hospital care is to ensure increase of survival rates and excellent outcomes by adhering to given protocols based on international standard benchmarks. Measures are needed to strengthen the quick activation of the pre-hospital care service, prompt bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation, early defibrillation and timely advanced cardiac life support and also to tackle all the issues highlighted in qualitative results.

Keywords: incidence, pre-hospital care, out of hospital cardiac arrest, protocol, mixed method research

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10 An Enhanced Connectivity Aware Routing Protocol for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Kamalrulnizam Abu Bakar, Ahmadu Maidorawa


This paper proposed an Enhanced Connectivity Aware Routing (ECAR) protocol for Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET). The protocol uses a control broadcast to reduce the number of overhead packets needed in a route discovery process. It is also equipped with an alternative backup route that is used whenever a primary path to destination failed, which highly reduces the frequent launching and re-launching of the route discovery process that waste useful bandwidth and unnecessarily prolonging the average packet delay. NS2 simulation results show that the performance of ECAR protocol outperformed the original connectivity aware routing (CAR) protocol by reducing the average packet delay by 28%, control overheads by 27% and increased the packet delivery ratio by 22%.

Keywords: Routing, vehicular ad hoc networks, VANET, protocol, alternative path, primary path

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9 Design and Implementation Wireless System by Using Microcontrollers.Application for Drive Acquisition System with Multiple Sensors

Authors: H. Fekhar


Design and implementation acquisition system using radio frequency (RF) ASK module and micro controllers PIC is proposed in this work. The paper includes hardware and software design. The design tools are divided into two units , namely the sender MCU and receiver.The system was designed to measure temperatures of two furnaces and pressure pneumatic process. The wireless transmitter unit use the 433.95 MHz band directly interfaced to micro controller PIC18F4620. The sender unit consists of temperatures-pressure sensors , conditioning circuits , keypad GLCD display and RF module.Signal conditioner converts the output of the sensors into an electric quantity suitable for operation of the display and recording system.The measurements circuits are connected directly to 10 bits multiplexed A/D converter.The graphic liquid crystal display (GLCD) is used . The receiver (RF) module connected to a second microcontroller ,receive the signal via RF receiver , decode the Address/data and reproduces the original data . The strategy adopted for establishing communication between the sender MCU and receiver uses the specific protocol “Header, Address and data”.The communication protocol dealing with transmission and reception have been successfully implemented . Some experimental results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed wireless system. This embedded system track temperatures – pressure signal reasonably well with a small error.

Keywords: Sensors, temperature, Pressure, Microcontrollers, protocol, graphic liquid cristal display

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8 The Study of ZigBee Protocol Application in Wireless Networks

Authors: Ardavan Zamanpour, Somaieh Yassari


ZigBee protocol network was developed in industries and MIT laboratory in 1997. ZigBee is a wireless networking technology by alliance ZigBee which is designed to low board and low data rate applications. It is a Protocol which connects between electrical devises with very low energy and cost. The first version of IEEE 802.15.4 which was formed ZigBee was based on 2.4GHZ MHZ 912MHZ 868 frequency band. The name of system is often reminded random directions that bees (BEES) traversing during pollination of products. Such as alloy of the ways in which information packets are traversed within the mesh network. This paper aims to study the performance and effectiveness of this protocol in wireless networks.

Keywords: Networks, Wireless, ZigBee, protocol

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7 A Review of Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad-Hoc NETworks (MANET)

Authors: Muhammad Sufyan, Hafiza Khaddija Saman


The increase in availability and popularity of mobile wireless devices has led researchers to develop a wide variety of Mobile Ad-hoc Networking (MANET) protocols to exploit the unique communication opportunities presented by these devices. Devices are able to communicate directly using the wireless spectrum in a peer-to-peer fashion, and route messages through intermediate nodes, however, the nature of wireless shared communication and mobile devices result in many routing and security challenges which must be addressed before deploying a MANET. In this paper, we investigate the range of MANET routing protocols available and discuss the functionalities of several ranging from early protocols such as DSDV to more advanced such as MAODV, our protocol study focuses upon works by Perkins in developing and improving MANET routing. A range of literature relating to the field of MANET routing was identified and reviewed, we also reviewed literature on the topic of securing AODV based MANETs as this may be the most popular MANET protocol. The literature review identified a number of trends within research papers such as exclusive use of the random waypoint mobility model, excluding key metrics from simulation results and not comparing protocol performance against available alternatives.

Keywords: Communication, manet, ad-hoc, protocol

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6 A Survey on Various Technique of Modified TORA over MANET

Authors: Shreyansh Adesara, Sneha Pandiya


The mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is an important and open area research for the examination and determination of the performance evolution. Temporary ordered routing algorithm (TORA) is adaptable and distributed MANET routing algorithm which is totally dependent on internet MANET Encapsulation protocol (IMEP) for the detection of the link and sensing of the link. If IMEP detect the wrong link failure then the network suffer from congestion and unnecessary route maintenance. Thus, the improvement in link detection method of TORA is introduced by various methods on IMEP by different perspective from different person. There are also different reactive routing protocols like AODV, TORA and DSR has been compared for the knowledge of the routing scenario for different parameter and using different model.

Keywords: protocol, mobile ad-hoc network, IMEP, TORA

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5 Cross-Layer Design of Event-Triggered Adaptive OFDMA Resource Allocation Protocols with Application to Vehicle Clusters

Authors: Shaban Guma, Naim Bajcinca


We propose an event-triggered algorithm for the solution of a distributed optimization problem by means of the projected subgradient method. Thereby, we invoke an OFDMA resource allocation scheme by applying an event-triggered sensitivity analysis at the access point. The optimal resource assignment of the subcarriers to the involved wireless nodes is carried out by considering the sensitivity analysis of the overall objective function as defined by the control of vehicle clusters with respect to the information exchange between the nodes.

Keywords: Wireless, Distributed, Resource, OFDMA, consensus, protocol, cross-layer, event-triggered, multi-vehicle

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4 Islamic Banking Adoption Model from Technology Prospective

Authors: Amer Alzaidi


Islamic banking is an alternative solution to those people who are worried about Riba (interest) in all forms of transaction while using banking services and products. Today, banks around the world have Islamic banking services and products the in one form or another. The use of Islamic banking is not only restricted to Muslims world but have reached to non-Muslim countries like UK, USA, Australia and Canada as well. Compared to conventional banking, the adoption rate of Islamic banking is low because of unawareness of customers, financial cost, and performance issues. The interest in Islamic banking by financial institutions as well as low adoption rate motivated us to look this matter into detail in order to identify Critical Success Factors, which are positively motivating customers to use Islamic banking services/ products and Critical Risk Factors, which have significantly negative effect on the adoption of Islamic banking. The CSFs and CRFs will be initially identified from the literature using methodology called Systematic Literature Review, followed by the empirical analysis of these factors using survey research method. Later, we will develop Islamic Banking Adoption Model (IBAM) to help banks to assess their Islamic banking strategic positioning and to improve their operational efficiency. The first potential contribution of this research study will be the development of IBAM protocol that will provide us guidelines for conducting our actual SLR. The second major contribution of this research will be the development of Islamic Banking Adoption Model (IBAM), and the third contribution of this research study will be the evaluation of the developed IBMA.

Keywords: Islamic Banking, Technology, protocol, adoption model

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3 An Analytical Approach for Medication Protocol Errors from Pediatric Nurse Curriculum

Authors: Priyanka Jani


The main focus of this research is to consider the objective of nursing curriculum in concern with pediatric nurses in respect to various parameters such as causes, reporting and prevention of medication protocol errors. A design or method selected for the study is the descriptive and cross sectional with respect to analytical study. Nurses were selected from inpatient pediatric wards of 5 hospitals in Gujarat, as a population. 126 pediatric nurses gave approval to participate in the research and completed with quarter questionnaires. The actual data was collected and analyzed. The actual data was collected and analyzed. The medium age of the nurses was 25.7 ± 3.68 years; the maximum was lady (97.6%) pediatric nurses stated that the most common causes of medication protocol errors were large work time (69.2%) and a huge ratio of patient: nurse (59.9%). Even though the highest number of nurses (89%) made use of a medication protocol errors notification system, or else they use to check it before. Many errors were not reported and nurses cited abeyant claims of nurses in case of adverse and opposite output for patient (53.97%), distrust (52.45%), and fear of various/different protocol for mediations (42%) among the causes of insufficient of notification in concern to ignorance, nurses most commonly noted the requirement for efficient data concerning the safe use of medications (47.5%). This is the frequent study made by researcher in Gujarat about the pediatric nurse curriculum regarding medication protocol errors. The outputs debate that there is a requirement for ongoing coaching of pediatric nurses regarding safe & secure medication observation and that the causes and post reporting of medication protocol errors by hand further survey.

Keywords: Pediatric, medication, Errors, protocol

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2 FPGA Implementation of the BB84 Protocol

Authors: Jaouadi Ikram, Machhout Mohsen


The development of a quantum key distribution (QKD) system on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) platform is the subject of this paper. A quantum cryptographic protocol is designed based on the properties of quantum information and the characteristics of FPGAs. The proposed protocol performs key extraction, reconciliation, error correction, and privacy amplification tasks to generate a perfectly secret final key. We modeled the presence of the spy in our system with a strategy to reveal some of the exchanged information without being noticed. Using an FPGA card with a 100 MHz clock frequency, we have demonstrated the evolution of the error rate as well as the amounts of mutual information (between the two interlocutors and that of the spy) passing from one step to another in the key generation process.

Keywords: Cryptography, Security, Communication, FPGA, protocol, key, QKD, BB84

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1 Barriers to Tuberculosis Detection in Portuguese Prisons

Authors: M. F. Abreu, A. I. Aguiar, R. Gaio, R. Duarte


Background: Prison establishments constitute high-risk environments for the transmission and spread of tuberculosis (TB), given their epidemiological context and the difficulty of implementing preventive and control measures. Guidelines for control and prevention of tuberculosis in prisons have been described as incomplete and heterogeneous internationally, due to several identified obstacles, for example scarcity of human resources and funding of prisoner health services. In Portugal, a protocol was created in 2014 with the aim to define and standardize procedures of detection and prevention of tuberculosis within prisons. Objective: The main objective of this study was to identify and describe barriers to tuberculosis detection in prisons of Porto and Lisbon districts in Portugal. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from 2ⁿᵈ January 2018 till 30ᵗʰ June 2018. Semi-structured questionnaires were applied to health care professionals working in the prisons of the districts of Porto (n=6) and Lisbon (n=8). As inclusion criteria we considered having work experience in the area of tuberculosis (either in diagnosis, treatment, or follow up). The questionnaires were self-administered, in paper format. Descriptive analyses of the questionnaire variables were made using frequencies and median. Afterwards, a hierarchical agglomerative clusters analysis was performed. After obtaining the clusters, the chi-square test was applied to study the association between the variables collected and the clusters. The level of significance considered was 0.05. Results: From the total of 186 health professionals, 139 met the criteria of inclusion and 82 health professionals were interviewed (62,2% of participation). Most were female, nurses, with a median age of 34 years, with term employment contract. From the cluster analysis, two groups were identified with different characteristics and behaviors for the procedures of this protocol. Statistically significant results were found in: elements of cluster 1 (78% of the total participants) work in prisons for a longer time (p=0.003), 45,3% work > 4 years while 50% of the elements of cluster 2 work for less than a year, and more frequently answered they know and apply the procedures of the protocol (p=0.000). Both clusters answered frequently the need of having theoretical-practical training for TB (p=0.000), especially in the areas of diagnosis, treatment and prevention and that there is scarcity of funding to prisoner health services (p=0.000). Regarding procedures for TB screening (periodic and contact screening) and procedures for transferring a prisoner with this disease, cluster 1 also answered more frequently to perform them (p=0.000). They also referred that the material/equipment for TB screening is accessible and available (p=0.000). From this clusters we identified as barriers scarcity of human resources, the need to theoretical-practical training for tuberculosis, inexperience in working in health services prisons and limited knowledge of protocol procedures. Conclusions: The barriers found in this study are the same described internationally. This protocol is mostly being applied in portuguese prisons. The study also showed the need to invest in human and material resources. This investigation bridged gaps in knowledge that could help prison health services optimize the care provided for early detection and adherence of prisoners to treatment of tuberculosis.

Keywords: Tuberculosis, barriers, protocol, health care professionals, prisons

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