Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Properties Related Abstracts

17 Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloys: A Review

Authors: S. K. Tiwari, Dinesh Kumar Shukla, R. Chandra


Friction stir welding is a solid state joining process. High strength aluminum alloys are widely used in aircraft and marine industries. Generally, the mechanical properties of fusion-welded aluminum joints are poor. As friction stir welding occurs in the solid state, no solidification structures are created thereby eliminating the brittle and eutectic phases common in fusion welding of high strength aluminum alloys. In this review, the process parameters, microstructural evolution and effect of friction stir welding on the properties of weld specific to aluminum alloys have been discussed.

Keywords: Properties, Microstructure, Aluminum Alloys, friction stir welding (FSW)

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16 Preparation and Characterization of Calcium Phosphate Cement

Authors: W. Thepsuwan, N. Monmaturapoj


Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) is one of the most attractive bioceramics due to its moldable and shape ability to fill complicated bony cavities or small dental defect positions. In this study, CPCs were produced by using mixtures of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP, Ca4O(PO4)2) and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA, CaHPO4) in equimolar ratio (1/1) with aqueous solutions of acetic acid (C2H4O2) and disodium hydrogen phosphate dehydrate (Na2HPO4.2H2O) in combination with sodium alginate in order to improve theirs moldable characteristic. The concentrations of the aqueous solutions and sodium alginate were varied to investigate the effects of different aqueous solution and alginate on properties of the cements. The cement paste was prepared by mixing cement powder (P) with aqueous solution (L) in a P/L ratio of 1.0 g/ 0.35 ml. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to analyses phase formation of the cements. Setting times and compressive strength of the set CPCs were measured using the Gilmore apparatus and Universal testing machine, respectively. The results showed that CPCs could be produced by using both basic (Na2HPO4.2H2O) and acidic (C2H4O2) solutions. XRD results show the precipitation of hydroxyapatite in all cement samples. No change in phase formation among cements using difference concentrations of Na2HPO4.2H2O solutions. With increasing concentration of acidic solutions, samples obtained less hydroxyapatite with a high dicalcium phosphate dehydrate leaded to a shorter setting time. Samples with sodium alginate exhibited higher crystallization of hydroxyapatite than that of without alginate as a result of shorten setting time in basic solution but a longer setting time in acidic solution. The stronger cement was attained from samples using acidic solution with sodium alginate; however it was lower than using the basic solution.

Keywords: Properties, hydroxyapatite, calcium phosphate cements, TTCP, DCPA

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15 Physical Properties of Nine Nigerian Staple Food Flours Related to Bulk Handling and Processing

Authors: Ogunsina Babatunde, Aregbesola Omotayo, Adebayo Adewale, Odunlami Johnson


The physical properties of nine Nigerian staple food flours related to bulk handling and processing were investigated following standard procedures. The results showed that the moisture content, bulk density, angle of repose, water absorption capacity, swelling index, dispersability, pH and wettability of the flours ranged from 9.95 to 11.98%, 0.44 to 0.66 g/cm3, 31.43 to 39.65o, 198.3 to 291.7 g of water/100 g of sample, 5.53 to 7.63, 60.3 to 73.8%, 4.43 to 6.70, and 11 to 150 s. The particle size analysis of the flour samples indicated significant differences (p<0.05). The least gelation concentration of the flour samples ranged from 6 to 14%. The colour of the flours fell between light and saturated, with the exception of cassava, millet and maize flours which appear dark and dull. The properties of food flours depend largely on the inherent property of the food material and may influence their functional behaviour as food materials.

Keywords: Properties, flours, staple food, bulk handling

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14 Effects of Crushed Waste Aggregate from the Manufacture of Clay Bricks on Rendering Cement Mortar Performance

Authors: Benmalek M. Larbi, R. Harbi, S. Boukor


This paper reports an experimental work that aimed to investigate the effects of clay brick waste, as part of fine aggregate, on rendering mortar performance. The brick, in crushed form, was from a local brick manufacturer that was rejected due to being of-standard. It was used to replace 33.33 %, 50 %, 66.66 % and 100 % by weight of the quarry sand in mortar. Effects of the brick replacement on the mortar key properties intended for wall plastering were investigated; these are workability, compressive strength, flexural strength, linear shrinkage, water absorption by total immersion and by capillary suction. The results showed that as the brick replacement level increased, the mortar workability reduced. The linear shrinkage increases over time and decreases with the introduction of brick waste. The compressive and flexural strengths decrease with the increase of brick waste because of their great water absorption.

Keywords: Properties, mortar, clay brick waste, quarry sand

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13 Properties of Hot-Pressed Alumina-Graphene Composites

Authors: P. Rutkowski, G. Górny, L. Stobierski, D. Zientara, W. Piekarczyk, K. Tran


The polycrystalline dense alumina shows thermal conductivity about 30 W/mK and very high electrical resistivity. These last two properties can be modified by introducing commercial relatively cheap graphene nanoparticles which, as two-dimensional flakes show very high thermal and electrical properties. The aim of this work is to show that it is possible to manufacture the anisotropic alumina-graphene material with directed multilayer graphene particles. Such materials can show the anisotropic properties mentioned before.

Keywords: Graphene, Properties, Composite, alumina, hot-pressed

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12 Analysis of the Internal Mechanical Conditions in the Lower Limb Due to External Loads

Authors: Kent Salomonsson, Xuefang Zhao, Sara Kallin


Human soft tissue is loaded and deformed by any activity, an effect known as a stress-strain relationship, and is often described by a load and tissue elongation curve. Several advances have been made in the fields of biology and mechanics of soft human tissue. However, there is limited information available on in vivo tissue mechanical characteristics and behavior. Confident mechanical properties of human soft tissue cannot be extrapolated from e.g. animal testing. Thus, there is need for non invasive methods to analyze mechanical characteristics of soft human tissue. In the present study, the internal mechanical conditions of the lower limb, which is subject to an external load, is studied by use of the finite element method. A detailed finite element model of the lower limb is made possible by use of MRI scans. Skin, fat, bones, fascia and muscles are represented separately and the material properties for them are obtained from literature. Previous studies have been shown to address macroscopic deformation features, e.g. indentation depth, to a large extent. However, the detail in which the internal anatomical features have been modeled does not reveal the critical internal strains that may induce hypoxia and/or eventual tissue damage. The results of the present study reveals that lumped material models, i.e. averaging of the material properties for the different constituents, does not capture regions of critical strains in contrast to more detailed models.

Keywords: tissue, Properties, FEM, indentation

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11 Aspects Concerning the Use of Recycled Concrete Aggregates

Authors: Claudiu Mazilu, Ion Robu, Radu Deju


Natural aggregates (gravel and crushed) are essential non-renewable resources which are used for infrastructure works and civil engineering. In European Union member states from Southeast Europe, it is estimated that the construction industry will grow by 4.2% thereafter complicating aggregate supply management. In addition, a significant additional problem that can be associated to the aggregates industry is wasting potential resources through waste dumping of inert waste, especially waste from construction and demolition activities. In 2012, in Romania, less than 10% of construction and demolition waste (including concrete) are valorized, while the European Union requires that by 2020 this proportion should be at least 70% (Directive 2008/98/EC on waste, transposed into Romanian legislation by Law 211/2011). Depending on the efficiency of waste processing and the quality of recycled aggregate concrete (RCA) obtained, poor quality aggregate can be used as foundation material for roads and at the high quality for new concrete on construction. To obtain good quality concrete using recycled aggregate is necessary to meet the minimum requirements defined by the rules for the manufacture of concrete with natural aggregate. Properties of recycled aggregate (density, granulosity, granule shape, water absorption, weight loss to Los Angeles test, attached mortar content etc.) are the basis for concrete quality; also establishing appropriate proportions between components and the concrete production methods are extremely important for its quality. This paper presents a study on the use of recycled aggregates, from a concrete of specified class, to acquire new cement concrete with different percentages of recycled aggregates. To achieve recycled aggregates several batches of concrete class C16/20, C25/30 and C35/45 were made, the compositions calculation being made according NE012/2007 CP012/2007. Tests for producing recycled aggregate was carried out using concrete samples of the established three classes after 28 days of storage under the above conditions. Cubes with 150mm side were crushed in a first stage with a jaw crusher Liebherr type set at 50 mm nominally. The resulting material was separated by sieving on granulometric sorts and 10-50 sort was used for preliminary tests of crushing in the second stage with a jaw crusher BB 200 Retsch model, respectively a hammer crusher Buffalo Shuttle WA-12-H model. It was highlighted the influence of the type of crusher used to obtain recycled aggregates on granulometry and granule shape and the influence of the attached mortar on the density, water absorption, behavior to the Los Angeles test etc. The proportion of attached mortar was determined and correlated with provenance concrete class of the recycled aggregates and their granulometric sort. The aim to characterize the recycled aggregates is their valorification in new concrete used in construction. In this regard have been made a series of concrete in which the recycled aggregate content was varied from 0 to 100%. The new concrete were characterized by point of view of the change in the density and compressive strength with the proportion of recycled aggregates. It has been shown that an increase in recycled aggregate content not necessarily mean a reduction in compressive strength, quality of the aggregate having a decisive role.

Keywords: Properties, Characteristics, recycled concrete aggregate, recycled aggregate concrete

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10 Using Sugar Mill Waste for Biobased Epoxy Composites

Authors: Gulnare Ahmetli, Ulku Soydal, Mustafa Esen Marti


In this study, precipitated calcium carbonate lime waste (LW) from sugar beet process was recycled as the raw material for the preparation of composite materials. Epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) was used as a co-matrix in 50 wt% with DGEBA type epoxy resin (ER). XRD was used for characterization of composites. Effects of ESO and LW filler amounts on mechanical properties of neat ER were investigated. Modification of ER with ESO remarkably enhanced plasticity of ER.

Keywords: Properties, epoxy resin, biocomposite, lime waste

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9 The Effect of Hydroxyl Ethyl Cellulose (HEC) and Hydrophobically-Modified Alkali Soluble Emulsions (HASE) on the Properties and Quality of Water Based Paints

Authors: Haleden Chiririwa, Sandile S. Gwebu


The coatings industry is a million dollar business, and it is easy and inexpensive to set-up but it is growing very slowly in developing countries, and this study developed a paint formulation which gives better quality and good application properties. The effect of rheology modifiers, i.e. non-ionic polymers hydrophobically-modified ethoxylated urethanes (HEUR), anionic polymers hydrophobically-modified alkali soluble emulsions (HASE) and hydroxyl ethyl cellulose (HEC) on the quality and properties of water-based paints have been investigated. HEC provides the in-can viscosity and increases open working time while HASE improves application properties like spatter resistance and brush loading and HEUR provides excellent scrub resistance. Four paint recipes were prepared using four different thickeners HEC, HASE (carbopol) and Cellulose nitrate. The fourth formulation was thickened with a combination of HASE and HEC, this aimed at improving quality and at the same time reducing cost. The four samples were tested for quality tests such viscosity, sag resistance, volatile matter, tinter effect, drying times, hiding power, scrub resistance and stability on storage. Environmental factors were incorporated in the attempt to formulate an economic and green product. Hydroxyl ethyl cellulose and cellulose nitrate gave high quality and good properties of the paint. HEC and Cellulose nitrate showed stability on storage whereas carbopol thickener was very unstable.

Keywords: Properties, Rheology Modifiers, thickeners, water based paints

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8 A Case Study: Remediation of Abandoned Mines for Residential Development

Authors: Issa S. Oweis, Gary Gartenberg, Luma J. Oweis


The site for a residential apartment building overlies an abandoned iron mine in granitic gneiss in northern New Jersey. The mine stope is about 137 m (450 long) and dipping over 344m (800 feet) at 450 to 500. As the building footprint straddles, the mine site needed remediation. The remediation scheme consisted of compaction grouting a minimum 10 m (30 ft.) depth of the mine stope in rock to establish a buttress for the hanging wall and allow support of the building foundation. The rock strength parameters (friction and cohesion) were established based on Hoek Geologic Strength Index (GSI). The derived strength parameters were used in the wedge analysis to simulate rock cave-in. It was concluded that a cave-in would be unlikely. Verification holes confirmed the effectiveness of grouting. Although post grouting micro gravity survey depicted a few anomalies, no anomalies were found to exist by further drilling and excavation.

Keywords: Properties, rock, grout, stope

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7 The Gradient Complex Protective Coatings for Single Crystal Nickel Alloys

Authors: Evgeniya Popova, Vladimir Lesnikov, Nikolay Popov


High yield complex coatings have been designed for thermally stressed cooled HP turbine blades from single crystal alloys ZHS32-VI-VI and ZHS36 with crystallographic orientation [001]. These coatings provide long-term protection of single crystal blades during operation. The three-layer coatings were prepared as follows: the diffusion barrier layer formation on the alloy surface, the subsequent deposition of the condensed bilayer coatings consisting of an inner layer based on Ni-Cr-Al-Y systems and an outer layer based on the alloyed β-phase. The structure, phase composition of complex coatings and reaction zone interaction with the single-crystal alloys ZHS32-VI and ZHS36-VI were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effect of complex protective coatings on the properties of heat-resistant nickel alloys was studied.

Keywords: Properties, Structure, Phase Composition, single crystal nickel alloys, complex heat-resistant coatings

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6 Diethylsulfoxide versus Dimethylsulfoxide: Properties and Biomedical Applications

Authors: Shiraz A. Markarian


Our systematic studies of diethylsulfoxide (DESO), the nearest homologue of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), reveal new physicochemical features. DESO has already received worthy biomedical applications: in some cases even are more pronounced compare with DMSO. The several important physicochemical characteristics of DESO including aqueous solutions have been verified and first reported: melting point of pure substance, density, dielectric relaxation data, vapor pressure and volumetric properties. Analysis of the complete vibrational spectra also leads to the conclusion that very strong interactions take place between DESO and water, even stronger than those between DMSO and water. The simultaneous existence of strong DESO-H₂O and DESO-DESO interactions suggest the coexistence of many types of structural molecular aggregates, the presence of which plays a significant role also in diluted water solutions. Our recent investigations have shown that aqueous solution of DESO could provide amorphous, glassy systems, thus avoiding ice crystallization, in a wide range of concentrations and even at very low cooling rates. The ability of DESO to act as an effective cryoprotectant on E. coli survival was also studied and compared with other commonly used cryoprotective agents. The results also confirm that DESO, more than DMSO, is able to penetrate living tissues without causing significant damage.

Keywords: Properties, cryoprotectant, diethylsulfoxide, dimethylsulfoxide

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5 Studies on the Use of Sewage Sludge in Agriculture or in Incinerators

Authors: Gabriel Murariu, Catalina Iticescu, Lucian Georgescu, Mihaela Timofti, Dumitru Dima


The amounts of sludge resulting from the treatment of domestic and industrial wastewater can create serious environmental problems if no solutions are found to eliminate them. At present, the predominant method of sewage sludge disposal is to store and use them in agricultural applications. The sewage sludge has fertilizer properties and can be used to enrich agricultural soils due to the nutrient content. In addition to plant growth (nitrogen and phosphorus), the sludge also contains heavy metals in varying amounts. An increasingly used method is the incineration of sludge. Thermal processes can be used to convert large amounts of sludge into useful energy. The sewage sludge analyzed for the present paper was extracted from the Wastewater Treatment Station (WWTP) Galati, Romania. The physico-chemical parameters determined were: pH (upH), nutrients and heavy metals. The determination methods were electrochemical, spectrophotometric and energy dispersive X–ray analyses (EDX). The results of the tests made on the content of nutrients in the sewage sludge have shown that existing nutrients can be used to increase the fertility of agricultural soils. The conclusion reached was that these sludge can be safely used on agricultural land and with good agricultural productivity results. To be able to use sewage sludge as a fuel, we need to know its calorific values. For wet sludge, the caloric power is low, while for dry sludge it is high. Higher calorific value and lower calorific value are determined only for dry solids. The apparatus used to determine the calorific power was a Parr 6755 Solution Calorimeter Calorimeter (Parr Instrument Company USA 2010 model). The calorific capacities for the studied sludge indicate that they can be used successfully in incinerators. Mixed with coal, they can also be used to produce electricity. The advantages are: it reduces the cost of obtaining electricity and considerably reduces the amount of sewage sludge.

Keywords: Agriculture, Properties, Sewage Sludge, incinerators

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4 Estimation of Subgrade Resilient Modulus from Soil Index Properties

Authors: Magdi M. E. Zumrawi, Mohamed Awad


Determination of Resilient Modulus (MR) is quite important for characterizing materials in pavement design and evaluation. The main focus of this study is to develop a correlation that predict the resilient modulus of subgrade soils from simple and easy measured soil index properties. To achieve this objective, three subgrade soils representing typical Khartoum soils were selected and tested in the laboratory for measuring resilient modulus. Other basic laboratory tests were conducted on the soils to determine their physical properties. Several soil samples were prepared and compacted at different moisture contents and dry densities and then tested using resilient modulus testing machine. Based on experimental results, linear relationship of MR with the consistency factor ‘Fc’ which is a combination of dry density, void ratio and consistency index had been developed. The results revealed that very good linear relationship found between the MR and the consistency factor with a coefficient of linearity (R2) more than 0.9. The consistency factor could be used for the prediction of the MR of compacted subgrade soils with precise and reliable results.

Keywords: Properties, resilient modulus, Consistency factor, subgrade soil

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3 The Influence of Partial Replacement of Hydrated Lime by Pozzolans on Properties of Lime Mortars

Authors: Przemyslaw Brzyski, Stanislaw Fic


Hydrated lime, because of the life cycle (return to its natural form as a result of the setting and hardening) has a positive environmental impact. The lime binder is used in mortars. Lime is a slow setting binder with low mechanical properties. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of improving the properties of the lime binder by using different pozzolanic materials as partial replacement of hydrated lime binder. Pozzolan materials are the natural or industrial waste, so do not affect the environmental impact of the lime binder. The following laboratory tests were performed: the analysis of the physical characteristics of the tested samples of lime mortars (bulk density, porosity), flexural and compressive strength, water absorption and the capillary rise of samples and consistency of fresh mortars. As a partial replacement of hydrated lime (in the amount of 10%, 20%, 30% by weight of lime) a metakaolin, silica fume, and zeolite were used. The shortest setting and hardening time showed mortars with the addition of metakaolin. All additives noticeably improved strength characteristic of lime mortars. With the increase in the amount of additive, the increase in strength was also observed. The highest flexural strength was obtained by using the addition of metakaolin in an amount of 20% by weight of lime (2.08 MPa). The highest compressive strength was obtained by using also the addition of metakaolin but in an amount of 30% by weight of lime (9.43 MPa). The addition of pozzolan caused an increase in the mortar tightness which contributed to the limitation of absorbability. Due to the different surface area, pozzolanic additives affected the consistency of fresh mortars. Initial consistency was assumed as plastic. Only the addition of silica fume an amount of 20 and 30% by weight of lime changed the consistency to the thick-plastic. The conducted study demonstrated the possibility of applying lime mortar with satisfactory properties. The features of lime mortars do not differ significantly from cement-based mortar properties and show a lower environmental impact due to CO₂ absorption during lime hardening. Taking into consideration the setting time, strength and consistency, the best results can be obtained with metakaolin addition to the lime mortar.

Keywords: Properties, lime, pozzolan, mortar, binder

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2 Experimental Study of Application of Steel Slag as Aggregate in Road Construction

Authors: Meftah M. Elsaraiti, Samir Milad Elsariti


Steel slag is a by-product of the steel production and utilizing it potentially as new or substitute materials in road construction is advantageous regarding cost reduction and flattening improvement or properties pavement. Ease of use, low cost, and resource availability are some of few advantages of reuse and recycling of steel slag. This study assesses the use of Steel Slag Aggregates (SSA) as an alternative to natural road building aggregates. This paper discusses the basic characteristics of steel slag based on extensive laboratory tests, and to determine the possibilities of using steel slag in road construction. Samples were taken from the furnaces directly at different times and dates. Moreover, random samples were also taken from the slag field from various areas at different far distances from each other. A necessary analysis was performed through the use of (XRF). Three different percentages of SSA (0, 50 and 100%) were added as an alternative to natural aggregate in hot mix asphalt (HMA) production. The proposed design of the mix was made according to the Marshall mix design. The results of the experiments revealed that the percentages of iron oxide ranged from (9 to 26%) and that the addition of SSA has a significant improvement on HMA properties. It was observed that the Marshall stability obtained in the mix of 100% slag ranged from 600 to 800 N as a minimum, and the flow of Marshall obtained from 2.4 to 3.23 mm and the specification requires from 2 to 4 mm. The results may be showed possibilities to use steel slag as new or substitute materials in road construction in Libya.

Keywords: Properties, Road Construction, steel slag, by-product material

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1 Impact of Welding Wire Nickel Plating Process Parameters on Ni Layer Thickness

Authors: Sylwia Wiewiorowska, Zbigniew Muskalski


The article presents part of research on the development of nickel plated welding wire production technology, whose application will enable the elimination of the flaws of currently manufactured welding wires. The nickel plated welding wire will be distinguished by high quality, because the Ni layer which is deposited electrochemically onto it from acid baths is characterized by very good adhesion to the steel wire surface, while the ductile nickel well deforms plastically in the drawing process and the adhesion of the Ni layer increases in the drawing process due to the occurring process of diffusion between the Ni and the steel. The Ni layer obtained in the proposed technology, despite a smaller thickness than when the wire is coated with copper, is continuous and tight, thus ensuring high corrosion resistance, as well as unsusceptible to scaling, which should provide a product that meets requirements imposed by the market. The product will also reduce, to some extent, the amount of copper brought in to steel through recycling, while the wire coating nickel introduced to the weld in the welding process is expected, to a degree, to favorably influence its mechanical properties. The paper describes the tests of the process of nickel plating of f1.96 mm-diameter wires using various nickel plating baths with different process parameters.

Keywords: Properties, Welding Process, steel wire, Ni layer

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