Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Profitability Related Abstracts

36 Organic Farming Profitability: Evidence from South Korea

Authors: Thanh Nguyen, Saem Lee, Hio-Jung Shin, Thomas Koellner

Abstract:

Land-use management has an influence on the provision of ecosystem service in dynamic, agricultural landscapes. Agricultural land use is important for maintaining the productivity and sustainability of agricultural ecosystems. However, in Korea, intensive farming activities in this highland agricultural zone, the upper stream of Soyang has led to contaminated soil caused by over-use pesticides and fertilizers. This has led to decrease in water and soil quality, which has consequences for ecosystem services and human wellbeing. Conventional farming has still high percentage in this area and there is no special measure to prevent low water quality caused by farming activities. Therefore, the adoption of environmentally friendly farming has been considered one of the alternatives that lead to improved water quality and increase in biomass production. Concurrently, farm households with environmentally friendly farming have occupied still low rates. Therefore, our research involved a farm household survey spanning conventional farming, the farm in transition and organic farming in Soyang watershed. Another purpose of our research was to compare economic advantage of the farmers adopting environmentally friendly farming and non-adaptors and to investigate the different factors by logistic regression analysis with socio-economic and benefit-cost ratio variables. The results found that farmers with environmentally friendly farming tended to be younger than conventional farming and farmer in transition. They are similar in terms of gender which was predominately male. Farmers with environmentally friendly farming were more educated and had less farming experience than conventional farming and farmer in transition. Based on the benefit-cost analysis, total costs that farm in transition farmers spent for one year are about two times as much as the sum of costs in environmentally friendly farming. The benefit of organic farmers was assessed with 2,800 KRW per household per year. In logistic regression, the factors having statistical significance are subsidy and district, residence period and benefit-cost ratio. And district and residence period have the negative impact on the practice of environmentally friendly farming techniques. The results of our research make a valuable contribution to provide important information to describe Korean policy-making for agricultural and water management and to consider potential approaches to policy that would substantiate ways beneficial for sustainable resource management.

Keywords: Profitability, Organic Farming, Logistic Regression, agricultural land-use

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35 Working Capital Efficiency and Firm Profitability: Nigeria and Kenya

Authors: Lucian J. Pitt

Abstract:

The primary purpose of this study is to understand the differences in the relationship between working capital management efficiency, working capital investment decisions and working capital finance decisions and the profitability of firms within the context of two African developing economies, Kenya and Nigeria. The study finds that there is a significant difference in the relationship between the firm’s profitability and the working capital variables which suggests different challenges for working capital management in each of these countries.

Keywords: Profitability, Working Capital Management, working capital investment, working capital finance, cash conversion cycle

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34 The Relationship between Inventory Management and Profitability: A Comparative Research on Turkish Firms Operated in Weaving Industry, Eatables Industry, Wholesale and Retail Industry

Authors: Gamze Sekeroglu, Mikail Altan

Abstract:

Working capital is identified as firm’s all current assets. Inventories which are one of the working capital elements are very important among current assets for firms. Because, profitability is an indicator for firms’ financial success is provided with minimum cost and optimum inventory quantity. So in this study, it is investigated as comparatively that the effect of inventory management on the profitability of Turkish firms which operated in weaving industry, eatables industry, wholesale and retail industry in between 2003 – 2012 years. Research data consist of profitability ratios and inventory turnovers ratio calculated by using balance sheets and income statements of firms which operated in Borsa Istanbul (BIST). In this research, the relationship between inventories and profitability is investigated by using SPSS-20 software with regression and correlation analysis. The results achieved from three industry departments which exist in study interpreted as comparatively. Accordingly, it is determined that there is a positive relationship between inventory management and profitability in eatables industry. However, it was founded that there is no relationship between inventory management and profitability in weaving industry and wholesale and retail industry.

Keywords: Inventory Management, Profitability, Regression analysis, working capital

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33 A Literature Review on Banks’ Profitability and Risk Adjustment Decisions

Authors: Petr Teply, Libena Cernohorska, Barbora Sutorova

Abstract:

There are pending discussions over an impact of global regulatory efforts on banks. In this paper we present a literature review on the profitability-risk-capital relationship in banking. Research papers dealing with this topic can be divided into two groups: the first group focusing on a capital-risk relationship and the second group analyzing a capital-profitability relationship. The first group investigates whether the imposition of stricter capital requirements reduces risk-taking incentives of banks based on a simultaneous equations model. Their model pioneered the idea that the changes in both capital and risk have endogenous and exogenous components. The results obtained by the authors indicate that changes in the capital level are positively related to the changes in asset risk. The second group of the literature concentrating solely on the relationship between the level of held capital and bank profitability is limited. Nevertheless, there are a lot of studies dealing with the banks’ profitability as such, where bank capital is very often included as an explanatory variable. Based on the literature review of dozens of relevant papers in this study, an empirical research on banks’ profitability and risk adjustment decisions under new banking rules Basel III rules can be easily undertaken.

Keywords: Decision Making, Bank, capital, Risk, Profitability, BASEL III, simultaneous equations model

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32 The Impacts of Cost Stickiness on the Profitability of Indonesian Firms

Authors: Dezie L. Warganegara, Dewi Tamara

Abstract:

The objectives of this study are to investigate the existence of the sticky cost behaviour of firms listed in the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) and to find an evidence on the effects of sticky operating expenses (SG&A expenses) on profitability of firms. For the first objective, this study found that the sticky cost behaviour does exist. For the second objective, this study finds that the stickier the operating expenses the less future profitability of the firms. This study concludes that sticky cost affects negatively to the performance and, therefore, firms should include flexibility in designing the cost structure of their firms.

Keywords: Profitability, sticky costs, Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX), operating expenses, SG&A

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31 Influence Analysis of Profit Sharing Agreement and Financing Risk to Profitability in Islamic Bank of Indonesia

Authors: Irena Paramita Pramono

Abstract:

Islamic bank is a financial industry with huge potential to grow in Indonesia. Profit-sharing agreement in the operations of Islamic banks distinguishes Islamic banks with conventional banks. Profit-sharing agreement allows sharing of benefits and risks between shahibul maal and mudharib in islamic bank. This study aimed to observe the patterns of influence between the risk-sharing agreement, financing risk and Profitability in Islamic banks. This research used several Islamic banks as sample and path analysis method. The empirical results of this research shows that the profit-sharing agreement in deposits structure has no direct significant effect to ROA, but it has indirect effect to ROA through profit-sharing financing. On the other hand, profit-sharing financing has direct and indirect influence to ROA through financing risk. This research shows that profit-sharing financing has a positive significant effect to the financing risk and also to the ROA. The research recommends Islamic banks to continue using and developing profit-sharing agreement in its operational activities, hence to create value.

Keywords: Profitability, Islamic bank, profit-loss sharing agreement, financing risk

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30 Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, Kebbi State

Authors: Ugbajah Maryjane

Abstract:

The study examined the production of grass cutter and the constraints in Anambra state, Nigeria. Specifically, it described socio-economic characteristics of the respondents, determinants of net farm income and constraints to grass cutter production. Multistage and random sampling methods were used to select 50 respondents for this study. Primary data were collected by means of structured questionnaire. Non-parametric and parametric statistical tools including frequency percentage mean ranking counts, cost and returns and returns and multiple regression were deployed for data analysis. Majority 84% produce on small scale, 64 % had formal education 68% had 3-4 years of farming experience hence small scaled production were common. The income (returns) on investment was used as index of profitability, gross margin (#5,972,280), net farm income (#5,327,055.2) net return on investment (2.5) and return on investment 3.1. Net farm income was significantly influence by stock size and years of farming experience. Grass cutter farmers production problem would be ameliorated by the expression of extension education awareness campaigns to discourage unhealthy practices such as indiscriminant bush burning, use of toxic chemicals as baits, and provision of credits to the farmers.

Keywords: Profitability, awareness, Toxic Chemicals, socio-economic factors, credits

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29 The Application and Relevance of Costing Techniques in Service Oriented Business Organisations: A Review of the Activity-Based Costing (ABC) Technique

Authors: Udeh Nneka Evelyn

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The shortcomings of traditional costing system, in terms of validity, accuracy, consistency and relevance increased the need for modern management accounting system. ABC (Activity-Based Costing) can be used as a modern tool for planning, control and decision making for management. Past studies on activity-based costing (ABC) system have focused on manufacturing firms thereby making the studies on service firms scanty to some extent. This paper reviewed the application and relevance of activity-based costing techniques in service oriented business organisations by employing a qualitative research method which relied heavily on literature review of past and current relevant articles focusing on activity-based costing (ABC). Findings suggest that ABC is not only appropriate for use in a manufacturing environment; it is also most appropriate for service organizations such as financial institutions, the healthcare industry, and government organizations. In fact, some banking and financial institutions have been applying the concept for years under other names. One of them is unit costing, which is used to calculate the cost of banking services by determining the cost and consumption of each unit of output of functions required to deliver the service. ABC in very basic terms may provide very good payback for businesses. Some of the benefits that relate directly to the financial services industry are: Identification of the most profitable customers; more accurate product and service pricing; increase product profitability; well-organized process costs.

Keywords: Management Accounting, Manufacture, Profitability, activity-based costing (ABC)

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28 Economic Determinants of Maize Production in 2013-2014 in the Individual Farm

Authors: Ewa Krasnodębska

Abstract:

The article presents the costs and income maize cultivation for grain four selected varieties with different numbers of FAO in 2013-2014. Results of the experiments are derived from a field experiment conducted in indywidulnym farm specializing in the production plant located in the eastern part of Mazowieckie voivodship. The experiment examined the profitability of four varieties of maize cultivation: medium early: P8400 (FAO 240) and P8589 (FAO 250), and an average of late: PR38N86 (FAO 270) and P9027 (FAO 260). In order to evaluate the profitability of grain maize production was calculated income from 1 ha of crops in zł and profitability index taking into account the direct payments up to 1 ha. Analyzing the value of crop production can be concluded that the value of the total production of each variety was very much varied and very much depend on the sales price and yield of maize obtained from 1 ha of cultivation. The largest average seed yield of two years at a moisture content of 15% was achieved in a variety PR38N86, which amounted to 12.1 t / ha and the lowest in the variety P8400 - 9.8 t / ha. Income from 1 ha of crops including EU subsidies ranged from 4916.4 zł / ha in 2013 for variety and only 528.7 PR38N86 zł / ha for a variety of P8400 in 2014. Profitability index reached the highest average late PR38N86 variety of FAO 290 over the entire two-year period under study, and the lowest rate of profitability achieved P8400 medium early variety of FAO 240. The profitability of production ranged from 8964.0 zł / ha in 2013 for a variety of PR38N86 to 5616.0 zł / ha for a variety of P8400 in 2014. Cultivation of maize for grain production is attractive and does not require large amounts of work, but its economic rationale is based primarily on the resulting yield and the price of buying.

Keywords: Profitability, Grain, corn, Income

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27 Variability of Product Quality and Profitability of Fish Farms in Greece

Authors: Cosmas Nathanailides, Fotini Kakali, Sophia Anastasiou, Panagiotis Logothetis, Gregorios Kanlis

Abstract:

The method and rearing conditions of aquaculture may very between different regions and aquaculture sites. Globally, the Aquaculture industry faces a challenge to develop aquaculture methods which safeguard the economic viability of the company, the welfare of farmed fish and final product quality and sustainable development of aquaculture. Marine fish farms in Greece operate in different locations and farmed fish are exposed to a variety of rearing conditions. This paper investigates the variability of product quality and the financial performance of different marine fish farms operating in West Greece. Production parameters of gilthead sea bream fish farm such as feeding regimes, mortalities, fish densities were used to calculate the economic efficiency of six different aquaculture sites from West Greece. Samples of farmed sea bream were collected and lipid content, microbial load and filleting yield of the samples were used as quality criteria. The results indicate that Lipid content, filleting yield and microbial load of fish originating from different fish farms varied significantly with improved quality exhibited in fish farms which exhibited improved Feed conversion rates and lower mortalities. Changes in feeding management practices such as feed quality and feeding regimes have a significant impact on the financial performance of sea bass farms. Fish farms which exhibited improved feeding conversion rates also exhibited increased profitability. Improvements in the FCR explained about 13.4 % of the difference in profitability of the different aquaculture sites. Lower mortality and higher growth rates were also exhibited by the fish farms which exhibited improved FCR. It is concluded that best feeding management practices resulted in improved product quality and profitability.

Keywords: Profitability, fish quality, feeding management, aquaculture management

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26 Economic Evaluation of Bowland Shale Gas Wells Development in the UK

Authors: Elijah Acquah-Andoh

Abstract:

The UK has had its fair share of the shale gas revolutionary waves blowing across the global oil and gas industry at present. Although, its exploitation is widely agreed to have been delayed, shale gas was looked upon favorably by the UK Parliament when they recognized it as genuine energy source and granted licenses to industry to search and extract the resource. This, although a significant progress by industry, there yet remains another test the UK fracking resource must pass in order to render shale gas extraction feasible – it must be economically extractible and sustainably so. Developing unconventional resources is much more expensive and risky, and for shale gas wells, producing in commercial volumes is conditional upon drilling horizontal wells and hydraulic fracturing, techniques which increase CAPEX. Meanwhile, investment in shale gas development projects is sensitive to gas price and technical and geological risks. Using a Two-Factor Model, the economics of the Bowland shale wells were analyzed and the operational conditions under which fracking is profitable in the UK was characterized. We find that there is a great degree of flexibility about Opex spending; hence Opex does not pose much threat to the fracking industry in the UK. However, we discover Bowland shale gas wells fail to add value at gas price of $8/ Mmbtu. A minimum gas price of $12/Mmbtu at Opex of no more than $2/ Mcf and no more than $14.95M Capex are required to create value within the present petroleum tax regime, in the UK fracking industry.

Keywords: Investment, Sustainable, Economical, Profitability, capex, shale gas development

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25 Liquidity and Cash Management Practices of Owner-Managed Firms-A Case of South East, Nigeria

Authors: Ugbor Raphael Oluchukwu

Abstract:

The survey research design was adopted to examine whether liquidity and cash management practices of owner-managed firms in South East Nigeria influence their profitability, growth and survival. Four independent variables (accounting systems, working capital management, budgetary control, and managerial planning) were used in the evaluation which was restricted to eight small firms. Results indicate that one variable, working capital management alone dominate the liquidity perception of owner managers. As a result, owner managers find it difficult to meet maturing business obligations as growth sets in. The study also reveals that the four independent variables have significant impact on the profitability, growth and survival of owner managed firms. Owner managers are therefore advised to undertake regular entrepreneurship training in order to upgrade their liquidity and cash management knowledge and practices to enhance their overall performance.

Keywords: Profitability, Survival, liquidity management, owner-managed firm

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24 Competitive Condition and Market Power of Islamic Banks in Indonesia

Authors: Cupian

Abstract:

The expansion of Islamic banking industry seems to emphasize the banking competition in Indonesia where conventional and Islamic banks coexist. In addition, the 2007/2008 global financial crisis and deregulation have the effect on competitive conditions in Islamic banking market. In this context, this study aims at investigating competitive conditions and market power of Islamic banks in Indonesia using firm level data over the period 2006-2013. The study also attempts to identify the factors that represent the power of banking market to better study the degree of competition in this banking industry. Using samples of 27 Islamic commercial banks, the study uses a variety of structural and non-structural measures related to the traditional approach and the new empirical approach of the industrial organization (NEIO). The methodology is based on the set of measures of the competition and market power. The first measure is a set of concentration ratios (CR4) and Herfindahl-Hirschman index (HHI).The second measures are the Panzar and Ross H-statistic and the Lerner index based on econometric estimations with the aim of evaluating the market structure and measuring its power in terms of price setting. The results of the competition analysis suggest that the Islamic banking markets in Indonesia cannot be characterized by the bipolar cases of either perfect competition or monopoly over 2006-2013. That is, banks earned their revenues operating under conditions of monopolistic competition in that period. Overall, Islamic banks in Indonesia operate in a relatively less competitive environment or in high market power. It is also indicated that Islamic bank that hope to achieve higher returns should operate in the competitive environment.

Keywords: Profitability, market structure, Islamic banks, bank competition

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23 Profitability and Productivity Performance of the Selected Public Sector Banks in India

Authors: Sudipto Jana

Abstract:

Background and significance of the study: Banking industry performs as a catalyst for industrial growth and agricultural growth, however, as well involves the existence and welfare of the citizens. The banking system in India was described by unmatched growth and the recreation of bunch making in the pre-liberalization era. At the time of financial sector reforms Reserve Bank of India issued a regulatory norm concerning capital adequacy, income recognition, asset classification and provisioning that have increasingly precede meeting by means of the international paramount performs. Bank management ceaselessly manages the triumph, effectiveness, productivity and performance of the bank as good performance, high productivity and efficiency authorizes the triumph of the bank management targets as well as aims of bank. In a comparable move toward performance of any economy depends upon the expediency and effectiveness of its financial system of nation establishes its economic growth indicators. Profitability and productivity are the most important relevant parameters of any banking group. Keeping in view of this, this study examines the profitability and productivity performance of the selected public sector banks in India. Methodology: This study is based on secondary data obtained from Reserve Bank of India database for the periods between 2006 and 2015. This study purposively selects four types of commercial banks, namely, State Bank of India, United Bank of India, Punjab National Bank and Allahabad Bank. In order to analyze the performance with relation to profitability and productivity, productivity performance indicators in terms of capital adequacy ratio, burden ratio, business per employee, spread per employee and advances per employee and profitability performance indicators in terms of return on assets, return on equity, return on advances and return on branch have been considered. In the course of analysis, descriptive statistics, correlation statistics and multiple regression have been used. Major findings: Descriptive statistics indicate that productivity performance of State Bank of India is very satisfactory than other public sector banks in India. But management of productivity is unsatisfactory in case of all the public sector banks under study. Correlation statistics point out that profitability of the public sector banks are strongly positively related with productivity performance in case of all the public sector banks under study. Multiple regression test results show that when profitability increases profit per employee increases and net non-performing assets decreases. Concluding statements: Productivity and profitability performance of United Bank of India, Allahabad Bank and Punjab National Bank are unsatisfactory due to poor management of asset quality as well as management efficiency. It needs government’s interference so that profitability and productivity performance are increased in the near future.

Keywords: Productivity, Profitability, India, public sector banks

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22 Financial Management Performance in Organization Profitability

Authors: Adekunle Olakunle Felix

Abstract:

Research will be based on the financial management importance within organization and its important role in non-economic and economic activities that provide us the useful information about the efficient procurement and utilization of finance in a profitable manner. Due to industrialization, financial management become a vital part of business and it is very important for the business concern that with a good financial management to earn maximum profit.

Keywords: Business, Financial, Management, Organization, Efficiency, Profitability

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21 Correlation of the Rate of Imperfect Competition and Profit in Banking Markets

Authors: Jan Cernohorsky

Abstract:

This article aims to assess the evolution of imperfect competition in selected banking markets, in particular in the banking markets of Slovakia, Poland, Hungary, Slovenia and Croatia. Another objective is to assess the evolution of the relationship of imperfect competition and profit development in the banking markets. The article first provides an overview of literature on the topic. It then measures the degree of imperfect competition in individual markets using the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index. The commonly used indicator of total assets was chosen as an indicator. Based on this measurement, the individual banking sectors are categorized into theoretical definitions of the various types of imperfect competition - namely all surveyed banking sectors falling within the theoretical definition of monopolistic competition. Subsequently, using correlation analysis, i.e., the Pearson correlation coefficient, or the Spearman correlation coefficient, the connection between the evolution of imperfect competition and the development of the gross profit on selected banking markets was surveyed. It was found that with the exception of the banking market in Slovenia, where there is a positive correlation; there is no correlation between the evolution of imperfect competition and profit development in the selected markets. This means a recommendation for the regulators that it is not appropriate to rationalize a higher degree of regulation in granting banking licenses on the size of the profits attained in the banking market, as the relationship between the degree of concentration in the banking market and the amount of profit according to our measurements does not exist.

Keywords: Bank, Profitability, Banking System, imperfect competition

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20 Factors Influencing Bank Profitability of Czech Banks and Their International Parent Companies

Authors: Libena Cernohorska

Abstract:

The goal of this paper is to specify factors influencing the profitability of selected banks. Next, a model will be created to help establish variables that have a demonstrable influence on the development of the selected banks' profitability ratios. Czech banks and their international parent companies were selected for analyzing profitability. Banks categorized as large banks (according to the Czech National Bank's system, which ranks banks according to balance sheet total) were selected to represent the Czech banks. Two ratios, the return on assets ratio (ROA) and the return on equity ratio (ROE) are used to assess bank profitability. Six endogenous and four external indicators were selected from among other factors that influence bank profitability. The data analyzed were for the years 2001 – 2013. First, correlation analysis, which was supposed to eliminate correlated values, was conducted. A large number of correlated values were established on the basis of this analysis. The strongly correlated values were omitted. Despite this, the subsequent regression analysis of profitability for the individual banks that were selected did not confirm that the selected variables influenced their profitability. The studied factors' influence on bank profitability was demonstrated only for Československá Obchodní Banka and Société Générale using regression analysis. For Československá Obchodní Banka, it was demonstrated that inflation level and the amount of the central bank's interest rate influenced the return on assets ratio and that capital adequacy and market concentration influenced the return on equity ratio for Société Générale.

Keywords: Profitability, Regression analysis, banks, ROA, ROE

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19 Analysis of the Reasons behind the Deteriorated Standing of Engineering Companies during the Financial Crisis

Authors: Levan Sabauri

Abstract:

In this paper, we discuss the deteriorated standing of engineering companies, some of the reasons behind it and the problems facing engineering enterprises during the financial crisis. We show the part that financial analysis plays in the detection of the main factors affecting the standing of a company, classify internal problems and the reasons influencing efficiency thereof. The publication contains the analysis of municipal engineering companies in post-Soviet transitional economies. In the wake of the 2008 world financial crisis the issue became even more poignant. It should be said though that even before the problem had been no less acute for some post-Soviet states caught up in a lengthy transitional period. The paper highlights shortcomings in the management of transportation companies, with new, more appropriate methods suggested. In analyzing the financial stability of a company, three elements need to be considered: current assets, investment policy and structural management of the funding sources leveraging the stability, should be focused on. Inappropriate management of the three may create certain financial problems, with timely and accurate detection thereof being an issue in terms of improved standing of an enterprise. In this connection, the publication contains a diagram reflecting the reasons behind the deteriorated financial standing of a company, as well as a flow chart thereof. The main reasons behind low profitability are also discussed.

Keywords: Financial Management, Efficiency, Profitability, Investment Policy, working capital, financial sustainability, financial analysis funding structure, solvency

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18 Analyzing a Tourism System by Bifurcation Theory

Authors: Amin Behradfar

Abstract:

‎Tourism has a direct impact on the national revenue for all touristic countries. It creates work opportunities‎, ‎industries‎, ‎and several investments to serve and raise nations performance and cultures. ‎This paper is devoted to analyze dynamical behaviour of a four-dimensional non-linear tourism-based social-ecological system by using the codimension two bifurcation theory‎. ‎In fact we investigate the cusp bifurcation of that‎. ‎Implications of our mathematical results to the tourism‎ ‎industry are discussed‎. Moreover, profitability‎, ‎compatibility and sustainability of the tourism system are shown by the aid of cusp bifurcation and numerical techniques‎.

Keywords: Sustainability, Profitability, Compatibility, tourism-based social-ecological dynamical systems, cusp bifurcation, center manifold theory

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17 Impact of Profitability, Slack Resources and Natural Disasters on China's Corporate Philanthropic Practices

Authors: Nabeel Safdar, Qian Aimin

Abstract:

Corporate philanthropy is important, as the donations have been considered as a source to improve the image of business entity in modern era of high competition. We used data on annual basis from 2000 to 2014 for 1,248 firms listed at Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges. Results for giving firms reveal that there is curve linear relation of profitability and CP, as profitable firms utilize cash in an efficient way and have fewer amounts of slack resource and tradeoff among stakeholder and agency cost made it more justifiable. We found that more profitability does not mean that the cash flows are available, actually good performing firms or profitable firm also good at cash management. Cash is utilized in an effective way by profitable firms, and have fewer extents of slack resources which generate curvilinear relationship of profitability with Corporate Philanthropy. We found that the trend of Corporate Philanthropy also got affected due to natural disasters. Analysis made by innovation, slack resources and directors salary revealed the positive significant relationship. It is not compulsory that firm should be only profitable for engaging in philanthropy rather they should have abundant slack resources to donate.

Keywords: natural disasters, Profitability, corporate philanthropy, free cash flows

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16 Working Capital Management and Profitability of Uk Firms: A Contingency Theory Approach

Authors: Ishmael Tingbani

Abstract:

This paper adopts a contingency theory approach to investigate the relationship between working capital management and profitability using data of 225 listed British firms on the London Stock Exchange for the period 2001-2011. The paper employs a panel data analysis on a series of interactive models to estimate this relationship. The findings of the study confirm the relevance of the contingency theory. Evidence from the study suggests that the impact of working capital management on profitability varies and is constrained by organizational contingencies (environment, resources, and management factors) of the firm. These findings have implications for a more balanced and nuanced view of working capital management policy for policy-makers.

Keywords: Profitability, Working Capital Management, contingency theory approach, interactive models

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15 The Impact of Corporate Governance, Ownership Structure, and Cash Holdings on Firm Value with Profitability as Intervening Variable

Authors: Lucy Novianti

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of corporate governance, ownership structure, and cash holdings on firm value, either direct or indirect through profitability as an intervening variable for non-financial companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange during 2006 to 2014. Samples of 176 firms are chosen based on purposive sampling method. The results of this study conclude that profitability, the size of Audit Committee, audit quality, and cash flow have positive effects on firm value. This study also shows that the meeting frequency of the Board of Directors and free cash flow have negative effects on firm value. In addition, this study finds that the size of the Board of Directors, Independent Commissioner, and ownership structure do not have significant effects on firm value. In this study, the function of profitability as an intervening variable can only be done on the impact of the meeting frequency of the Board of Directors and cash flow on firm value. This study provides a reference for management in decision making concerning the application of corporate governance, cash holdings, and financial performance. Moreover, it can be used as additional information for investors in assessing the feasibility of an investment. Finally, it provides a suggestion for the government regarding the regulation of corporate governance.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, Profitability, firm value, ownership structure, cash holdings

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14 A Strategy for the Application of Second-Order Monte Carlo Algorithms to Petroleum Exploration and Production Projects

Authors: Obioma Uche

Abstract:

Due to the recent volatility in oil & gas prices as well as increased development of non-conventional resources, it has become even more essential to critically evaluate the profitability of petroleum prospects prior to making any investment decisions. Traditionally, simple Monte Carlo (MC) algorithms have been used to randomly sample probability distributions of economic and geological factors (e.g. price, OPEX, CAPEX, reserves, productive life, etc.) in order to obtain probability distributions for profitability metrics such as Net Present Value (NPV). In recent years, second-order MC algorithms have been shown to offer an advantage over simple MC techniques due to the added consideration of uncertainties associated with the probability distributions of the relevant variables. Here, a strategy for the application of the second-order MC technique to a case study is demonstrated to analyze its effectiveness as a tool for portfolio management.

Keywords: risk analysis, Profitability, Portfolio Management, Monte Carlo Algorithms

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13 Airbnb, Hotel Industry and Optimum Strategies: Evidence from European Cities, Barcelona, London and Paris

Authors: Juan Pedro Aznar Alarcon, Josep Maria Sayeras Maspera

Abstract:

Airbnb and other similar platforms are offering a near substitute to the traditional accommodation service supplied by the hotel sector. In this context, hotels can try to compete by offering higher quality and additional services, which imply the need for new investments or try to compete by reducing prices. The theoretical model presented in this paper analyzes the best response using a sequential game theory model. The main conclusion is that due to the financial constraints that small and medium hotels have these hotels have reduced prices whereas hotels that belong to international groups or have an easy access to financial resources have increased their investment to increase the quality of the service provided. To check the validity of the theoretical model financial data from Barcelona, London and Paris hotels have been used analyzing profitability, quality of the service provided, the investment propensity and the evolution of the gross profit. The model and the empirical data provide the base for some industrial policy in the hospitality industry. To address the extra cost that small hotels in Europe have to face compared by bigger firms would help to improve the level of quality provided and to some extent have positive externalities in terms of job creation and an increasing added value for the industry.

Keywords: Game theory, Profitability, Hospitality Industry, Airbnb

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12 Comparative Analysis of Effect of Capital Structure to Profitability in Manufacturing Sector in Indonesia and Malaysia in 2009 - 2014

Authors: Hatane Semuel, Hartmann H. Ngono, Sautma R. Basana

Abstract:

The effect of capital structure on profitability is often debated by many financial investigators. The application of the trade-off theory and pecking order theory to analyze this relationship may generate different views. Each company has its own strategies to achieve its objectives and the external environment, such as state policy has a broad impact on the relationship with the capital structure of the company's profitability. Malaysia is the country closest to Indonesia that had a similar growth rate of GDP and industrial production with Indonesia, but Malaysia has lower inflation rate than Indonesia. This study was conducted to compare the performance of manufacturing sector between two countries when entering the era of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC). The samples for this study were 69 companies in Indonesia and 242 companies in Malaysia that engaged in manufacturing sector. The study uses panel data analysis. The study found that the capital structure have positive effect on profitability of manufacturing company in Indonesia, and it turns to negative effect on manufacturing companies in Malaysia. The results also showed that there are significant differences in short-term debt towards profitability of manufacturing companies in the two countries Indonesia and Malaysia.

Keywords: Manufacturing, Profitability, Capital Structure, Indonesia, Malaysia

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11 The Influence of Firm Characteristics on Profitability: Evidence from Italian Hospitality Industry

Authors: Elisa Menicucci, Guido Paolucci

Abstract:

Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate the factors influencing profitability in the Italian hospitality industry during the period 2008-2016. Design/methodology/approach: This study examines the profitability and its determinants using a sample of 2366 Italian hotel firms. First, we use a multidimensional measure of profitability including attributes as return on equity, return on assets and occupancy rate. Second, we examine variables that are potentially related with performance and we sort these into five categories: market variables, business model, ownership structure, management education and control variables. Findings: The results show that financial crisis, business model and ownership structure influence profitability of hotel firms. Specific factors such as the internationalization, location, firm’s declaring accommodation as their primary activity and chain affiliation are associated positively with profitability. We also find that larger hotel firms have higher performance rankings, while hotels with higher operating cash flow volatility, greater sales volatility and a higher occurrence of losses have lower profitability. Research limitations/implications: Findings suggest the importance of considering firm specific factors to evaluate the profitability of a hotel firm. Results also provide evidence for academics to critically evaluate factors that would ensure profitability of hotels in developed countries such as Italy. Practical implications: This investigation offers valuable information and strategic implications for government, tourism policymakers, tourist hotel owners, hoteliers and tourism managers in their decision-making. Originality/value: This paper provides interesting insights into the characteristics and practices of profitable hotels in Italy. Few econometric studies empirically explored the determinants of performance in the European hospitality field so far. Therefore, this paper tries to close an important gap in the existing literature improving the understanding of profitability in the Italian hospitality industry.

Keywords: Profitability, determinants, hotel firms, Italian hospitality industry

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10 Effective Corporate Image Management as a Strategy for Enhancing Profitability

Authors: Ajoke F. Adebiyi, Shola Haruna Adeosun

Abstract:

Business organizations in Nigeria have failed to realize the role of a good corporate image policy in business dealings. This is probably because they do not understand the concept of corporate image and the necessary tools for promoting it. Corporate image goes beyond attractive products or rendering quality services, advertising and paying good salary. It pervades every aspect of business concern, from the least worker’s personality to the dealings within the organization and with the large society. In the face of the societal dynamics, especially in the business world, brought by technology, companies are faced with stiff competition that maintaining a competitive edge requires aggressive strategies. One of such strategies in effective corporate image management is promotion. This study investigates the strategies that could be deployed in order to build and promote the effective corporate image, as well as enhance profit margins of an organization, using Phinomar Nigeria Limited, Ngwo as case study. The study reveals that Phinomar Nigeria Limited has a laid down corporate image policy but not effectively managed; and that, strategies deployed to promote corporate image are limited; while responses to Phinomar products are fairly high. It, therefore, suggests profitable products but requires periodical improvement in the employee's welfare and work environment; as well as, the need to increase the scope of Phinomar’s social responsibility.

Keywords: Management, Strategy, Profitability, effective, corporate image, enhancing

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9 Fama French Four Factor Model: A Study of Nifty Fifty Companies

Authors: Deeksha Arora

Abstract:

The study aims to explore the applicability of the widely used asset pricing models, namely, Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) and the Fama-French Four Factor Model in the Indian equity market. The study will be based on the companies that form part of the Nifty Fifty Index for a period of five years: 2011 to 2016. The asset pricing model is examined by forming portfolios on the basis of three variables – market capitalization (size effect), book-to-market equity ratio (value effect) and profitability. The study provides a basis to test the presence of the Fama-French Four factor model in Indian stock market. This study may provide a basis for future research in the generalized asset pricing model comprising of multiple risk factors.

Keywords: Profitability, Size Effect, market capitalization, book to market equity, Fama French four factor model, value effect

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8 Impact of Working Capital Management Strategies on Firm's Value and Profitability

Authors: Jonghae Park, Daesung Kim

Abstract:

The impact of aggressive and conservative working capital‘s strategies on the value and profitability of the firms has been evaluated by applying the panel data regression analysis. The control variables used in the regression models are natural log of firm size, sales growth, and debt. We collected a panel of 13,988 companies listed on the Korea stock market covering the period 2000-2016. The major findings of this study are as follow: 1) We find a significant negative correlation between firm profitability and the number of days inventory (INV) and days accounts payable (AP). The firm’s profitability can also be improved by reducing the number of days of inventory and days accounts payable. 2) We also find a significant positive correlation between firm profitability and the number of days accounts receivable (AR) and cash ratios (CR). In other words, the cash is associated with high corporate profitability. 3) Tobin's analysis showed that only the number of days accounts receivable (AR) and cash ratios (CR) had a significant relationship. In conclusion, companies can increase profitability by reducing INV and increasing AP, but INV and AP did not affect corporate value. In particular, it is necessary to increase CA and decrease AR in order to increase Firm’s profitability and value.

Keywords: Profitability, Working Capital Management, working capital, firm value

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7 Evidence on the Nature and Extent of Fall in Oil Prices on the Financial Performance of Listed Companies: A Ratio Analysis Case Study of the Insurance Sector in the UAE

Authors: Pallavi Kishore, Mariam Aslam

Abstract:

The sharp decline in oil prices that started in 2014 affected most economies in the world either positively or negatively. In some economies, particularly the oil exporting countries, the effects were felt immediately. The Gulf Cooperation Council’s (GCC henceforth) countries are oil and gas-dependent with the largest oil reserves in the world. UAE (United Arab Emirates) has been striving to diversify away from oil and expects higher non-oil growth in 2018. These two factors, falling oil prices and the economy strategizing away from oil dependence, make a compelling case to study the financial performance of various sectors in the economy. Among other sectors, the insurance sector is widely recognized as an important indicator of the health of the economy. An expanding population, surge in construction and infrastructure, increased life expectancy, greater expenditure on automobiles and other luxury goods translate to a booming insurance sector. A slow-down of the insurance sector, on the other hand, may indicate a general slow-down in the economy. Therefore, a study on the insurance sector will help understand the general nature of the current economy. This study involves calculations and comparisons of ratios pre and post the fall in oil prices in the insurance sector in the UAE. A sample of 33 companies listed on the official stock exchanges of UAE-Dubai Financial Market and Abu Dhabi Stock Exchange were collected and empirical analysis employed to study the financial performance pre and post fall in oil prices. Ratios were calculated in 5 categories: Profitability, Liquidity, Leverage, Efficiency, and Investment. The means pre- and post-fall are compared to conclude that the profitability ratios including ROSF (Return on Shareholder Funds), ROCE (Return on Capital Employed) and NPM (Net Profit Margin) have all taken a hit. Parametric tests, including paired t-test, concludes that while the fall in profitability ratios is statistically significant, the other ratios have been quite stable in the period. The efficiency, liquidity, gearing and investment ratios have not been severely affected by the fall in oil prices. This may be due to the implementation of stronger regulatory policies and is a testimony to the diversification into the non-oil economy. The regulatory authorities can use the findings of this study to ensure transparency in revealing financial information to the public and employ policies that will help further the health of the economy. The study will also help understand which areas within the sector could benefit from more regulations.

Keywords: Investment, Efficiency, Profitability, Liquidity, Gearing, Ratio Analysis, oil price, UAE, insurance sector

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