Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 37

Protein Related Abstracts

37 Study of the Chronic Effects of CRACK on Some Biochemical Parameters Including Triglycerides, Cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, Amylase, Lipase, Albumin, Protein in Rat

Authors: Alireza Jafarzadeh, Bahram Amu-Oqhli Tabrizi, Hadi Khayat Nouri, Arash Khaki

Abstract:

30 head of adult Vistar rats were chosen to evaluate the chronic narcotic effects of crack on some biochemical parameters. The rats weighted approximately 200 to 250 g. They were divided into 5 groups of 6 and were housed in identical condition in terms of food and ambience. Rats were maintained at 12 hours light and 12 hours darkness. Rats were injected 7.8 mg/kg BW crack intraperitoneally. The groups one to four received daily medication for one to four weeks respectively. The control groups were injected identical dose of saline. The blood was taken from control and test groups then serum was separated from. Serum biochemical parameters of amylase, lipase, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, protein and albumin were measured by diagnostic kits. Serum protein and albumin levels did not show statistically significant changes. Serum lipase and amylase showed significant changes both of which were increased. The serum levels of cholesterol, LDL and HDL demonstrated no significant changes. Triglycerides values showed a significant increase in serum. Serum VLDL in groups 3 and 4 exhibited significant changes compare to other groups.

Keywords: Protein, rat, cholesterol, crack, amylase, HDL, LDL, albumin, lipase, triglycerides, VLDL

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36 Analysis of Osmotin as Transcription Factor/Cell Signaling Modulator Using Bioinformatic Tools

Authors: Usha Kiran, M. Z. Abdin

Abstract:

Osmotin is an abundant cationic multifunctional protein discovered in cells of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. var Wisconsin 38) adapted to an environment of low osmotic potential. It provides plants protection from pathogens, hence placed in the PRP family of proteins. The osmotin induced proline accumulation has been reported in plants including transgenic tomato and strawberry conferring tolerance against both biotic and abiotic stresses. The exact mechanism of induction of proline by osmotin is however, not known till date. These observations have led us to hypothesize that osmotin induced proline accumulation could be due to its involvement as transcription factor and/or cell signal pathway modulator in proline biosynthesis. The present investigation was therefore, undertaken to analyze the osmotin protein as transcription factor /cell signalling modulator using bioinformatics tools. The results of available online DNA binding motif search programs revealed that osmotin does not contain DNA-binding motifs. The alignment results of osmotin protein with the protein sequence from DATF showed the homology in the range of 0-20%, suggesting that it might not contain a DNA binding motif. Further to find unique DNA-binding domain, the superimposition of osmotin 3D structure on modeled Arabidopsis transcription factors using Chimera also suggested absence of the same. We, however, found evidence implicating osmotin in cell signaling. With these results, we concluded that osmotin is not a transcription factor but regulating proline biosynthesis and accumulation through cell signaling during abiotic stresses.

Keywords: Protein, osmotin, cell signaling modulator, bioinformatic tools

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35 Enhancing Protein Incorporation in Calcium Phosphate Coating on Titanium by Rapid Biomimetic Co-Precipitation Technique

Authors: J. Suwanprateeb, F. Thammarakcharoen

Abstract:

Calcium phosphate coating (CaP) has been employed for protein delivery, but the typical direct protein adsorption on the coating led to low incorporation content and fast release of the protein from the coating. By using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein, rapid biomimetic co-precipitation between calcium phosphate and BSA was employed to control the distribution of BSA within calcium phosphate coating during biomimetic formation on titanium surface for only 6 h at 50 oC in an accelerated calcium phosphate solution. As a result, the amount of BSA incorporation and release duration could be increased by using a rapid biomimetic co-precipitation technique. Up to 43 fold increases in the BSA incorporation content and the increase from 6 h to more than 360 h in release duration compared to typical direct adsorption technique were observed depending on the initial BSA concentration used during co-precipitation (1, 10, and 100 microgram/ml). From X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies, the coating composition was not altered with the incorporation of BSA by this rapid biomimetic co-precipitation and mainly comprised octacalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite. However, the microstructure of calcium phosphate crystals changed from straight, plate-like units to curved, plate-like units with increasing BSA content.

Keywords: Biomimetic, Protein, Titanium, Calcium Phosphate Coating

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34 Chemical Composition Pistachio Harvested Bechloul (Algeria)

Authors: Nassima Behidj, Nadjiba Mezıou-Cheboutı, Amel Merabet, Yahia Cheboutı, Fatima-Zohra Bıssaad et Salahedine Doumandjı

Abstract:

Among the Anacardiaceae, the fruit (Pistacia vera L.) is the only species that produces edible fruits. The introduction of real pistachio was made in the early sixties by an FAO program in Algeria in several regions in the northern part of Algeria: Tlemcen, Sidi Bel Abbes, Batna, Bouira M'sila . Chemical analyzes of seeds pistachios were made on seeds from an orchard that localizes to Bechloul (Bouira) located in bioclimatic sub-humid temperate winter floor. Analyzes reveal dry matter content of 3.60 ± 0.45%, the water rate is 7.21 ± 0.36%. However, the fat content is 46.00 ± 0.90%, in average blood sugar, it is 4.02 ± 0.47%, the protein reached 29.88 ± 0.76%. Given the very interesting that high-fat food nutritional values, culture pistachio must be considered for its extension in Algeria.

Keywords: Protein, fat, Sugar, dry matter, pistachio

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33 Tofu Flour as a Protein Sources

Authors: Dicky Eka Putra, S. P. Nadia Chairunissa, Lidia Paramita, Roza Hartati, Ice Yolanda Puri

Abstract:

Background: Soy bean and the products such as tofu, tempeh and soy milk are famous in the community. Moreover, another product is tofu flour which is not familiar in Indonesia yet and it is well known as Okara. There are massive differences of energy, protein and carbohydrate between them which is know as good for protein sources as well. Unfortunately, it is seldom used as food variety. Basically, it can be benefit in order to create many products for example cakes, snacks and some desserts. Aim: the study was in order to promote the benefit of tofu flour as school feeding of elementary school and baby porridge and also to compare the nutrient. Method: Soy pulp was filtered and steamed approximately 30 minutes. Then, it was put at a plate under sunrise or barked on the oven for 10 hours at 800C. When it have dried and milling and tofu flour is ready to be used. Result: Tofu flour could be used as substitute of flour and rice flour when people want to cook some foods. In addition, some references said that soy bean is good for a specific remedy for the proper functioning of the heart, liver, kidneys, stomach, and bowels, constipation, as a stimulant for the lungs, for eradication of poison from the system, improving the complexion by cleaning the skin of impurities, and stimulating the growth and appearance of the hair. Discussion: Comparing between soy bean, tofu and tofu flour which has difference amount of nutrients. For example energy 382 kcal, 79 kcal and 393 kcal respectively and also protein 30.2 kcal, 7.8 kcal, and 17.4 kcal. In addition, carbohydrate of soy pulp was high than soy bean and tofu (30.1 kcal). Finally, local should replace flour, rice and gelatin rice flour with tofu flour.

Keywords: Protein, tofu flour, soy bean, school feeding

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32 Inheritance of Protein Content and Grain Yield in Half Diallel Maize (Zea mays L.) Populations

Authors: Gul Ebru Orhun

Abstract:

A half diallel crossing design was carried out during 2011 and 2012 growing seasons under Çanakkale-Turkey ecological conditions. In this research, 20 F1 maize hybrids obtained by 6x6 half diallel crossing were used. Gene action for protein content and grain yield traits were explored in half set involving six elite inbred lines. According to the results diallel analysis dominance and additive gene variances were determined for protein content. Variance/Co-variance graphs revealed for grain yield and protein content traits. In this study, inheritance of grain yield and protein content demonstrated over-dominance type of gene action.

Keywords: Protein, maize, inheritance, gene action

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31 Studies on Tolerance of Chickpea to Some Pre and Post Emergence Herbicides

Authors: Rahamdad Khan, Ijaz Ahmad Khan

Abstract:

In modern agriculture the herbicides application are considered the most effective and fast in action against all types of weeds. But it’s a fact that the herbicide applicator cannot totally secure the crop plants from the possible herbicide injuries that further leads to several destructive changes in plant biochemistry. For the purpose pots studies were undertaken to test the tolerance order of chickpea against pre- emergence herbicides (Stomp 330 EC- Dual Gold 960 EC) and post- emergence herbicides (Topik 15 WP- Puma Super 75 EW- Isoproturon 500 EW) during 2012-13 and 2013-14. The experimental design was CRD with three replications. Plant height, number of branches plant-1, number of seeds plant-1, nodulation, seed protein contents and other growth related parameters in chickpea were examined during the investigations. The results indicate that all the enquire herbicides gave a significant variation to all recorded parameter of chick pea except nodule fresh and dray weight. Moreover the toxic effect of pre-emergence herbicide on chickpea was found higher as compared to post-emergence herbicides. Minimum chickpea plant height (50.50 cm), number of nodule plant-1 (17.83) and lowest seed protein (14.13 %) was recorded in Stomp 330 EC. Similarly the outmost seeds plant-1 (29.66) and number of nodule plant-1 (21) were found for Puma Super 75 EW. The results further showed that the highest seed protein content (21.75 and 21.15 %) was recorded for control/ untreated and Puma Super 75EW. Taking under concentration the possible negative impact of the herbicides the chemical application must be minimized up to certain extent at which the crop is mostly secure. However chemical weed control has many advantages so we should train our farmer regarding the proper use of agro chemical to minimize the loses in crops while using herbicides.

Keywords: Protein, Herbicides, chickpea, weed, stomp 330 EC

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30 Nutrition Intervention for Spinal Cord Injury in Critical Care

Authors: Dina Muharib

Abstract:

Specific metabolic challenges are present following spinal cord injury. The acute stage is characterized by a reduction in metabolic activity, as well as a negative nitrogen balance that cannot be corrected, even with aggressive nutritional support. Metabolic demands need to be accurately monitored to avoid overfeeding. Enteral feeding is the optimal route following SCI. When oral feeding is not possible, nasogastric, followed by nasojejunal, then by percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, if necessary, is suggested.

Keywords: Energy, Protein, SCI, Nutrition Assessment, eneral feeding, nitrogen balance

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
29 Magnetic Field Effects on Seed Germination of Phaseolus Vulgaris, Early Seedling Growth, and Chemical Composition

Authors: Farzad Tofigh, Saeideh Najafi, Reza Heidari, Rashid Jamei

Abstract:

In order to study the effects of magnetic field on the root system and growth of Phaseolus vulgaris, an experiment was conducted in 2012. The possible involvement of magnetic field (MF) pretreatment in physiological factors of Phaseolus vulgaris was investigated. Seeds were subjected to 10 days with 1.8 mT of magnetic field for 1h per day. MF pretreatment decreased the plant height, fresh and dry weight, length of root and length of shoot, Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b and carotenoid in 10 days old seedling. In addition, activity of enzymes such as Catalase and Guaiacol peroxidase was decreased due to MF exposure. Also, the total Protein and DPPH content of the treated by magnetic field was not significantly changed in compare to control groups, while the flavonoid, Phenol and prolin content of the treated of the treated by magnetic field was significantly changed in compare to control groups. Lateral branches of roots and secondary roots increased with MF. The results suggest that pretreatment of this MF plays important roles in changes in crop productivity. In all cases there was observed a slight stimulating effect of the factors examined. The growth dynamics were weakened. The plants were shorter. Moreover, the effect of a magnetic field on the crop of Phaseolus vulgaris and its structure was small.

Keywords: Protein, Growth, Enzymes, Magnetic Field, Germination, flavonoid, DPPH, proline, phenol, carotenoid, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
28 Field Effects on Seed Germination of Phaseolus Vulgaris, Early Seedling Growth and Chemical Composition

Authors: Najafi S., Heidai R., Jamei R., Tofigh F.

Abstract:

In order to study the effects of magnetic field on the root system and growth of Phaseolus vulgaris, an experiment was conducted in 2012. The possible involvement of magnetic field (MF) pretreatment in physiological factors of Phaseolus vulgaris was investigated. Seeds were subjected to 10 days with 1.8 mT of magnetic field for 1h per day. MF pretreatment decreased the plant height, fresh and dry weight, length of root and length of shoot, Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b and carotenoid in 10 days old seedling. In addition, activity of enzymes such as Catalase and Guaiacol peroxidase was decreased due to MF exposure. Also, the total Protein and DPPH content of the treated by magnetic field was not significantly changed in compare to control groups, while the flavonoid, Phenol and prolin content of the treated of the treated by magnetic field was significantly changed in compare to control groups. Lateral branches of roots and secondary roots increased with MF. The results suggest that pretreatment of this MF plays important roles in changes in crop productivity. In all cases there was observed a slight stimulating effect of the factors examined. The growth dynamics were weakened. The plants were shorter. Moreover, the effect of a magnetic field on the crop of Phaseolus vulgaris and its structure was small.

Keywords: Protein, Growth, Enzymes, Magnetic Field, Germination, Phaseolus vulgaris, flavonoid, DPPH, proline, phenol, carotenoid, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b

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27 The Chemical Composition of the Pistachio (Pistacia vera) Harvested Bechloul (Algeria)

Authors: Nassima Behidj, Amel Merabet, Nadjiba Meziou-Chebouti, Yahia Chebouti, Salahedine Doumandji

Abstract:

Among the Anacardiaceae, the fruit (Pistacia vera L.) is the only species that produces edible fruits. The introduction of real pistachio was made in the early sixties by an FAO program in Algeria in several regions in the northern part of Algeria: Tlemcen, Sidi Bel Abbes, Batna, Bouira M'sila. Chemical analyzes of seeds pistachios were made on seeds from an orchard that localizes to Bechloul (Bouira) located in bioclimatic sub-humid temperate winter floor. Analyzes reveal dry matter content of 3.60±0.45%, the water rate is 7.21±0.36%. However, the fat content is 46.00±0.90%, in average blood sugar, it is 4.02±0.47%, the protein reached 29.88±0.76%. Given the very interesting that high-fat food nutritional values, culture pistachio must be considered for its extension in Algeria.

Keywords: Protein, fat, Sugar, dry matter, pistachio

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26 Text Mining Techniques for Prioritizing Pathogenic Mutations in Protein Families Known to Misfold or Aggregate

Authors: Khaleel Saleh Al-Rababah

Abstract:

Amyloid fibril forming regions, which are known as protein aggregates, in sequences of some protein families are associated with a number of diseases known as amyloidosis. Mutations play a role in forming fibrils by accelerating the fibril formation process. In this paper we want to extract diseases that caused by those mutations as a result of the impact of the mutations on structural and functional properties of the aggregated protein. We propose a text mining system, to automatically extract mutations, diseases and relations between mutations and diseases. We presented an algorithm based on finite state to cluster mutations found in the same sentence as a sentence could contain different mutation cause different diseases. Also, we presented a co reference algorithm that enables cross-link sentences.

Keywords: Text Mining, Protein, amyloidosis, amyloid, co reference

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25 Effect of Coal Fly Ash on Morphological and Biochemical Characteristics of Helianthus Annuus L. Sunflower

Authors: Patel P. Kailash, Patel M. Parimal

Abstract:

An investigation was conducted to study the different concentration of coal fly ash solution on morphological and biochemical parameters of Helianthus annuus L. The seeds of Helianthus annuus L. were placed in petri dishes in three replicates and allowed to grow for 16 days in different concentration of coal fly ash solution. Shoot length, root length and fresh weight, dry weight declined with increasing concentration of fly ash. Semidiluted and concentrated fly ash solution exhibited significant reduction in chlorophyll, protein,sugar and ascorbic acid. Concentration dependent changes were observed in most of parameters. Diluted solution of fly ash revealed the maximum increase morphological and biochemical changes of seedlings.

Keywords: Protein, Sugar, chlorophyll, Helianthus annuus L, coal fly ash

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24 Diabetes Mellitus and Food Balance in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Aljabryn Dalal Hamad

Abstract:

The present explanatory study concerns with the relation between Diabetes Mellitus and Food Balance in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during 2005-2010, using published data. Results illustrated that Saudi citizen daily protein consumption (DPC) during 2005-2007 (g/capita/day) is higher than the average global consumption level of protein with 15.27%, daily fat consumption (DFC) with 24.56% and daily energy consumption (DEC) with 16.93% and increases than recommended level by International Nutrition Organizations (INO) with 56% for protein, 60.49% for fat and 27.37% for energy. On the other hand, DPC per capita in Saudi Arabia decreased during the period 2008-2010 from 88.3 to 82.36 gram/ day. Moreover, DFC per capita in Saudi Arabia decreased during the period 2008-2010 from 3247.90 to 3176.43 Cal/capita/ day, and daily energy consumption (DEC) of Saudi citizen increases than world consumption with 16.93%, while increases with 27.37% than INO. Despite this, DPC, DFC and DEC per capita in Saudi Arabia still higher than world mean. On the other side, results illustrated that the number of diabetic patients in Saudi Arabia during the same period (2005-2010). The curve of diabetic patient’s number in Saudi Arabia during 2005-2010 is regular ascending with increasing level ranged between 7.10% in 2005 and 12.44% in 2010. It is essential to devise Saudi National programs to educate the public about the relation of food balances and diabetes so it could be avoided, and provide citizens with healthy dietary balances tables.

Keywords: Energy, Protein, Saudi Arabia, fat, diabetes mellitus, food balance

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23 Effect of Different Irrigation Intervals on Protein and Gel Production of Aloe Vera (Aloe Barbadensis M.) in Iran

Authors: Seyed Mohammad Hosein Al Omrani Nejad, Ali Rezvani Aghdam

Abstract:

This study was done in order to evaluation different irrigation intervals on amount of protein, and gel production in Aloe vera, a traditional medicinal plant. Plants was plnted in Greenhouse and irrigated according to Accumulative Pan Evaporation(APE). The treatments were included 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, and 200 mm APE which has been showed W1,W2, W3, W4, W5, W6, W7, W8,W9 and W10 respectively.The amount of protein and gel production was measured seperately. Results showed that highest protein and fresh weight of gel obtained plants which irrigated W6 and W7 respectively. According to these results can recomend which if plant irrigatedwhen APE reached 120 and 140 mm by Class A Evaporation Pan method gel production and protein would besuitable in north of khozestan province in limited irrigation conditions.

Keywords: Protein, irrigation, Iran, Aloe vera, gel

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22 Nutritional Value and Forage Quality Indicators in Some Rangeland’s Species at Different Vegetation Forms

Authors: Reza Dehghani Bidgoli

Abstract:

Information on different rangeland plants’ nutritive values at various phonological stages is important in rangelands management. This information helps rangeland managers to choose proper grazing times to achieve higher animal performance without detrimental effects on the rangeland vegetations. Effects of various plant parts’ phonological stages and vegetation types on reserve carbohydrates and forage quality indicators were investigated during the 2009 and 2010. Plant samples were collected in a completely randomized block (CRB) design. The species included, grasses (Secale montanum and Festuco ovina), forbs (Lotus corniculatus and Sanguisorba minor), and shrubs (Kochia prosterata and Salsola rigida). Aerial plant parts’ samples were oven-dried at 80oC for 24 hours, then analyzed for soluble carbohydrates, crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), dry matter digestible (DMD), and metabolizable energy (ME). Results showed that plants at the seedling stage had more reserve carbohydrates and from the three vegetation types (grass, forbs, and shrub), forbs contained more soluble carbohydrates compared to the other two (grasses and shrubs). Differences in soluble carbohydrate contents of different species at various phonological stages in 2 years were statistically significant. The forage quality indicators (CP, ADF, DMD, and ME) in different species, in different vegetation types, in the 2 years were statistically significant, except for the CP.

Keywords: Protein, Fiber, grazing, soluble carbohydrate, metabolizeable energy

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21 Influence of Freeze-Thaw Cycles on Protein Integrity and Quality of Chicken Meat

Authors: Nafees Ahmed, Nur Izyani Kamaruzman, Saralla Nathan, Mohd Ezharul Hoque Chowdhury, Anuar Zaini Md Zain, Iekhsan Othman, Sharifah Binti Syed Hassan

Abstract:

Meat quality is always subject to consumer scrutiny when purchasing from retail markets on mislabeling as fresh meat. Various physiological and biochemical changes influence the quality of meat. As a major component of muscle tissue, proteins play a major role in muscle foods. In meat industry, freezing is the most common form of storage of meat products. Repeated cycles of freezing and thawing are common in restaurants, kitchen, and retail outlets and can also occur during transportation or storage. Temperature fluctuation is responsible for physical, chemical, and biochemical changes. Repeated cycles of ‘freeze-thaw’ degrade the quality of meat by stimulating the lipid oxidation and surface discoloration. The shelf life of meat is usually determined by its appearance, texture, color, flavor, microbial activity, and nutritive value and is influenced by frozen storage and subsequent thawing. The main deterioration of frozen meat during storage is due to protein. Due to the large price differences between fresh and frozen–thawed meat, it is of great interest to consumer to know whether a meat product is truly fresh or not. Researchers have mainly focused on the reduction of moisture loss due to freezing and thawing cycles of meat. The water holding capacity (WHC) of muscle proteins and reduced water content are key quality parameters of meat that ultimately changes color and texture. However, there has been limited progress towards understanding the actual mechanisms behind the meat quality changes under the freeze–thaw cycles. Furthermore, effect of freeze-thaw process on integrity of proteins is ignored. In this paper, we have studied the effect of ‘freeze-thawing’ on physicochemical changes of chicken meat protein. We have assessed the quality of meat by pH, spectroscopic measurements, Western Blot. Our results showed that increase in freeze-thaw cycles causes changes in pH. Measurements of absorbance (UV-visible and IR) indicated the degradation of proteins. The expression of various proteins (CREB, AKT, MAPK, GAPDH, and phosphorylated forms) were performed using Western Blot. These results indicated the repeated cycles of freeze-thaw is responsible for deterioration of protein, thus causing decrease in nutritious value of meat. It damges the use of these products in Islamic Sharia.

Keywords: Protein, western blot, halal, chicken meat, freeze-thaw

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20 Protein and Mineral Removal from Dairy Waste-Water Using Precipitation Process

Authors: Zahra Akbari, Farzin Zokaee, Talat Ghomashchi

Abstract:

Whey is a by-product of the dairy industry whose major components are lactose (44–52 g/L), proteins (6–8 g/L) and mineral salts (4–9 g/L). Approximately 50% of 121 million tons of whey produced in the world in 1993 were disposed into rivers, lakes or other water bodies, treated in wastewater treatment plants or loaded onto land. This represents a significant loss of resources and causes serious pollution problems since whey is a heavy organic pollutant with high COD and BOD values, 40–60 g/L and 50–80 g/L, respectively. The removal of cheese whey proteins and minerals represent an important task both in environmental and in food sciences. The most important treatments which are considered in this study, have been done by using lime, Al2O3, FeCl3 and AlCl3 along with heating and also acidic-alkaline method. Results show that the best way for removal of protein is accomplished with adding HCl to decrease pH from 6 to 4, boiling for 20 min, and filtering protein aggregates. Also partial demineralization in whey solution for reducing ash is accomplished by adding NaOH to increase pH to 7.2 and heating solution for 20 min.

Keywords: Mineral, Protein, Precipitation, Dairy Industry, whey treatment

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19 Assessment of Proximate Composition and Heavy Metal in Vigna unguculata (White Beans) Sold in Kazaure Market, Jigawa State, Nigeria

Authors: Hamisu Abdu, Abdu Umar Adamu, Saidu Akun Abdullahi, Al-Hassan Muhammed

Abstract:

Leguminous plants such as beans have been considered as a source of protein in this present work. The proximate analysis on beans (Vigna unguiculata) were determined in order to identify the nutritional content as well as presence of some heavy metals accumulation in washed and unwashed beans (white Beans) sold in Kazaure market Jigawa State Nigeria. On the average comparative analysis, the result has indicated that, the Vigna unguiculata had protein content of 61.1%, fibre 4.5%, ash 10.4%, moisture 5%, carbohydrate 15.8% and total lipid 4.9%, therefore it could be suggested that beans has enough nutritional content that helps the people health. The heavy metal analysis of unwashed white beans showed that Fe (17.37 ± 6.71)mg/kg had the highest concentration followed by Zn (6.41 ± 3.09), Cu (5.69 ± 2.42), Cd (0.46 ± 0.65) and Pb (0.57 ± 0.94)mg/kg , while the washed beans shows that Zn (0.11 ± 0.17), Fe (0.01 ± 0.006), Cd (0.02 ± 0.01), Cu (0.03 ± 0.021), Pb (0.01 ± 0.006)mg/kg. The washed white beans are safe for consumption and also the concentration of heavy metal are negligible and of nontoxic effect to human health.

Keywords: Protein, proximate composition, heavy metal, white beans

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18 Effect of Cadmium on Oxidative Enzymes Activity in Persian Clover (Trifolium resupinatum L.)

Authors: Homayun Ghasemi, Mojtaba Yousefirad, Mozhgan Farzamisepehr

Abstract:

Heavy metals are among soil pollutant resources that in case of accumulation in the soil and absorption by the plant, enter into the food chain and poison the plants or the people who consume those plants. This research was performed in order to examine the role of cadmium as a heavy metal in the activity of catalase and peroxidase as well as protein concentration in Trifolium resupinatum L. based on a randomized block design with three repetitions. The used treatments included consumption of Cd (NO3)2 at four levels, namely, 0, 100, 200, and 300 ppm. The plants under study were treated for 10 days. The results of the study showed that catalase activity decreased by the increase of cadmium. Moreover, peroxidase activity increased by an increase inthe consumption of cadmium. The analysis of protein level showed that plantlet protein decreased in high cadmium concentrations. The findings also demonstrated that cadmium concentration in roots was higher than in shoots.

Keywords: Protein, heavy metal, catalase, peroxidase

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17 Recovery of Proteins from EDAM Whey Using Membrane Ultrafiltration

Authors: F. Yelles-Allam, A. A. Nouani

Abstract:

In Algeria, whey is discarded without any treatment and this causes not only pollution problem, but also a loss in nutritive components of milk. In this paper, characterization of EDAM whey, which is resulted from pasteurised mixture of cow’s milk and skim milk, and recovery of whey protein by ultrafiltration / diafiltration, was studied. The physical-chemical analysis of whey has emphasized on its pollutant and nutritive characteristics. In fact, its DBO5 and DCO are 49.33, and 127.71 gr of O2/l of whey respectively. It contains: fat (1,90±0,1 gr/l), lactose (47.32±1,57 gr/l), proteins (8.04±0,2 gr/l) and ashes (5,20±0,15 gr/l), calcium (0,48±0,04 gr/l), Na (1.104gr/l), K (1.014 gr/l), Mg (0.118 gr/l) and P (0.482 gr/l). Ultrafiltration was carried out in a polyetersulfone membrane with a cut-off of 10K. Its hydraulic intrinsic resistance and permeability are respectively: 2.041.1012 m-1 and 176,32 l/h.m2 at PTM of 1 bar. The retentate obtained at FC6, contains 16,33g/l of proteins and 70,25 g/l of dry matter. The retention rate of protein is 97, 7% and the decrease in DBO5 and DCO are at 18.875 g /l and 42.818 g/l respectively. Diafiltration performed on protein concentrates allowed the complete removal of lactose and minerals. The ultrafiltration of the whey before the disposal is an alternative for Algéria dairy industry.

Keywords: Protein, ultrafiltration, whey, diafiltration, DBO, DCO

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16 Protein-Thiocyanate Composite as a Sensor for Iron III Cations

Authors: Hosam El-Sayed, Amira Abou El-Kheir, Salwa Mowafi, Marwa Abou Taleb

Abstract:

Two proteinic biopolymers; namely keratin and sericin, were extracted from their respective natural resources by simple appropriate methods. The said proteins were dissolved in the appropriate solvents followed by regeneration in a form of film polyvinyl alcohol. Proteinium thiocyanate (PTC) composite was prepared by reaction of a regenerated film with potassium thiocyanate in acid medium. In another experiment, the said acidified proteins were reacted with potassium thiocyante before dissolution and regeneration in a form of PTC composite. The possibility of using PTC composite for determination of the concentration of iron III ions in domestic as well as industrial water was examined. The concentration of iron III cations in water was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring the intensity of blood red colour of iron III thiocyanate obtained by interaction of PTC with iron III cation in the tested water sample.

Keywords: Sensor, Water, Protein, iron III cations, thiocyanate

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15 Protein-Starch-Potassium Iodide Composite as a Sensor for Chlorine in Water

Authors: H. El-Sayed, S. Mowafi, A. Abou El-Kheir, M. Abou Taleb

Abstract:

Two proteinic biopolymers; namely keratin and sericin, were extracted from their respective natural resources by simple appropriate methods. The said proteins were dissolved in the appropriate solvents followed by regeneration in a form of film polyvinyl alcohol. Protein-starch-potassium iodide (PSPI) composite was prepared by anchoring starch and potassium iodide mixture onto the film surface using appropriate polymeric material. The possibility of using PSPI composite for determination of the concentration of chlorine ions in domestic as well as industrial water was examined. The concentration of chlorine in water was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring the intensity of blue colour of formed between starch and the released iodine obtained by interaction of potassium iodide chlorine in the tested water sample.

Keywords: Water, Protein, Chlorine, potassium iodide

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14 Determination of Nutritional Value and Steroidal Saponin of Fenugreek Genotypes

Authors: Anita Singh, Richa Naula, Manoj Raghav

Abstract:

Nutrient rich and high-yielding varieties of fenugreek can be developed by using genotypes which are naturally high in nutrients. Gene banks harbour scanty germplasm collection of Trigonella spp. and a very little background information about its genetic diversity. The extent of genetic diversity in a specific breeding population depends upon the genotype included in it. The present investigation aims at the estimation of macronutrient (phosphorus by spectrophotometer and potassium by flame photometer), micronutrients, namely, iron, zinc, manganese, and copper from seeds of fenugreek genotypes using atomic absorption spectrophotometer, protein by Rapid N Cube Analyser and Steroidal Saponins. Twenty-eight genotypes of fenugreek along with two standard checks, namely, Pant Ragini and Pusa Early Bunching were collected from different parts of India, and nutrient contents of each genotype were determined at G. B. P. U. A. & T. Laboratory, Pantnagar. Highest potassium content was observed in PFG-35 (1207 mg/100g). PFG-37 and PFG-20 were richest in phosphorus, iron and manganese content among all the genotypes. The lowest zinc content was found in PFG-26 (1.19 mg/100g), while the maximum zinc content was found in PFG- 28 (4.43 mg/100g). The highest content of copper was found in PFG-26 (1.97 mg/100g). PFG-39 has the highest protein content (29.60 %). Significant differences were observed in the steroidal saponin among the genotypes. Saponin content ranged from 0.38 g/100g to 1.31 g/100g. Steroidal Saponins content was found the maximum in PFG-36 (1.31 g/100g) followed by PFG-17 (1.28 g/100g). Therefore, the genotypes which are rich in nutrient and oil content can be used for plant biofortification, dietary supplements, and herbal products.

Keywords: Protein, Seeds, Macronutrients, micronutrient, genotypes

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13 Effective Solvents for Proteins Recovery from Microalgae

Authors: Tau Chuan LING, Win Nee Phong, Pau Loke Show

Abstract:

From an industrial perspective, the exploitation of microalgae for protein source is of great economical and commercial interest due to numerous attractive characteristics. Nonetheless, the release of protein from microalgae is limited by the multiple layers of the rigid thick cell wall that generally contain a large proportion of cellulose. Thus an efficient cell disruption process is required to rupture the cell wall. The conventional downstream processing methods which typically involve several unit operational steps such as disruption, isolation, extraction, concentration and purification are energy-intensive and costly. To reduce the overall cost and establish a feasible technology for the success of the large-scale production, microalgal industry today demands a more cost-effective and eco-friendly technique in downstream processing. One of the main challenges to extract the proteins from microalgae is the presence of rigid cell wall. This study aims to provide some guidance on the selection of the efficient solvent to facilitate the proteins released during the cell disruption process. The effects of solvent types such as methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol and water in rupturing the microalgae cell wall were studied. It is interesting to know that water is the most effective solvent to recover proteins from microalgae and the cost is cheapest among all other solvents.

Keywords: Protein, solvents, Microalgae, Green

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12 Effect of Different Processing Methods on the Quality Attributes of Pigeon Pea Used in Bread Production

Authors: B. F. Olanipekun, O. J. Oyelade, C. O. Osemobor

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Pigeon pea is a very good source of protein and micronutrient, but it is being underutilized in Nigeria because of several constraints. This research considered the effect of different processing methods on the quality attributes of pigeon pea used in bread production towards enhancing its utility. Pigeon pea was obtained at a local market and processed into the flour using three processing methods: soaking, sprouting and roasting and were used to bake bread in different proportions. Chemical composition and sensory attributes of the breads were thereafter determined. The highest values of protein and ash contents were obtained from 20 % substitution of sprouted pigeon pea in wheat flour and may be attributable to complex biochemical changes occurring during hydration, to invariably lead to protein constituent being broken down. Hydrolytic activities of the enzymes from the sprouted sample resulted in improvement in the constituent of total protein probably due to reduction in the carbohydrate content. Sensory qualities analyses showed that bread produced with soaked and roasted pigeon pea flours at 5 and 10% inclusion, respectively were mostly accepted than other blends, and products with sprouted pigeon pea flour were least accepted. The findings of this research suggest that supplementing wheat flour with sprouted pigeon peas have more nutritional potentials. However, with sensory analysis indices, the soaked and roasted pigeon peas up to 10% are majorly accepted, and also can improve the nutritional status. Overall, this will be very beneficial to population dependent on plant protein in order to combat malnutrition problems.

Keywords: Malnutrition, Protein, Processing, Pigeon pea

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11 Predicting High-Risk Endometrioid Endometrial Carcinomas Using Protein Markers

Authors: Gordon B. Mills, Yuexin Liu, Russell R. Broaddus, John N. Weinstein

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The lethality of endometrioid endometrial cancer (EEC) is primarily attributable to the high-stage diseases. However, there are no available biomarkers that predict EEC patient staging at the time of diagnosis. We aim to develop a predictive scheme to help in this regards. Using reverse-phase protein array expression profiles for 210 EEC cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we constructed a Protein Scoring of EEC Staging (PSES) scheme for surgical stage prediction. We validated and evaluated its diagnostic potential in an independent cohort of 184 EEC cases obtained at MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) using receiver operating characteristic curve analyses. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to examine the association of PSES score with patient outcome, and Ingenuity pathway analysis was used to identify relevant signaling pathways. Two-sided statistical tests were used. PSES robustly distinguished high- from low-stage tumors in the TCGA cohort (area under the ROC curve [AUC]=0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68 to 0.82) and in the validation cohort (AUC=0.67; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.76). Even among grade 1 or 2 tumors, PSES was significantly higher in high- than in low-stage tumors in both the TCGA (P = 0.005) and MDACC (P = 0.006) cohorts. Patients with positive PSES score had significantly shorter progression-free survival than those with negative PSES in the TCGA (hazard ratio [HR], 2.033; 95% CI, 1.031 to 3.809; P = 0.04) and validation (HR, 3.306; 95% CI, 1.836 to 9.436; P = 0.0007) cohorts. The ErbB signaling pathway was most significantly enriched in the PSES proteins and downregulated in high-stage tumors. PSES may provide clinically useful prediction of high-risk tumors and offer new insights into tumor biology in EEC.

Keywords: Protein, Endometrial carcinoma, stage, protein scoring of EEC staging (PSES)

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10 The Impact of Protein Content on Athletes’ Body Composition

Authors: G. Vici, L. Cesanelli, L. Belli, R. Ceci, V. Polzonetti

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Several factors contribute to success in sport and diet is one of them. Evidence-based sport nutrition guidelines underline the importance of macro- and micro-nutrients’ balance and timing in order to improve athlete’s physical status and performance. Nevertheless, a high content of proteins is commonly found in resistance training athletes’ diet with carbohydrate intake that is not enough or not well planned. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of different protein and carbohydrate diet contents on body composition and sport performance on a group of resistance training athletes. Subjects were divided as study group (n=16) and control group (n=14). For a period of 4 months, both groups were subjected to the same resistance training fitness program with study group following a specific diet and control group following an ab libitum diet. Body compositions were evaluated trough anthropometric measurement (weight, height, body circumferences and skinfolds) and Bioimpedence Analysis. Physical strength and training status of individuals were evaluated through the One Repetition Maximum test (RM1). Protein intake in studied group was found to be lower than in control group. There was a statistically significant increase of body weight, free fat mass and body mass cell of studied group respect to the control group. Fat mass remains almost constant. Statistically significant changes were observed in quadriceps and biceps circumferences, with an increase in studied group. The MR1 test showed improvement in study group’s strength but no changes in control group. Usually people consume hyper-proteic diet to achieve muscle mass development. Through this study, it was possible to show that protein intake fixed at 1,7 g/kg/d can meet the individual's needs. In parallel, the increased intake of carbohydrates, focusing on quality and timing of assumption, has enabled the obtainment of desired results with a training protocol supporting a hypertrophic strategy. Therefore, the key point seems related to the planning of a structured program both from a nutritional and training point of view.

Keywords: Exercise, Protein, diet, Body Composition

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9 Protein and Lipid Extraction from Microalgae with Ultrasound Assisted Osmotic Shock Method

Authors: Nais Pinta Adetya, H. Hadiyanto

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Microalgae has a potential to be utilized as food and natural colorant. The microalgae components consists of three main parts, these are lipid, protein, and carbohydrate. Crucial step in producing lipid and protein from microalgae is extraction. Microalgae has high water level (70-90%), it causes drying process of biomass needs much more energy and also has potential to distract lipid and protein from microalgae. Extraction of lipid from wet biomass is able to take place efficiently with cell disruption of microalgae by osmotic shock method. In this study, osmotic shock method was going to be integrated with ultrasound to maximalize the extraction yield of lipid and protein from wet biomass Spirulina sp. with osmotic shock method assisted ultrasound. This study consisted of two steps, these were osmotic shock process toward wet biomass and ultrasound extraction assisted. NaCl solution was used as osmotic agent, with the variation of concentrations were 10%, 20%, and 30%. Extraction was conducted in 40°C for 20 minutes with frequency of ultrasound wave was 40kHz. The optimal yield of protein (2.7%) and (lipid 38%) were achieved at 20% osmotic agent concentration.

Keywords: Protein, Ultrasound, Extraction, lipid, osmotic shock

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8 Wet Processing of Algae for Protein and Carbohydrate Recovery as Co-Product of Algal Oil

Authors: Sahil Kumar, Ramesh Bhujade, Rajaram Ghadge

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Historically, lipid extraction from dried algal biomass remained a focus area of the algal research. It has been realized over the past few years that the lipid-centric approach and conversion technologies that require dry algal biomass have several challenges. Algal culture in cultivation systems contains more than 99% water, with algal concentrations of just a few hundred milligrams per liter ( < 0.05 wt%), which makes harvesting and drying energy intensive. Drying the algal biomass followed by extraction also entails the loss of water and nutrients. In view of these challenges, focus has shifted toward developing processes that will enable oil production from wet algal biomass without drying. Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), an emerging technology, is a thermo-chemical conversion process that converts wet biomass to oil and gas using water as a solvent at high temperature and high pressure. HTL processes wet algal slurry containing more than 80% water and significantly reduces the adverse cost impact owing to drying the algal biomass. HTL, being inherently feedstock agnostic, i.e., can convert carbohydrates and proteins also to fuels and recovers water and nutrients. It is most effective with low-lipid (10--30%) algal biomass, and bio-crude yield is two to four times higher than the lipid content in the feedstock. In the early 2010s, research remained focused on increasing the oil yield by optimizing the process conditions of HTL. However, various techno-economic studies showed that simply converting algal biomass to only oil does not make economic sense, particularly in view of low crude oil prices. Making the best use of every component of algae is a key for economic viability of algal to oil process. On investigation of HTL reactions at the molecular level, it has been observed that sequential HTL has the potential to recover value-added products along with biocrude and improve the overall economics of the process. This potential of sequential HTL makes it a most promising technology for converting wet waste to wealth. In this presentation, we will share our experience on the techno-economic and engineering aspects of sequential HTL for conversion of algal biomass to algal bio-oil and co-products.

Keywords: biomass, Protein, Algae, lipid

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