Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

progress Related Abstracts

4 Organizational Efficiency in the Age of the Current Financial Crisis Strategies and Tracks Progress

Authors: Aharouay Soumaya

Abstract:

Efficiency is a relative concept. It is measured by comparing the productivity obtained in what is intended as standard or objective criteria. The quantity and quality of output achieved and the level of service are also compared to targets or standards, to determine to what extent they could cause changes in efficiency. Efficiency improves when more outputs of a specified quality are produced with the same resource inputs or less, or when the same amount of output is produced with fewer resources. This article proposes a review of the literature on strategies adopted by firms in the age of the financial crisis to overcome these negative effects, and tracks progress chosen by the organization to remain successful despite the plight of firms.

Keywords: Strategy, Performance, Efficiency, Effectiveness, organizational capacity, management tool, progress

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3 The Growth of E-Commerce and Online Dispute Resolution in Developing Nations: An Analysis

Authors: Robin V. Cupido

Abstract:

Online dispute resolution has been identified in many countries as a viable alternative for resolving conflicts which have arisen in the so-called digital age. This system of dispute resolution is developing alongside the Internet, and as new types of transactions are made possible by our increased connectivity, new ways of resolving disputes must be explored. Developed nations, such as the United States of America and the European Union, have been involved in creating these online dispute resolution mechanisms from the outset, and currently have sophisticated systems in place to deal with conflicts arising in a number of different fields, such as e-commerce, domain name disputes, labour disputes and conflicts arising from family law. Specifically, in the field of e-commerce, the Internet’s borderless nature has served as a way to promote cross-border trade, and has created a global marketplace. Participation in this marketplace boosts a country’s economy, as new markets are now available, and consumers can transact from anywhere in the world. It would be especially advantageous for developing nations to be a part of this global marketplace, as it could stimulate much-needed investment in these nations, and encourage international co-operation and trade. However, for these types of transactions to proliferate, an effective system for resolving the inevitable disputes arising from such an increase in e-commerce is needed. Online dispute resolution scholarship and practice is flourishing in developed nations, and it is clear that the gap is widening between developed and developing nations in this regard. The potential for implementing online dispute resolution in developing countries has been discussed, but there are a number of obstacles that have thus far prevented its continued development. This paper aims to evaluate the various political, infrastructural and socio-economic challenges faced in developing nations, and to question how these have impacted the acceptance and development of online dispute resolution, scholarship and training of online dispute resolution practitioners and, ultimately, developing nations’ readiness to participate in cross-border e-commerce.

Keywords: developing countries, feasibility, progress, online dispute resolution

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2 Lesbians, Gays and Bisexuals of Botswana: Progressive Steps by the Botswana Court of Appeal towards Recognition and Advancement of Fundamental Human Rights of the Most Vulnerable within Society

Authors: Tashwill Esterhuizen

Abstract:

Throughout Africa, several countries continue to have laws which criminalise same-sex sexual activities, which increases the vulnerability of the LGBT community to stigma, discrimination, and persecution. These criminal provisions often form the basis upon which states deny LGBT activists the right to freely associate with other like-minded individuals and form organizations that protect their interests and advocate for the rights and aspirations of the LGBT community. Over the past year, however, there has been significant progress in the advancement of universal, fundamental rights of LGBT persons throughout Africa. In many instances, these advancements came about through the bravery of activists who have publically insisted (in environments where same-sex sexual practices are criminalised) that their rights should be respected. Where meaningful engagement with the State was fruitless, activists took their plight to the judiciary and have successfully sought to uphold the fundamental rights of LGBT persons, paving the way for a more inclusive and tolerant society. Litigation Progress: Botswana is a prime example. For several years, the State denied a group of LGBT activists their right to freely associate and form their organisation Lesbians, Gays, and Bisexuals of Botswana (LEGABIBO), which aimed to promote the interests of the LGBT community in Botswana. In March 2016, the Botswana Court of Appeal found that the government’s refusal to register LEGABIBO violated the activists’ right to associate freely. The Court held that the right freedom of association applies to all persons regardless of their sexual orientation or gender identity. It does not matter that the views of the organisation are unpopular or unacceptable amongst the majority. In particular, the Court rejected the government of Botswana’s contention that registering LEGABIBO would disturb public peace and is contrary to public morality. Quite remarkably, the Court of Appeal recognised that while LGBT individuals are a minority group within the country, they are nonetheless persons entitled to constitutional protections of their dignity, regardless of whether they are unacceptable to others on religious or any other grounds. Furthermore, the Court held that human rights and fundamental freedoms are granted to all, including criminals or social outcasts because the denial of an individual’s humanity is the denial of their human dignity. This is crucial observation by the Court of Appeal, as once it is accepted that human rights apply to all human beings, then it becomes much easier for vulnerable groups to assert their own rights. Conclusion: The Botswana Court of Appeal decision, therefore, represents significant progress in the promotion of the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender persons. The judgment has broader implications for many other countries which do not provide recognition of sexual minorities. It highlights the State’s duty to uphold basic rights and to ensure dignity, tolerance, and acceptance for marginalised persons.

Keywords: Tolerance, Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, Inclusive, Freedom of association, Freedom of Expression, acceptance, progress, fundamental rights and freedoms, human rights are universal, inherent human dignity

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1 Historical Geotechnical Study and Evaluation of Project Progress for the Tafila City Center Development Project

Authors: Mohmd Sarireh

Abstract:

The geotechnical study can be employed successfully to assess and follow the expected development or delay in the project construction. The development project of city center or downtown was taken as a case study for the investigation of the project conditions that might support progress or cause delay. The project was proposed to build 7447 m2 by reinforced concrete mainly to serve and support the services provided to people in Tafila. The project construction had faced challenges and obstacles such as soil collapse because of excavation of the weak soil that found in the project site. In addition, the topography of the project area showed a high slope from South-West to North. The slope through the project footprint reached to 83.3% which is considered very high slope. One year and a half proposed to finish the project construction since the 1st of March 2013 and it was planned to be finished by the 31th of August 2014, but the project needs more than one year and a half as extension according to the consultant engineer. The collecting of data was conducted through the interviews with the engineers and officials, and by analyzing the soil reports and samples taken during design and excavation. The major findings came out to weak and fractured soil and construction waste that were found at project site. Also, soil was considered very fine according to the plasticity index (PI) values, in addition to the high depths required for foundation that contribute to the collapse of soil and the increase of project cost. The current project aims to present how the unseen conditions can delay the project construction and increase the cost of the project that rises to JD8.305 Million.

Keywords: Management, Geotechnical, Risk, progress, soil unseen conditions management

Procedia PDF Downloads 101