Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 51

Professional Development Related Abstracts

51 The Continuing Professional Development of the Assessment through Research-Based Learning in Higher Education of Thailand

Authors: P. Junpeng, A. Tungkasamit

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Research-based learning is the key for the national research universities of Thailand. The indicator reflects the success of the study in assessing the learning outcomes of students. The development of the lecturers is the most important mechanism in driving. Nowadays the lecturers lack the knowledge and skills of assessment for learning. Therefore, this study aims to develop the knowledge and skills for lecturer’s assessment through research-based learning in higher education. The target group were lecturers who teach in higher education from Khon Kaen University of Thailand. This study was a research and development involved the concept of continuing professional development. Research was conducted in 3 phases: 1) to inspire one’s thought, to accomplish both knowledge and skill, 2) to focus on changes, and 3) to reflect the changes as well as suggest the guidelines for development. The results showed that the lecturers enhanced their knowledge and skill in assessment and emphasized on assessment for learning rather than assessment of learning.

Keywords: Higher Education, Professional Development, Assessment for learning, research-based nexus

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50 A Study of the Views of Information Technologies Teachers regarding In-Service Training

Authors: Halit Arslan, Ismail Sahin, Ahmet Oguz Akturk, Ismail Celik

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Today, the means of following the developments in the area of science and technology is to keep up with the pace of the advancements in this area. As is in every profession, apart from their personal efforts, the training of teachers in the period after they start their careers is only possible through in-service training. The aim of the present study is to determine the views of Information Technologies (IT) teachers regarding the in-service training courses organized by the Ministry of National Education. In this study, in which quantitative research methods and techniques were employed, the views of 196 IT teachers were collected by using the “Views on In-service Training” questionnaire developed by the authors of the paper. Independent groups t-test was used to determine whether the views of IT teachers regarding in-service training differed depending on gender, age and professional seniority. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to investigate whether the views of IT teachers regarding in-service training differed depending on the number of in-service training courses they joined and the type of in-service training course they wanted to take. According to the findings obtained in the study, the views of IT teachers on in-service training did not show a significant difference depending on gender and age, whereas those views differed depending on professional seniority, the number of in-service training courses they joined and the type of in-service training course they wanted to take.

Keywords: Professional Development, Personal Development, in-service training, IT teachers

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49 Teacher Professional Development: Preparing African Secondary School Teachers towards Enhancing Peaceful Coexistence in Multi-Ethnic Classroom Communities

Authors: Badamasi Tarda Ayuba

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African countries contend with many developmental challenges particularly that of overcoming ethnic and religious conflicts. There is the recent wave of terrorism which is also ascribed to religious intolerance. It is a reality that most sub-Saharan African countries/communities consist of several distinct ethnic groups. In a typical classroom, within both rural and urban contexts, children from diverse ethnic and socio-cultural backgrounds converge to learn and grow together. This implies that education has the potentials for fostering inter-communal understanding such that young people could learn, grow together and assume leadership positions to work in pursuit of common goals of nation building. However, given the spate of inter communal clashes erupting too frequently in many parts of the continent and the dangerous trend of ethnicization of serious national affairs, it is doubtful if these objectives are being realized through education. Thus, this paper argued that the current developments indicate failure of the education system in the realization of the countries’ educational goals of creating united, peaceful and indivisible nations, thus far. Further, the failure occurred and would continue to persist unless teachers are purposefully prepared in terms of professional competencies and attitudes to entrench in their students the culture of peaceful coexistence through the various professional roles they play within the schools and communities. Therefore, the paper examined the changing context and challenging roles expected of sub-Saharan African teachers in engendering peaceful coexistence and the need to purposefully develop their capacity and mindset for the new roles. The paper then recommended programs to expose and re-educate teachers towards such roles.

Keywords: Professional Development, Communities, Teacher, Sub-Saharan Africa, peaceful coexistence, multi-ethnicity

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48 Economies of Scale of Worker's Continuing Professional Development in Selected Universities in South- South, Nigeria

Authors: Jonathan E. Oghenekohwo

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The return to scale constitutes a significant investment index in the determination of the quantum of resources that is deployed in investment decision on worker’s continuing professional development. Such investment decision is always predicted on the expected outcomes to the individual, institution and the society in context. Several investments in the development of human capacity on the job have been made, but the return to the scale of such seems not to have been correlated positively with the quantum of resources invested in terms of productivity and performance among workers in many universities. This paper thus found out that, despite the commitment and policy instrument to avail workers the right of continuing professional development, the multiplier effects are not evident in diligence, commitment, honesty, dedication, productivity and improved performance on the job among most administrative staff in Nigerian Universities This author, therefore concludes that, given the policy on the right of workers to get trained on-the job, the outcomes of such training must reflect on the overall performance indices, otherwise, institutions should carry out a forensic analysis of the types of continuing professional development programmes that workers participate in, whether or not, they are consistent with the vision and mission of the institutions in terms of economies of scale of workers professional development to the individual, institution and the nation in context.

Keywords: Professional Development, Economies of scale, continuing, worker’s education, administrative staff

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47 Practices of Self-Directed Professional Development of Teachers in South African Public Schools

Authors: Rosaline Govender

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This research study is an exploration of the self-directed professional development of teachers who teach in public schools in an era of democracy and educational change in South Africa. Amidst an ever-changing educational system, the teachers in this study position themselves as self-directed teacher-learners where they adopt particular learning practices which enable change within the broader discourses of public schooling. Life-story interviews were used to enter into the private and public spaces of five teachers which offer glimpses of how particular systems shaped their identities, and how the meanings of self-directed teacher-learner shaped their learning practices. Through the Multidimensional framework of analysis and interpretation the teachers’ stories were analysed through three lenses: restorying the field texts - the self through story; the teacher-learner in relation to social contexts, and practices of self-directed learning.This study shows that as teacher-learners learn for change through self-directed learning practices, they develop their agency as transformative intellectuals, which is necessary for the reworking of South African public schools.

Keywords: Professional Development, Self-Directed Learning, Professionalism, professionality

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46 Professional Development in EFL Classroom: Motivation and Reflection

Authors: Iman Jabbar

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Within the scope of professionalism and in order to compete with the modern world, teachers, are expected to develop their teaching skills and activities in addition to their professional knowledge. At the college level, the teacher should be able to face classroom challenges through his engagement with the learning situation to understand the students and their needs. In our field of TESOL, the role of the English teacher is no longer restricted to teaching English texts, but rather he should endeavor to enhance the students’ skills such as communication and critical analysis. Within the literature of professionalism, there are certain strategies and tools that an English teacher should adopt to develop his competence and performance. Reflective practice, which is an exploratory process, is one of these strategies. Another strategy contributing to classroom development is motivation. It is crucial in students’ learning as it affects the quality of learning English in the classroom in addition to determining success or failure as well as language achievement. This is a qualitative study grounded on interpretive perspectives of teachers and students regarding the process of professional development. This study aims at (a) understanding how teachers at the college level conceptualize reflective practice and motivation inside EFL classroom, and (b) exploring the methods and strategies that they implement to practice reflection and motivation. This study and is based on two questions: 1. How do EFL teachers perceive and view reflection and motivation in relation to their teaching and professional development? 2. How can reflective practice and motivation be developed into practical strategies and actions in EFL teachers’ professional context? The study is organized into two parts, theoretical and practical. The theoretical part reviews the literature on the concept of reflective practice and motivation in relation to professional development through providing certain definitions, theoretical models, and strategies. The practical part draws on the theoretical one, however; it is the core of the study since it deals with two issues. It involves the research design, methodology, and methods of data collection, sampling, and data analysis. It ends up with an overall discussion of findings and the researcher's reflections on the investigated topic. In terms of significance, the study is intended to contribute to the field of TESOL at the academic level through the selection of the topic and investigating it from theoretical and practical perspectives. Professional development is the path that leads to enhancing the quality of teaching English as a foreign or second language in a way that suits the modern trends of globalization and advanced technology.

Keywords: Learning, Professional Development, Motivation, reflection

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45 Integrating HOTS Activities with Geogebra in Pre-Service Teachers' Preparation

Authors: Wajeeh Daher, Nimer Baya'a

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High Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) are suggested today as essential for the cognitive development of students and as preparing them for real life skills. Teachers are encouraged to use HOTS activities in the classroom to help their students develop higher order skills and deep thinking. So it is essential to prepare pre-service teachers to write and use HOTS activities for their students. This paper describes a model for integrating HOTS activities with GeoGebra in pre-service teachers’ preparation. This model describes four aspects of HOTS activities and working with them: Activity components, preparation procedure, strategies and processes used in writing a HOTS activity and types of the HOTS activities. In addition, the paper describes the pre-service teachers' difficulties in preparing and working with HOTS activities, as well as their perceptions regarding the use of these activities and GeoGebra in the mathematics classroom. The paper also describes the contribution of a HOTS activity to pupils' learning of mathematics, where this HOTS activity was prepared and taught by one pre-service teacher.

Keywords: Professional Development, pre-service teachers, high order thinking skills, HOTS activities

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44 ID + PD: Training Instructional Designers to Foster and Facilitate Learning Communities in Digital Spaces

Authors: Belkis L. Cabrera

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Contemporary technological innovations have reshaped possibility, interaction, communication, engagement, education, and training. Indeed, today, a high-quality technology enhanced learning experience can be transformative as much for the learner as for the educator-trainer. As innovative technologies continue to facilitate, support, foster, and enhance collaboration, problem-solving, creativity, adaptiveness, multidisciplinarity, and communication, the field of instructional design (ID) also continues to develop and expand. Shifting its focus from media to the systematic design of instruction, or rather from the gadgets and devices themselves to the theories, models, and impact of implementing educational technology, the evolution of ID marks a restructuring of the teaching, learning, and training paradigms. However, with all of its promise, this latter component of ID remains underdeveloped. The majority of ID models are crafted and guided by learning theories and, therefore, most models are constructed around student and educator roles rather than trainer roles. Thus, when these models or systems are employed for training purposes, they usually have to be re-fitted, tweaked, and stretched to meet the training needs. This paper is concerned with the training or professional development (PD) facet of instructional design and how ID models built on teacher-to-teacher interaction and dialogue can support the creation of professional learning communities (PLCs) or communities of practice (CoPs), which can augment learning and PD experiences for all. Just as technology is changing the face of education, so too can it change the face of PD within the educational realm. This paper not only provides a new ID model but using innovative technologies such as Padlet and Thinkbinder, this paper presents a concrete example of how a traditional body-to-body, brick, and mortar learning community can be transferred and transformed into the online context.

Keywords: e-Learning, Professional Development, Instructional Design, training, Technology, Educational Reform, communities of practice, professional learning communities

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43 Translating Creativity to an Educational Context: A Method to Augment the Professional Training of Newly Qualified Secondary School Teachers

Authors: Julianne Mullen-Williams

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This paper will provide an overview of a three year mixed methods research project that explores if methods from the supervision of dramatherapy can augment the occupational psychology of newly qualified secondary school teachers. It will consider how creativity and the use of metaphor, as applied in the supervision of dramatherapists, can be translated to an educational context in order to explore the explicit / implicit dynamics between the teacher trainee/ newly qualified teacher and the organisation in order to support the super objective in training for teaching; how to ‘be a teacher.’ There is growing evidence that attrition rates among teachers are rising after only five years of service owing to too many national initiatives, an unmanageable curriculum and deteriorating student discipline. The fieldwork conducted entailed facilitating a reflective space for Newly Qualified Teachers from all subject areas, using methods from the supervision of dramatherapy, to explore the social and emotional aspects of teaching and learning with the ultimate aim of improving the occupational psychology of teachers. Clinical supervision is a formal process of professional support and learning which permits individual practitioners in frontline service jobs; counsellors, psychologists, dramatherapists, social workers and nurses to expand their knowledge and proficiency, take responsibility for their own practice, and improve client protection and safety of care in complex clinical situations. It is deemed integral to continued professional practice to safeguard vulnerable people and to reduce practitioner burnout. Dramatherapy supervision incorporates all of the above but utilises creative methods as a tool to gain insight and a deeper understanding of the situation. Creativity and the use of metaphor enable the supervisee to gain an aerial view of the situation they are exploring. The word metaphor in Greek means to ‘carry across’ indicating a transfer of meaning form one frame of reference to another. The supervision support was incorporated into each group’s induction training programme. The first year group attended fortnightly one hour sessions, the second group received two one hour sessions every term. The existing literature on the supervision and mentoring of secondary school teacher trainees calls for changes in pre-service teacher education and in the induction period. There is a particular emphasis on the need to include reflective and experiential learning, within training programmes and within the induction period, in order to help teachers manage the interpersonal dynamics and emotional impact within a high pressurised environment

Keywords: Teacher Education, Professional Development, dramatherapy supervision, newly qualified secondary school teachers

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42 Teacher Professional Development in Saudi Arabia through the Implementation of Universal Design for Learning

Authors: Majed A. Alsalem

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Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is common theme in education across the US and an influential model and framework that enables students in general and particularly students who are deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) to access the general education curriculum. UDL helps teachers determine how information will be presented to students and how to keep students engaged. Moreover, UDL helps students to express their understanding and knowledge to others. UDL relies on technology to promote students' interaction with content and their communication of knowledge. This study included 120 DHH students who received daily instruction based on UDL principles. This study presents the results of the study and discusses its implications for the integration of UDL in day-to-day practice as well as in the country's education policy. UDL is a Western concept that began and grew in the US, and it has just begun to transfer to other countries such as Saudi Arabia. It will be very important to researchers, practitioners, and educators to see how UDL is being implemented in a new place with a different culture. UDL is a framework that is built to provide multiple means of engagement, representation, and action and expression that should be part of curricula and lessons for all students. The purpose of this study is to investigate the variables associated with the implementation of UDL in Saudi Arabian schools and identify the barriers that could prevent the implementation of UDL. Therefore, this study used a mixed methods design that use both quantitative and qualitative methods. More insights will be gained by including both quantitative and qualitative rather than using a single method. By having methods that different concepts and approaches, the databases will be enriched. This study uses levels of collecting date through two stages in order to insure that the data comes from multiple ways to mitigate validity threats and establishing trustworthiness in the findings. The rationale and significance of this study is that it will be the first known research that targets UDL in Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, it will deal with UDL in depth to set the path for further studies in the Middle East. From a perspective of content, this study considers teachers’ implementation knowledge, skills, and concerns of implementation. This study deals with effective instructional designs that have not been presented in any conferences, workshops, teacher preparation and professional development programs in Saudi Arabia. Specifically, Saudi Arabian schools are challenged to design inclusive schools and practices as well as to support all students’ academic skills development. The total participants in stage one were 336 teachers of DHH students. The results of the intervention indicated significant differences among teachers before and after taking the training sessions associated with their understanding and level of concern. Teachers have indicated interest in knowing more about UDL and adopting it into their practices; they reported that UDL has benefits that will enhance their performance for supporting student learning.

Keywords: Professional Development, Saudi Arabia, Universal design for learning, deaf and hard of hearing

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41 The School Based Support Program: An Evaluation of a Comprehensive School Reform Initiative in the State of Qatar

Authors: Abdullah Abu-Tineh, Youmen Chaaban

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This study examines the development of a professional development (PD) model for teacher growth and learning that is embedded into the school context. The School based Support Program (SBSP), designed for the Qatari context, targets the practices, knowledge and skills of both school leadership and teachers in an attempt to improve student learning outcomes. Key aspects of the model include the development of learning communities among teachers, strong leadership that supports school improvement activities, and the use of research-based PD to improve teacher practices and student achievement. This paper further presents findings from an evaluation of this PD program. Based on an adaptation of Guskey’s evaluation of PD models, 100 teachers at the participating schools were selected for classroom observations and 40 took part in in-depth interviews to examine changed classroom practices. The impact of the PD program on student learning was also examined. Teachers’ practices and their students’ achievement in English, Arabic, mathematics and science were measured at the beginning and at the end of the intervention.

Keywords: Professional Development, initiative, school based support Program (SBSP), school reform

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40 A Proposal for Professional Development of Mathematics Teachers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia According to the Orientation of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)

Authors: Ali Taher Othman Ali

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The aim of this research is to provide a draft proposal for the professional development of mathematics teachers in accordance with the orientation of science, technology, engineering and mathematics which is known by the abbreviation STEM, as a modern and contemporary orientation in the teaching and learning of mathematics and in order to achieve the objective of the research, the researcher used the theoretical descriptive method through the induction of the literature of education and the previous studies and experiments related to the topic. The researcher concluded by providing the proposal according to five basic axes, the first axe: professional development as a system, and its requirements include: development of educational systems, and allocate sufficient budgets to support the requirements of teaching STEM, identifying mechanisms for incentives and rewards for teachers attending professional development programs based on STEM; the second: development of in-depth knowledge content and its requirements include: basic sciences content development for STEM, linking the scientific understanding of teachers with real-world issues and problems, to provide the necessary resources to expand teachers' knowledge in this area; the third: the necessary pedagogical skills of teachers in the field of STEM, and its requirements include: identification of the required training and development needs and the mechanism of determining these needs, the types of professional development programs and the mechanism of designing it, the mechanisms and places of execution, evaluation and follow-up; the fourth: professional development strategies and mechanisms in the field of STEM, and its requirements include: using a variety of strategies to enable teachers to design and transfer effective educational experiences which reflect their scientific mastery in the fields of STEM, provide learning opportunities, and developing the skills of procedural research to generate new knowledge about the STEM; the fifth: to support professional development in the area of STEM, and its requirements include: support leadership within the school, provide a clear and appropriate opportunities for professional development for teachers within the school through professional learning communities, building partnerships between the Ministry of education and the local and international community institutions. The proposal includes other factors that should be considered when implementing professional development programs for mathematics teachers in the field of STEM.

Keywords: Professional Development, Technology, mathematics teachers, the orientation of science, engineering and mathematics (STEM)

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39 Enhancing Thai In-Service Science Teachers' Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Integrating Local Context and Sufficiency Economy into Science Teaching

Authors: Siriwan Chatmaneerungcharoen

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An emerging body of ‘21st century skills’-such as adaptability, complex communication skills, technology skills and the ability to solve non-routine problems--are valuable across a wide range of jobs in the national economy. Within the Thai context, a focus on the Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy is integrated into Science Education. Thai science education has advocated infusing 21st century skills and Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy into the school curriculum and several educational levels have launched such efforts. Therefore, developing science teachers to have proper knowledge is the most important factor to success of the goals. The purposes of this study were to develop 40 Cooperative Science teachers’ Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) and to develop Professional Development Model integrated with Co-teaching Model and Coaching System (Co-TPACK). TPACK is essential to career development for teachers. Forty volunteer In-service teachers who were science cooperative teachers participated in this study for 2 years. Data sources throughout the research project consisted of teacher refection, classroom observations, Semi-structure interviews, Situation interview, questionnaires and document analysis. Interpretivist framework was used to analyze the data. Findings indicate that at the beginning, the teachers understood only the meaning of Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy but they did not know how to integrate the Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy into their science classrooms. Mostly, they preferred to use lecture based teaching and experimental teaching styles. While the Co- TPACK was progressing, the teachers had blended their teaching styles and learning evaluation methods. Co-TPACK consists of 3 cycles (Student Teachers’ Preparation Cycle, Cooperative Science Teachers Cycle, Collaboration cycle (Co-teaching, Co-planning, and Co-Evaluating and Coaching System)).The Co-TPACK enhances the 40 cooperative science teachers, student teachers and university supervisor to exchange their knowledge and experience on teaching science. There are many channels that they used for communication including online. They have used more Phuket context-integrated lessons, technology-integrated teaching and Learning that can explicit Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy. Their sustained development is shown in their lesson plans and teaching practices.

Keywords: Professional Development, philosophy of sufficiency economy, technological pedagogical content knowledge, coaching system

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38 Exploring Nature and Pattern of Mentoring Practices: A Study on Mentees' Perspectives

Authors: Nahid Parween Anwar, Sadia Muzaffar Bhutta, Takbir Ali

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Mentoring is a structured activity which is designed to facilitate engagement between mentor and mentee to enhance mentee’s professional capability as an effective teacher. Both mentor and mentee are important elements of the ‘mentoring equation’ and play important roles in nourishing this dynamic, collaborative and reciprocal relationship. Cluster-Based Mentoring Programme (CBMP) provides an indigenous example of a project which focused on development of primary school teachers in selected clusters with a particular focus on their classroom practice. A study was designed to examine the efficacy of CBMP as part of Strengthening Teacher Education in Pakistan (STEP) project. This paper presents results of one of the components of this study. As part of the larger study, a cross-sectional survey was employed to explore nature and patterns of mentoring process from mentees’ perspectives in the selected districts of Sindh and Balochistan. This paper focuses on the results of the study related to the question: What are mentees’ perceptions of their mentors’ support for enhancing their classroom practice during mentoring process? Data were collected from mentees (n=1148) using a 5-point scale -‘Mentoring for Effective Primary Teaching’ (MEPT). MEPT focuses on seven factors of mentoring: personal attributes, pedagogical knowledge, modelling, feedback, system requirement, development and use of material, and gender equality. Data were analysed using SPSS 20. Mentees perceptions of mentoring practice of their mentors were summarized using mean and standard deviation. Results showed that mean scale scores on mentees’ perceptions of their mentors’ practices fell between 3.58 (system requirement) and 4.55 (personal attributes). Mentees’ perceives personal attribute of the mentor as the most significant factor (M=4.55) towards streamlining mentoring process by building good relationship between mentor and mentees. Furthermore, mentees have shared positive views about their mentors efforts towards promoting gender impartiality (M=4.54) during workshop and follow up visit. Contrary to this, mentees felt that more could have been done by their mentors in sharing knowledge about system requirement (e.g. school policies, national curriculum). Furthermore, some of the aspects in high scoring factors were highlighted by the mentees as areas for further improvement (e.g. assistance in timetabling, written feedback, encouragement to develop learning corners). Mentees’ perceptions of their mentors’ practices may assist in determining mentoring needs. The results may prove useful for the professional development programme for the mentors and mentees for specific mentoring programme in order to enhance practices in primary classrooms in Pakistan. Results would contribute into the body of much-needed knowledge from developing context.

Keywords: Professional Development, Survey, cluster-based mentoring programme, mentoring for effective primary teaching (MEPT)

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37 A Reflection on the Professional Development Journey of Science Educators

Authors: M. Shaheed Hartley

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Science and mathematics are regarded as gateway subjects in South Africa as they are the perceived route to careers in science, engineering, technology and mathematics (STEM). One of the biggest challenges that the country faces is the poor achievement of learners in these two learning areas in the external high school exit examination. To compound the problem many national and international benchmark tests paint a bleak picture of the state of science and mathematics in the country. In an attempt to address this challenge, the education department of the Eastern Cape Province invited the Science Learning Centre of the University of the Western Cape to provide training to their science teachers in the form of a structured course conducted on a part-time basis in 2010 and 2011. The course was directed at improving teachers’ content knowledge, pedagogical strategies and practical and experimental skills. A total of 41 of the original 50 science teachers completed the course and received their certificates in 2012. As part of their continuous professional development, 31 science teachers enrolled for BEd Hons in science education in 2013 and 28 of them completed the course in 2014. These students graduated in 2015. Of the 28 BEd Hons students who completed the course 23 registered in 2015 for Masters in Science Education and were joined by an additional 3 students. This paper provides a reflection by science educators on the training, supervision and mentorship provided to them as students of science education. The growth and development of students through their own reflection and understanding as well as through the eyes of the lecturers and supervisors that took part in the training provide the evaluation of the professional development process over the past few years. This study attempts to identify the merits, challenges and limitations of this project and the lessons to be learnt on such projects. It also documents some of the useful performance indicators with a view to developing a framework for good practice for such programmes.

Keywords: Science Education, Professional Development, reflection, rural schools

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36 Using the Technological, Pedagogical, and Content Knowledge (TPACK) Model to Address College Instructors Weaknesses in Integration of Technology in Their Current Area Curricula

Authors: Junior George Martin

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The purpose of this study was to explore college instructors’ integration of technology in their content area curriculum. The instructors indicated that they were in need of additional training to successfully integrate technology in their subject areas. The findings point to the implementation of a proposed the Technological, Pedagogical, and Content Knowledge (TPACK) model professional development workshop to satisfactorily address the weaknesses of the instructors in technology integration. The professional development workshop is proposed as a rational solution to adequately address the instructors’ inability to the successful integration of technology in their subject area in an effort to improve their pedagogy. The intense workshop would last for 5 days and will be designed to provide instructors with training in areas such as a use of technology applications and tools, and using modern methodologies to improve technology integration. Exposing the instructors to the specific areas identified will address the weaknesses they demonstrated during the study. Professional development is deemed the most appropriate intervention based on the opportunities it provides the instructors to access hands-on training to overcome their weaknesses. The purpose of the TPACK professional development workshop will be to improve the competence of the instructors so that they are adequately prepared to integrate technology successfully in their curricula. At the end of the period training, the instructors are expected to adopt strategies that will have a positive impact on the learning experiences of the students.

Keywords: Higher Education, Professional Development, Technology Integration, modern technology tools

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35 Listening to the Voices of Teachers Who Are Dyslexic: The Careers, Professional Development, and Strategies Used by of Teachers Who Are Dyslexic

Authors: Jane Mullen

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Little research has been undertaken on adult dyslexia and the impact it has on those who have professional careers. There are many complexities behind the career decisions people make, but for teachers who are dyslexic, it can be even more complex. Dyslexia particularly impacts on written and verbal communication, as well as planning and organisation skills which are essential skills for a teacher. As the teachers are aware of their areas of weakness many, make the conscious decision not to disclose their disability at work. In England, the reduction to three attempts to pass the compulsory English and Maths tests prior to undertaking teacher training may mean that dyslexics are now excluded from trying to enter the profession. Together with the fact that dyslexic teachers often chose to remain ‘hidden’ the situation appears to be counter to the inclusive rhetoric that dominates the current educational discourse. This paper is based on in-depth narrative research that has been undertaken with a small group of teachers who are dyslexic in England and firstly explores the strategies and resources that the teachers have found useful. The narratives of the teachers are full of difficulties as well as diversity, consequently, the paper secondly examines how life experiences have impacted on the way the teachers see their dyslexia and how it affects them professionally. Using a narrative methodology enables the teachers to tell their ‘stories’ of how they feel their dyslexia impacts on their lives professionally. The first interview centred around a limited number of semi structured questions about family background, educational experiences, career development, management roles and professional disclosure. The second interview focused on the complexities of being a teacher who is dyslexic and to ‘unlock’ some of their work based narratives visual elicitation was used. Photographs of work-based strategies, issues or concerns were sent to the researcher and these were used as the basis for discussion in the second interview. The paper concludes by discussing possible reasonable adjustments and professional development that might benefit teachers who are dyslexic.

Keywords: Professional Development, Strategies, Teachers, Dyslexia, Narrative, Life history, professional

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34 The Mentoring in Professional Development of University Teachers

Authors: Nagore Guerra Bilbao, Clemente Lobato Fraile

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Mentoring is provided by professionals with a higher level of experience and competence as part of the professional development of a university faculty. This paper explores the characteristics of the mentoring provided by those teachers participating in the development of an active methodology program run at the University of the Basque Country: to examine and to analyze mentors’ performance with the aim of providing empirical evidence regarding its value as a lifelong learning strategy for teaching staff. A total of 183 teachers were trained during the first three programs. The analysis method uses a coding technique and is based on flexible, systematic guidelines for gathering and analyzing qualitative data. The results have confirmed the conception of mentoring as a methodological innovation in higher education. In short, university teachers in general assessed the mentoring they received positively, considering it to be a valid, useful strategy in their professional development. They highlighted the methodological expertise of their mentor and underscored how they monitored the learning process of the active method and provided guidance and advice when necessary. Finally, they also drew attention to traits such as availability, personal commitment and flexibility in. However, a minority critique is pointed to some aspects of the performance of some mentors.

Keywords: Higher Education, Professional Development, Mentoring, university teachers

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33 Elaboration and Validation of a Survey about Research on the Characteristics of Mentoring of University Professors’ Lifelong Learning

Authors: Nagore Guerra Bilbao, Clemente Lobato Fraile

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This paper outlines the design and development of the MENDEPRO questionnaire, designed to analyze mentoring performance within a professional development process carried out with professors at the University of the Basque Country, Spain. The study took into account the international research carried out over the past two decades into teachers' professional development, and was also based on a thorough review of the most common instruments used to identify and analyze mentoring styles, many of which fail to provide sufficient psychometric guarantees. The present study aimed to gather empirical data in order to verify the metric quality of the questionnaire developed. To this end, the process followed to validate the theoretical construct was as follows: The formulation of the items and indicators in accordance with the study variables; the analysis of the validity and reliability of the initial questionnaire; the review of the second version of the questionnaire and the definitive measurement instrument. Content was validated through the formal agreement and consensus of 12 university professor training experts. A reduced sample of professors who had participated in a lifelong learning program was then selected for a trial evaluation of the instrument developed. After the trial, 18 items were removed from the initial questionnaire. The final version of the instrument, comprising 33 items, was then administered to a sample group of 99 participants. The results revealed a five-dimensional structure matching theoretical expectations. Also, the reliability data for both the instrument as a whole (.98) and its various dimensions (between .91 and .97) were very high. The questionnaire was thus found to have satisfactory psychometric properties and can therefore be considered apt for studying the performance of mentoring in both induction programs for young professors and lifelong learning programs for senior faculty members.

Keywords: Higher Education, Professional Development, Mentoring, university teaching

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32 Exploring Professional Development Needs of Mathematics Teachers through Their Reflective Practitioner Experiences

Authors: Sevket Ceyhun Cetin, Mehmet Oren

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According to existing educational research studies, students learn better with high teacher quality. Therefore, professional development has become a crucial way of increasing the quality of novices and veteran in-service teachers by providing support regarding content and pedagogy. To answer what makes PD effective, researchers have studied different PD models and revealed some critical elements that need to be considered, such as duration of a PD and the manner of delivery (e.g., lecture vs. engaging). Also, it has been pointed out that if PDs are prepared as one-size-fits-all, they most likely be ineffective in addressing teachers’ needs toward improving instructional quality. Instead, teachers’ voices need to be heard, and the foci of PDs should be determined based on their specific needs. Thus, this study was conducted to identify professional development needs of middle school mathematics teachers based on their self-evaluation of their performances in light of teaching standards. This study also aimed to explore whether the PD needs with respect to years of teaching experience (novice vs. veteran). These teachers had participated in a federally-funded research grant, which aimed to improve the competencies of 6-9 grade-level mathematics teachers in pedagogy and content areas. In the research project, the participants had consistently videoed their lessons throughout a school year and reflected on their performances, using Teacher Advanced Program (TAPTM) rubric, which was based on the best practices of teaching. Particularly, they scored their performances in the following areas and provided evidence as the justifications of their scores: Standards and Objectives, Presenting Instructional Content, Lesson Structure and Pacing, Activities and Materials, Academic Feedback, Grouping Students, and Questioning. The rating scale of the rubric is 1 through 5 (i.e., 1=Unsatisfactory [performance], 3=Proficient, and 5=Exemplary). For each area mentioned above, the numerical scores of 77 written reports (for 77 videoed lessons) of 24 teachers (nnovices=12 and nveteran=12) were averaged. Overall, the average score of each area was below 3 (ranging between 2.43 and 2.86); in other words, teachers judged their performances incompetent across the seven areas. In the second step of the data analysis, the lowest three areas in which novice and veteran teachers performed poorly were selected for further qualitative analysis. According to the preliminary results, the lowest three areas for the novice teachers were: Questioning, Grouping Students, and Academic Feedback. Grouping Students was also one of the lowest areas of the veteran teachers, but the other two areas for this group were: Lesson Structure & Pacing, and Standards & Objectives. Identifying in-service teachers’ needs based on their reflective practitioner experiences provides educators very crucial information that can be used to create more effective PD that improves teacher quality.

Keywords: Professional Development, Self-Reflection, mathematics teacher, video data

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31 Communities of Practice as a Training Model for Professional Development of In-Service Teachers: Analyzing the Sharing of Knowledge by Teachers

Authors: Panagiotis Kosmas

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The advent of new technologies in education inspires practitioners to approach teaching from a different angle with the aim to professionally develop and improve teaching practices. Online communities of practice among teachers seem to be a trend associated with the integration efforts for a modern and pioneering educational system and training program. This study attempted to explore the participation in online communities of practice and the sharing of knowledge between teachers with aims to explore teachers' incentives to participate in such a community of practice. The study aims to contribute to international research, bringing in global debate new concerns and issues related to the professional learning of current educators. One official online community was used as a case study for the purposes of research. The data collection was conducted from the content analysis of online portal, by questionnaire in 184 community members and interviews with ten active users of the portal. The findings revealed that sharing of knowledge is a key motivation of members of a community. Also, the active learning and community participation seem to be essential factors for the success of an online community of practice.

Keywords: Professional Development, Teachers, communities of practice, sharing knowledge

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30 A Unique Professional Development of Teacher Educators: Teaching Colleagues

Authors: Naomi Weiner-Levy

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The Mofet Institute of Research, established a School of Professional Development, the only one of its kind in Israel and throughout the world. It offers specialized programs for teacher educators, providing them with the professional knowledge and skills. The studies aim at updating teachers about rapidly changing knowledge and skills. Teacher educators are conceptualized as shifting from first order practitioners (school teachers) to second order practitioners. Those who train teachers are referred to as third order practitioners. The instructors in the School of Professional Development are third-order practitioners – teacher educators specializing in teaching their colleagues. Collegial guidance by teachers’ college staff members is no simple task: Tutors must be expert in their field of specialization, as well as in instruction. Moreover, although colleagues, they have to position themselves within the group as authoritative figures in terms of instruction and knowledge. To date, the role and professional identity of these third-order practitioners, has not been studied. To understand the nature and development of professional identity, a qualitative study was conducted in which 12 tutors of various subjects were interviewed. These were analyzed by categorical content analysis. The findings, assessed professional identity through a post-modern prism, while examining the interplay among events that tutors experienced, the knowledge they acquired and the structuring of their professional identity. The Tutors’ identity transformed through negotiating with ‘self’ and ‘other’ in the class, and constructed by their mutual experiences as tutors and learners. Understanding the function and identity of tutors facilitates comprehension of this unique training process for teacher educators.

Keywords: Teacher Education, Professional Development, tutoring, professional identity

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29 Psychological Factors of Readiness of Defectologists to Professional Development: On the Example of Choosing an Educational Environment

Authors: Inna V. Krotova

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The study pays special attention to the definition of the psychological potential of a specialist-defectologist, which determines his desire to increase the level of his or her professional competence. The group included participants of the educational environment – an additional professional program 'Technologies of psychological and pedagogical assistance for children with complex developmental disabilities' implemented by the department of defectology and clinical psychology of the KFU jointly with the Support Fund for the Deafblind people 'Co-Unity'. The purpose of our study was to identify the psychological aspects of the readiness of the specialist-defectologist to his or her professional development. The study assessed the indicators of psychological preparedness, and its four components were taken into account: motivational, cognitive, emotional and volitional. We used valid and standardized tests during the study. As a result of the factor analysis of data received (from Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis, Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization, Rotation converged in 12 iterations), there were identified three factors with maximum factor load from 24 indices, and their correlation coefficients with other indicators were taken into account at the level of reliability p ≤ 0.001 and p ≤ 0.01. Thus the system making factor was determined – it’s a 'motivation to achieve success'; it formed a correlation galaxy with two other factors: 'general internality' and 'internality in the field of achievements', as well as with such psychological indicators as 'internality in the field of family relations', 'internality in the field of interpersonal relations 'and 'low self-control-high self-control' (the names of the scales used is the same as names in the analysis methods. In conclusion of the article, we present some proposals to take into account the psychological model of readiness of specialists-defectologists for their professional development, to stimulate the growth of their professional competence. The study has practical value for all providers of special education and organizations that have their own specialists-defectologists, teachers-defectologists, teachers for correctional and ergotherapeutic activities, specialists working in the field of correctional-pedagogical activity (speech therapists) to people with special needs who need true professional support.

Keywords: Professional Development, Special Education, Psychological Factors, professional competence, psychological readiness, defectologist, innovative educational environment

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28 Making the Invisible Visible: Exploring Immersion Teacher Perceptions of Online Content and Language Integrated Learning Professional Development Experiences

Authors: T. J. O Ceallaigh

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Subject matter driven programs such as immersion programs are increasingly popular across the world. These programs have allowed for extensive experimentation in the realm of second language teaching and learning and have been at the centre of many research agendas since their inception. Even though immersion programs are successful, especially in terms of second language development, they remain complex to implement and not always as successful as what we would hope them to be. Among all the challenges these varied programs face, research indicates that the primary issue lies in the difficulty to create well-balanced programs where both content instruction and language/literacy instruction can be targeted simultaneously. Initial teacher education and professional development experiences are key drivers of successful language immersion education globally. They are critical to the supply of teachers with the mandatory linguistic and cultural competencies as well as associated pedagogical practices required to ensure learners’ success. However, there is a significant dearth of research on professional development experiences of immersion teachers. We lack an understanding of the nature of their expertise and their needs in terms of professional development as well as their perceptions of the primary challenges they face as they attempt to formulate a coherent pedagogy of integrated language and content instruction. Such an understanding is essential if their specific needs are to be addressed appropriately and thus improve the overall quality of immersion programs. This paper reports on immersion teacher perceptions of online professional development experiences that have a positive impact on their ability to facilitate language and content connections in instruction. Twenty Irish-medium immersion teachers engaged in the instructional integration of language and content in a systematic and developmental way during a year-long online professional development program. Data were collected from a variety of sources e.g., an extensive online questionnaire, individual interviews, reflections, assignments and focus groups. This study provides compelling evidence of the potential of online professional development experiences as a pedagogical framework for understanding the complex and interconnected knowledge demands that arise in content and language integration in immersion. Findings illustrate several points of access to classroom research and pedagogy and uncover core aspects of high impact online experiences. Teachers identified aspects such as experimentation and risk-taking, authenticity and relevance, collegiality and collaboration, motivation and challenge and teacher empowerment. The potential of the online experiences to foster teacher language awareness was also identified as a contributory factor to success. The paper will conclude with implications for designing meaningful and effective online CLIL professional development experiences.

Keywords: Professional Development, content and language integrated learning, immersion pedagogy, teacher language awareness

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27 CoP-Networks: Virtual Spaces for New Faculty’s Professional Development in the 21st Higher Education

Authors: Eman AbuKhousa, Marwan Z. Bataineh

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The 21st century higher education and globalization challenge new faculty members to build effective professional networks and partnership with industry in order to accelerate their growth and success. This creates the need for community of practice (CoP)-oriented development approaches that focus on cognitive apprenticeship while considering individual predisposition and future career needs. This work adopts data mining, clustering analysis, and social networking technologies to present the CoP-Network as a virtual space that connects together similar career-aspiration individuals who are socially influenced to join and engage in a process for domain-related knowledge and practice acquisitions. The CoP-Network model can be integrated into higher education to extend traditional graduate and professional development programs.

Keywords: Higher Education, Data Mining, Professional Development, Social Network, Social influence, community of practice, clustering analysis, new faculty challenges

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26 Design of a Professional Development Framework in Teaching and Learning for Engineering Educators

Authors: Orla McConnell, Cormac MacMahon, Jen Harvey

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Ireland’s national professional development framework for those who teach in higher education, aims to provide guidance and leadership in the planning, developing and engaging in professional development practices. A series of pilot projects have been initiated to help explore the framework’s likely utility and acceptance by educators and their institutions. These projects require engagement with staff in the interpretation and adaption of the framework within their working contexts. The purpose of this paper is to outline the development of one such project with engineering educators at three Institutes of Technology seeking designation as a technological university. The initiative aims to gain traction in the acceptance of the framework with the engineering education community by linking core and discipline-specific teaching and learning competencies with professional development activities most valued by engineering educators. Informed by three strands of literature: professional development in higher education; engineering education; and teaching and learning training provisions, the project begins with a survey of all those involved in teaching and learning in engineering across the three institutes. Based on engagement with key stakeholders, subsequent qualitative research informs the contextualization of the national framework for discipline-specific and institutional piloting. The paper concludes by exploring engineering educator perceptions of the national framework’s utility based on their engagement with the pilot process. Feedback from the pilot indicates that there is a significant gap between the professional development needs of engineering educators and the current professional development provision in teaching and learning.

Keywords: Professional Development, Engineering Education, Teaching and Learning, pilot

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25 Constructing and Circulating Knowledge in Continuous Education: A Study of Norwegian Educational-Psychological Counsellors' Reflection Logs in Post-Graduate Education

Authors: Moen Torill, Rismark Marit, Astrid M. Solvberg

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In Norway, every municipality shall provide an educational psychological service, EPS, to support kindergartens and schools in their work with children and youths with special needs. The EPS focus its work on individuals, aiming to identify special needs and to give advice to teachers and parents when they ask for it. In addition, the service also give priority to prevention and system intervention in kindergartens and schools. To master these big tasks university courses are established to support EPS counsellors' continuous learning. There is, however, a need for more in-depth and systematic knowledge on how they experience the courses they attend. In this study, EPS counsellors’ reflection logs during a particular course are investigated. The research question is: what are the content and priorities of the reflections that are communicated in the logs produced by the educational psychological counsellors during a post-graduate course? The investigated course is a credit course organized over a one-year period in two one-semester modules. The altogether 55 students enrolled in the course work as EPS counsellors in various municipalities across Norway. At the end of each day throughout the course period, the participants wrote reflection logs about what they had experienced during the day. The data material consists of 165 pages of typed text. The collaborating researchers studied the data material to ascertain, differentiate and understand the meaning of the content in each log. The analysis also involved the search for similarity in content and development of analytical categories that described the focus and primary concerns in each of the written logs. This involved constant 'critical and sustained discussions' for mutual construction of meaning between the co-researchers in the developing categories. The process is inspired by Grounded Theory. This means that the concepts developed during the analysis derived from the data material and not chosen prior to the investigation. The analysis revealed that the concept 'Useful' frequently appeared in the participants’ reflections and, as such, 'Useful' serves as a core category. The core category is described through three major categories: (1) knowledge sharing (concerning direct and indirect work with students with special needs) with colleagues is useful, (2) reflections on models and theoretical concepts (concerning students with special needs) are useful, (3) reflection on the role as EPS counsellor is useful. In all the categories, the notion of useful occurs in the participants’ emphasis on and acknowledgement of the immediate and direct link between the university course content and their daily work practice. Even if each category has an importance and value of its own, it is crucial that they are understood in connection with one another and as interwoven. It is the connectedness that gives the core category an overarching explanatory power. The knowledge from this study may be a relevant contribution when it comes to designing new courses that support continuing professional development for EPS counsellors, whether for post-graduate university courses or local courses at the EPS offices or whether in Norway or other countries in the world.

Keywords: Higher Education, Professional Development, constructing and circulating knowledge, educational-psychological counsellor

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24 Saudi Arabian Science and Mathematics Teachers’ Attitudes toward Integrating STEM in Teaching before and after Participating in a Professional Development Workshop

Authors: Abdulwali H. Aldahmash, Naem M. Alamri

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The purpose of this study was to analyze Saudi Arabian science and mathematics teachers’ attitudes toward integrating STEM in teaching before and after they participated in a professional development workshop focused on STEM integration in a specific middle school science and mathematics unit. The participants were 48 Saudi Arabian science and mathematics teachers who participated in a three-day workshop held in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The research method was a pretest-posttest group design. The primary data source was the instrument for teachers' attitudes toward teaching integrated STEM. The results indicate that Saudi Arabian science and mathematics teachers’ perceptions of difficulties decreased due to their participation in the professional development workshop on integrated STEM. Meanwhile, the teachers' self-efficacy improved following their participation in the STEM professional development (PD) workshop. However, no perceived effect was found for the teachers' perceptions of the relevance of or their anxiety about or enjoyment of integrated STEM teaching due to their participation in the three-day PD workshop.

Keywords: Professional Development, STEM integration, attitude toward STEM, STEM workshop

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23 The Impact of Professional Development on Teachers’ Instructional Practice

Authors: Karen Koellner, Nanette Seago, Jennifer Jacobs, Helen Garnier

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Although studies of teacher professional development (PD) are prevalent, surprisingly most have only produced incremental shifts in teachers’ learning and their impact on students. There is a critical need to understand what teachers take up and use in their classroom practice after attending PD and why we often do not see greater changes in learning and practice. This paper is based on a mixed methods efficacy study of the Learning and Teaching Geometry (LTG) video-based mathematics professional development materials. The extent to which the materials produce a beneficial impact on teachers’ mathematics knowledge, classroom practices, and their students’ knowledge in the domain of geometry through a group-randomized experimental design are considered. In this study, we examine a small group of teachers to better understand their interpretations of the workshops and their classroom uptake. The participants included 103 secondary mathematics teachers serving grades 6-12 from two states in different regions. Randomization was conducted at the school level, with 23 schools and 49 teachers assigned to the treatment group and 18 schools and 54 teachers assigned to the comparison group. The case study examination included twelve treatment teachers. PD workshops for treatment teachers began in Summer 2016. Nine full days of professional development were offered to teachers, beginning with the one-week institute (Summer 2016) and four days of PD throughout the academic year. The same facilitator-led all of the workshops, after completing a facilitator preparation process that included a multi-faceted assessment of fidelity. The overall impact of the LTG PD program was assessed from multiple sources: two teacher content assessments, two PD embedded assessments, pre-post-post videotaped classroom observations, and student assessments. Additional data was collected from the case study teachers including additional videotaped classroom observations and interviews. Repeated measures ANOVA analyses were used to detect patterns of change in the treatment teachers’ content knowledge before and after completion of the LTG PD, relative to the comparison group. No significant effects were found across the two groups of teachers on the two teacher content assessments. Teachers were rated on the quality of their mathematics instruction captured in videotaped classroom observations using the Math in Common Observation Protocol. On average, teachers who attended the LTG PD intervention improved their ability to engage students in mathematical reasoning and to provide accurate, coherent, and well-justified mathematical content. In addition, the LTG PD intervention and instruction that engaged students in mathematical practices both positively and significantly predicted greater student knowledge gains. Teacher knowledge was not a significant predictor. Twelve treatment teachers were self-selected to serve as case study teachers to provide additional videotapes in which they felt they were using something from the PD they learned and experienced. Project staff analyzed the videos, compared them to previous videos and interviewed the teachers regarding their uptake of the PD related to content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge and resources used.

Keywords: Geometry, Professional Development, pedagogical content knowledge, teacher learning

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22 Teacher Professional Development with Collaborative Action Research: Teachers' Responses to Research

Authors: Sumaya Saqr

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Although many teachers regard academic research as the inclusive domain of academic researchers, teachers should contribute to the body of research guiding their own practice. Drawing on the qualitative analysis of 20 teachers’ reflection journals and interviews, this case study sheds light on the personal and professional benefits of teachers’ applications of collaborative action research in English language teaching context. The findings reveal that several aspects of teacher identity and classroom practice were changed. The present paper aspires to reveal the way in which collaborative action research process, as a learner-centered approach to staff development, would help teachers to become more independent and professionally autonomous and hence effecting change that is far greater than its initial purpose.

Keywords: Professional Development, Change, collaborative action research, personal and professional benefits

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