Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Proteins Related Abstracts

7 AFM Probe Sensor Designed for Cellular Membrane Components

Authors: Sarmiza Stanca, Wolfgang Fritzsche, Christoph Krafft, Jürgen Popp


Independent of the cell type a thin layer of a few nanometers thickness surrounds the cell interior as the cellular membrane. The transport of ions and molecules through the membrane is achieved in a very precise way by pores. Understanding the process of opening and closing the pores due to an electrochemical gradient across the membrane requires knowledge of the pore constitutive proteins. Recent reports prove the access to the molecular level of the cellular membrane by atomic force microscopy (AFM). This technique also permits an electrochemical study in the immediate vicinity of the tip. Specific molecules can be electrochemically localized in the natural cellular membrane. Our work aims to recognize the protein domains of the pores using an AFM probe as a miniaturized amperometric sensor, and to follow the protein behavior while changing the applied potential. The intensity of the current produced between the surface and the AFM probe is amplified and detected simultaneously with the surface imaging. The AFM probe plays the role of the working electrode and the substrate, a conductive glass on which the cells are grown, represent the counter electrode. For a better control of the electric potential on the probe, a third electrode Ag/AgCl wire is mounted in the circuit as a reference electrode. The working potential is applied between the electrodes with a programmable source and the current intensity in the circuit is recorded with a multimeter. The applied potential considers the overpotential at the electrode surface and the potential drop due to the current flow through the system. The reported method permits a high resolved electrochemical study of the protein domains on the living cell membrane. The amperometric map identifies areas of different current intensities on the pore depending on the applied potential. The reproducibility of this method is limited by the tip shape, the uncontrollable capacitance, which occurs at the apex and a potential local charge separation.

Keywords: Sensor, Proteins, Membrane, AFM, pores

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6 Paramecuim as a Model for the Evaluation of Toxicity (Growth, Total Proteins, Respiratory and GSH Bio Marker Changes) Observed after Treatment with Essential Oils Isolated from Artemisia herba-alba Plant of Algeria

Authors: Djebar Mohamed Reda, Bouchiha Hanene, Rouabhi Rachid, Bouchama Khaled, Djebar Berrebbah Houraya


Recently, some natural products such as essentials oils (EOs) have been used in the fields as alternative to synthetic compounds, to minimize the negative impacts to the environment. This fact has led to questions about the possible impact of EOs on ecosystems. Currently in toxicology, the use of alternative models can help to understand the mechanisms of toxic action, at different levels of organization of ecosystems. Algae, protozoa and bacteria form the base of the food chain and protozoan cells are used as bioindicators often of pollution in environment. Unicellular organisms offer the possibility of direct study of independent cells with specific characteristics of individual cells and whole organisms at the same time. This unicellular facilitates the study of physiological processes, and effects of pollutants at the cellular level, which makes it widely used to assess the toxic effects of various xenobiotics. This study aimed to verify the effects of EOs of one famous plant used tremendously in our folk medicine, namely Artemisia herba alba in causing acute toxicity (24 hours) and chronic (15 days) toxicity for model cellular (Paramecium sp). To this end, cellular’s of paramecium were exposed to various concentrations (Three doses were chosen) of EOs extracted from plant (Artemisia herba alba). In the first experiment, the cellular s cultures were exposed for 48 hours to different concentrations to determine the median lethal concentration (DL50). We followed the evolution of physiological parameters (growth), biochemical (total proteins, respiratory metabolism), as well as the variations of a bio marker the GSH. Our results highlighted a light inhibition of the growth of the protozoa as well as a disturbance of the contents of total proteins and a reduction in the reduced rate of glutathione. The polarographic study revealed a stimulation of the consumption of O2 and this at the treated cells.

Keywords: Toxicity, Growth, Proteins, essential oils, protozoa, bio indicators, bio marker, polarographic

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5 Rheological Evaluation of Wall Materials and β-Carotene Loaded Microencapsules

Authors: O. P. Katare, Gargi Ghoshal, Ashay Jain, Deepika Thakur, U. S. Shivhare


The main objectives of this work were the rheological characterization of dispersions, emulsions at different pH used in the microcapsules preparation and the microcapsules obtain from gum arabic (A), guar gum (G), casein (C) and whey protein isolate (W) to keep β-carotene protected from degradation using the complex coacervation microencapsulation technique (CCM). The evaluation of rheological properties of dispersions, emulsions of different pH and so obtained microencapsules manifest the changes occur in the molecular structure of wall materials during the encapsulation process of β-carotene. These dispersions, emulsions of different pH and formulated microencapsules were subjected to go through various conducted experiments (flow curve test, amplitude sweep, and frequency sweep test) using controlled stress dynamic rheometer. Flow properties were evaluated as a function of apparent viscosity under steady shear rate ranging from 0.1 to 100 s-1. The frequency sweep test was conducted to determine the extent of viscosity and elasticity present in the samples at constant strain under changing angular frequency range from 0.1 to 100 rad/s at 25ºC. The dispersions and emulsion exhibited a shear thinning non-Newtonian behavior whereas microencapsules are considered as shear-thickening respectively. The apparent viscosity for dispersion, emulsions were decreased at low shear rates 20 s-1 and for microencapsules, it decreases up to ~50 s-1 besides these value, it has shown constant pattern. Oscillatory shear experiments showed a predominant viscous liquid behavior up to crossover frequencies of dispersions of C, W, A at 49.47 rad/s, 57.60 rad/s and 21.45 rad/s emulsion sample of AW at pH 5.0 it was 17.85 rad/s and GW microencapsules 61.40 rad/s respectively whereas no such crossover was found in G dispersion, emulsion with C and microencapsules still it showed more viscous behavior. Storage and loss modulus decreases with time also a shift of the crossover towards lower frequencies for A, W and C was observed respectively. However, their microencapsules showed more viscous behavior as compared to samples prior to blending.

Keywords: viscosity, Proteins, gums, frequency sweep test, apparent viscosity

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4 Evaluation of Pretreatment and Bioactive Compounds Recovery from Chlorella vulgaris

Authors: Konstantina Kyriakopoulou, Magdalini Krokida, Marina Stramarkou, Sofia Papadaki


Nowadays, microalgae represent the diverse branch of microorganism that is used not only in fish farming, but also in food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and biofuel production as they can produce a wide range of unique functional ingredients. In the present work, a remarkable microalga Chlorella vulgaris (CV) was selected as a raw material for the recovery of multifunctional extracts. First of all, the drying of raw biomass was examined with freeze-drying showing the best behavior. Ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) using different solvents was applied under the specific optimized conditions. In case of raw biomass, ethanol was the suitable solvent, whereas on dried samples water performed better. The total carotenoid, β-carotene, chlorophyll and protein content in the raw materials, extracts and extraction residues was determined using UV-Vis spectrometry. The microalgae biomass and the extracts were evaluated regarding their antiradical activity using the DPPH method.

Keywords: Proteins, Pigments, antioxidant activity, ultrasound assisted extraction

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3 Green Synthesis of Red-Fluorescent Gold Nanoclusters: Characterization and Application for Breast Cancer Detection

Authors: Agnė Mikalauskaitė, Renata Karpicz, Vitalijus Karabanovas, Arūnas Jagminas


The use of biocompatible precursors for the synthesis and stabilization of fluorescent gold nanoclusters (NCs) with strong red photoluminescence creates an important link between natural sciences and nanotechnology. Herein, we report the cost-effective synthesis of Au nanoclusters by templating and reduction of chloroauric acid with the cheap amino acid food supplements. This synthesis under the optimized conditions leads to the formation of biocompatible Au NCs having good stability and intense red photoluminescence, peaked at 680 to 705 nm, with a quantum yield (QY) of ≈7% and the average lifetime of up to several µs. The composition and luminescent properties of the obtained NCs were compared with ones formed via well-known bovine serum albumin reduction approach. Our findings implied that synthesized Au NCs tend to accumulate in more tumorigenic breast cancer cells (line MDA-MB-213) and after dialysis can be prospective for bio imagining.

Keywords: Materials chemistry, Bioimaging, Proteins, gold nanoclusters, red-photoluminescence

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2 Case Study on Innovative Aquatic-Based Bioeconomy for Chlorella sorokiniana

Authors: Iryna Atamaniuk, Hannah Boysen, Nils Wieczorek, Natalia Politaeva, Iuliia Bazarnova, Kerstin Kuchta


Over the last decade due to climate change and a strategy of natural resources preservation, the interest for the aquatic biomass has dramatically increased. Along with mitigation of the environmental pressure and connection of waste streams (including CO2 and heat emissions), microalgae bioeconomy can supply food, feed, as well as the pharmaceutical and power industry with number of value-added products. Furthermore, in comparison to conventional biomass, microalgae can be cultivated in wide range of conditions without compromising food and feed production, thus addressing issues associated with negative social and the environmental impacts. This paper presents the state-of-the art technology for microalgae bioeconomy from cultivation process to production of valuable components and by-streams. Microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana were cultivated in the pilot-scale innovation concept in Hamburg (Germany) using different systems such as race way pond (5000 L) and flat panel reactors (8 x 180 L). In order to achieve the optimum growth conditions along with suitable cellular composition for the further extraction of the value-added components, process parameters such as light intensity, temperature and pH are continuously being monitored. On the other hand, metabolic needs in nutrients were provided by addition of micro- and macro-nutrients into a medium to ensure autotrophic growth conditions of microalgae. The cultivation was further followed by downstream process and extraction of lipids, proteins and saccharides. Lipids extraction is conducted in repeated-batch semi-automatic mode using hot extraction method according to Randall. As solvents hexane and ethanol are used at different ratio of 9:1 and 1:9, respectively. Depending on cell disruption method along with solvents ratio, the total lipids content showed significant variations between 8.1% and 13.9 %. The highest percentage of extracted biomass was reached with a sample pretreated with microwave digestion using 90% of hexane and 10% of ethanol as solvents. Proteins content in microalgae was determined by two different methods, namely: Total Kejadahl Nitrogen (TKN), which further was converted to protein content, as well as Bradford method using Brilliant Blue G-250 dye. Obtained results, showed a good correlation between both methods with protein content being in the range of 39.8–47.1%. Characterization of neutral and acid saccharides from microalgae was conducted by phenol-sulfuric acid method at two wavelengths of 480 nm and 490 nm. The average concentration of neutral and acid saccharides under the optimal cultivation conditions was 19.5% and 26.1%, respectively. Subsequently, biomass residues are used as substrate for anaerobic digestion on the laboratory-scale. The methane concentration, which was measured on the daily bases, showed some variations for different samples after extraction steps but was in the range between 48% and 55%. CO2 which is formed during the fermentation process and after the combustion in the Combined Heat and Power unit can potentially be used within the cultivation process as a carbon source for the photoautotrophic synthesis of biomass.

Keywords: Lipids, Bioeconomy, Proteins, Microalgae, saccharides

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1 Functional Significance of Qatari Camels Milk: Antioxidant Content and Antimicrobial Activity of Protein Fractions

Authors: Tahra Elobeid, Omnya Ahmed, Reem Al-Sharshani, Doaa Dalloul, Jannat Alnattei


Background: Camelus dormedarius camels are also called ‘the Arabian camels’ and are present in the desert area of North Africa and the Middle East. Recently, camel’s milk has a great attention globally because of their proteins and peptides that have been reported to be beneficial for the health and in the management of many diseases. Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial activity and to evaluate the total phenolic content of camel’s milk proteins in Qatar. Methods: Fresh two camel’s milk samples from Omani breed and called Muhajer (camel’s milk A and B) were collected on the 1st of the December. Both samples were from the same location Al- Shahaniyah, Doha, Qatar, but from different local private farms and feeding system. Camel’s milk A and B were defatted by centrifugation and their proteins were extracted by acid and thermal precipitation. The antioxidant activity was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Total phenolic compound (TPC) was evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR). On the other hand, the antimicrobial activity against eight different type of pathogenic bacteria was evaluated by disc diffusion method and the zone of inhibition was measured. Results: The of the total phenolic content of whole milk in both camel’s milk A and B were significantly the highest among the protein extracts. The % of the DPPH radical inhibition of casein protein in both camel’s milk A and B were significantly the highest among the protein extracts. In this study, there were marked changes in the antibacterial activity in the different camel milk protein extracts. All extracts showed bacterial overgrowth. Conclusion: The antioxidant activity of the camel milk protein extracts correlated to their unique phenolic compounds and bioactive protein peptides. The antimicrobial activity was not detected perhaps due to the technique, the quality, or the extraction method. Overall, camel's milk exhibits a high antioxidant activity, which is responsible for many health benefits besides the nutritional values.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Proteins, Qatar, camels milk, antioxidant content

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