Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 52

Production Related Abstracts

52 Production of Fish Hydrolyzates by Single and Multiple Protease Treatments under Medium High Pressure of 300 MPa

Authors: Namsoo Kim, So-Hee Son, Jin-Soo Maeng, Yong-Jin Cho, Chong-Tai Kim

Abstract:

It has been reported that some enzymes such as trypsin and Alcalase 2.4L are tolerant to a medium high pressure of 300 MPa and preparation of protein hydrolyzates under 300 MPa was advantageous with regard to hydrolysis rate and thus production yield compared with the counterpart under ambient pressure.1,2) In this study, nine fish comprising halibut, soft shell clam and carp were hydrolyzed using Flavourzyme 500MG only, and the combination of Flavourzyme 500 mg, Alcalase 2.4 L, Marugoto E, and Protamex under 300 MPa. Then, the effects of single and multiple protease treatments were determined with respect to contents of soluble solid (SS) and soluble nitrogen, sensory attributes, electrophoretic profiles, and HPLC peak patterns of the fish hydrolyzates (FHs) from various species. The contents of SS of the FHs were quite species-specific and the hydrolyzates of halibut showed the highest SS contents. At this point, multiple protease treatment increased SS content conspicuously in all fish tested. The contents of total soluble nitrogen and TCA-soluble nitrogen were well correlated with those of SS irrespective of fish species and methods of enzyme treatment. Also, it was noticed that multiple protease treatment improved sensory attributes of the FHs considerably. Electropherograms of the FHs showed fast migrating peptide bands that had the molecular masses mostly lower than 1 kDa and this was confirmed by peptide patterns from HPLC analysis for some FHs that had good sensory quality.

Keywords: Production, high pressure, fish hydrolyzates, protease treatments

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51 The Play Translator’s Score Developing: Methodology for Intercultural Communication

Authors: Akhmylovskaia Larisa, Barysh Andriana

Abstract:

The present paper is introducing the translation score developing methodology and methods in the cross-cultural communication. The ideas and examples presented by the authors illustrate the universal character of translation score developing methods under analysis. Personal experience in the international theatre-making projects, opera laboratories, cross-cultural master-classes, movie and theatre festivals give more opportunities to single out the conditions, forms, means and principles of translation score developing as well as the translator/interpreter’s functions as cultural liaison for multiethnic collaboration.

Keywords: Analysis, Production, Participant Observation, Pre-production, Laboratory, methodology of translation score developing, post-production, ethnic scene theory, theatre anthropology, master-class, educational project, academic project, Stanislavski terminology meta-language, super-objective

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
50 Real-Time Scheduling and Control of Supply Chain Networks: Challenges and Graph-Based Solution Approach

Authors: Jens Ehm

Abstract:

Manufacturing in supply chains requires an efficient organisation of production and transport processes in order to guarantee the supply of all partners within the chain with the material that is needed for the reliable fulfilment of tasks. If one partner is not able to supply products for a certain period, these products might be missing as the working material for the customer to perform the next manufacturing step, potentially as supply for further manufacturing steps. This way, local disruptions can influence the whole supply chain. In order to avoid material shortages, an efficient scheduling of tasks is necessary. However, the occurrence of unexpected disruptions cannot be eliminated, so that a modification of the schedule should be arranged as fast as possible. This paper discusses the challenges for the implementation of real-time scheduling and control methods and presents a graph-based approach that enables the integrated scheduling of production and transport processes for multiple supply chain partners and offers the potential for quick adaptations to parts of the initial schedule.

Keywords: Logistics, Production, integrated scheduling, real-time scheduling

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49 Effect of Calving Season on the Economic and Production Efficiency of Dairy Production Breeds

Authors: Eman. K. Ramadan, Abdelgawad. S. El-Tahawy

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of calving season on the production and economic efficiency of dairy farms in Egypt. Our study was performed at dairy production farms in the Alexandria, Behera, and Kafr El-Sheikh provinces of Egypt from summer 2010 to winter 2013. The randomly selected dairy farms had herds consisting of Baladi, Holstein-Friesian, or cross-bred (Baladi × Holstein-Friesian) cows. The data were collected from production records and responses to a structured questionnaire. The average total return differed significantly (P < 0.05) between the different cattle breeds and calving seasons. The average total return was highest for the Holstein-Friesian cows that calved in the winter (29106.42 EGP/cow/year), and it was lowest for Baladi cows that calved in the summer (12489.79 EGP/cow/year). Differences in total returns between the cows that calved in the winter or summer or between the foreign and native breeds, as well as variations in calf prices, might have contributed to the differences in milk yield. The average net profit per cow differed significantly (P < 0.05) between the cattle breeds and calving seasons. The average net profit values for the Baladi cows that calved in the winter or summer were 2413 and 2994.96 EGP/cow/year, respectively, and those for the Holstein-Friesian cows were 10744.17 and 7860.56 EGP/cow/year, respectively, whereas those for the cross-bred cows were 10174.86 and 7571.33 EGP/cow/year, respectively. The variations in net profit might have resulted from variation in the availability or price of feed materials, milk prices, or sales volumes. Our results show that the breed and calving season of dairy cows significantly affected the economic efficiency of dairy farms in Egypt. The cows that calved in the winter produced more milk than those that calved in the summer, which may have been the result of seasonal influences, such as temperature, humidity, management practices, and the type of feed or green fodder available.

Keywords: Production, Economic, Efficiency, Dairy, calving season

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48 Impact of Unconventional Waters on Spirulina Production under Greenhouse Condition in Ouargla

Authors: Jr., Afaf Djaghoubi, Mustapha Daddi Bouhoun, Ali Seggai

Abstract:

The study of the habitat of Spirulina is the key to ensure the smooth running of its culture outside of its natural habitat. Our experimental work in the Ouargla basin which aims to study the Spirulina productivity cultivated under greenhouse in unconventional waters enriched and non-enriched, drainage and wastewater treated were used in the experiment. For this, we proceeded to measure the biomass concentration by the DO625. The high biomass concentration and productivity amount were in treated wastewater enriched with 2.49±1.09 and 0.12±0.57 respectively, while The high amount in drainage water were in medium enriched with 2.19 ± 0.85 g/l and 0.08±0.52 g/l/d respectively. In spite of the enrichment and the good productivity of these waters, the chemical and microbiological qualities remain to study for a better valuation.

Keywords: Production, Algeria, Ouargla, Spirulina, unconventional water

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
47 Educational Theatre Making Project: Prior Conditions

Authors: Larisa Akhmylovskaia, Andriana Barysh

Abstract:

The present paper is introducing the translation score developing methodology and methods in the cross-cultural communication. The ideas and examples presented by the authors illustrate the universal character of translation score developing methods under analysis. Personal experience in the international theatre-making projects, opera laboratories, cross-cultural master-classes give more opportunities to single out the conditions, forms, means and principles of translation score developing as well as the translator/interpreter’s functions as cultural liaison for multiethnic collaboration.

Keywords: Analysis, Production, Participant Observation, Pre-production, Laboratory, methodology of translation score developing, post-production, ethnic scene theory, theatre anthropology, master-class, educational project, academic project, super-objective

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
46 Interest Rate Prediction with Taylor Rule

Authors: A. Bendahmane, T. Bouchabchoub, A. Haouriqui, N. Attou

Abstract:

This paper presents simulation results of Forex predicting model equations in order to give approximately a prevision of interest rates. First, Hall-Taylor (HT) equations have been used with Taylor rule (TR) to adapt them to European and American Forex Markets. Indeed, initial Taylor Rule equation is conceived for all Forex transactions in every States: It includes only one equation and six parameters. Here, the model has been used with Hall-Taylor equations, initially including twelve equations which have been reduced to only three equations. Analysis has been developed on the following base macroeconomic variables: Real change rate, investment wages, anticipated inflation, realized inflation, real production, interest rates, gap production and potential production. This model has been used to specifically study the impact of an inflation shock on macroeconomic director interest rates.

Keywords: Production, Taylor rule, interest rate, Forex, European Central Bank (ECB), Federal Reserve System (FED)

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45 Extracellular Production of the Oncolytic Enzyme, Glutaminase Free L-Asparaginase, from Newly Isolated Streptomyces Olivaceus NEAE-119: Optimization of Culture Conditions Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Noura El-Ahmady El-Naggar

Abstract:

Among the antitumour drugs, bacterial enzyme L-asparaginase has been employed as the most effective chemotherapeutic agent in pediatric oncotherapy especially for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Glutaminase free L-asparaginase producing actinomycetes were isolated from soil samples collected from Egypt. Among them, a potential culture, strain NEAE-119, was selected and identified on the basis of morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical properties, together with 16S rDNA sequence as Streptomyces olivaceus NEAE-119 and sequencing product(1509 bp) was deposited in the GenBank database under accession number KJ200342. The optimization of different process parameters for L-asparaginase production by Streptomyces olivaceus NEAE-119 using Plackett–Burman experimental design and response surface methodology was carried out. Fifteen nutritional variables (temperature, pH, incubation time, inoculum size, inoculum age, agitation speed, dextrose, starch, L-asparagine, KNO3, yeast extract, K2HPO4, MgSO4.7H2O, NaCl and FeSO4. 7H2O) were screened using Plackett–Burman experimental design. The most positive significant independent variables affecting enzyme production (temperature, inoculum age and agitation speed) were further optimized by the central composite face-centered design -response surface methodology. As a result, a medium of the following formula is the optimum for producing an extracellular L-asparaginase in the culture filtrate of Streptomyces olivaceus NEAE-119: Dextrose 3g, starch 20g, L-asparagine 10g, KNO3 1g, K2HPO4 1g, MgSO4.7H2O 0.1g, NaCl 0.1g, pH 7, temperature 37°C, agitation speed 200 rpm/min, inoculum size 4%, v/v, inoculum age 72 h and fermentation period 5 days.

Keywords: Production, Plackett-Burman design, Streptomyces olivaceus NEAE-119, glutaminase free L-asparaginase, central composite face-centered design, scanning electron microscope

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44 Micro-Oscillator: Passive Production and Manipulation of Microdrops

Authors: Khelfaoui Rachid, Chekifi Tawfiq, Dennai Brahim, Maazouzi A. Hak

Abstract:

A numerical and experimental studies of passive micro drops production have been presented. This paper focuses on the modeling of micro-oscillators systems which are composed by passive amplifier without moving part. The micro-system modeling is based on geometrical oscillators form. An asymmetric micro-oscillator design that is based on a bistable fluidic amplifier is proposed. The characteristic size of the channels is generally about 35 microns of depth. The numerical results indicate that the production and manipulation of microdrops are possible with passive device within a typical oscillators chamber of 2.25 mm diameter and 0.20 mm length when the Reynolds number is Re = 490. The novel micro drops method that is presented in this study provides a simple solution about the production of microdrops problems in micro system. We undertake an experimental step. The first part is based on the realisation of sample oscillator; the second part is consisted of visualization, production and manipulation of microdrops.

Keywords: Modelling, Production, Capillary, miscible, micro drops, oscillator sample

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
43 Approach for an Integrative Technology Assessment Method Combining Product Design and Manufacturing Process

Authors: G. Schuh, S. Woelk, D. Schraknepper, A. Such

Abstract:

The systematic evaluation of manufacturing technologies with regard to the potential for product designing constitutes a major challenge. Until now, conventional evaluation methods primarily consider the costs of manufacturing technologies. Thus, the potential of manufacturing technologies for achieving additional product design features is not completely captured. To compensate this deficit, final evaluations of new technologies are mainly intuitive in practice. Therefore, an additional evaluation dimension is needed which takes the potential of manufacturing technologies for specific realizable product designs into account. In this paper, we present the approach of an evaluation method for selecting manufacturing technologies with regard to their potential for product designing. This research is done within the Fraunhofer innovation cluster »AdaM« (Adaptive Manufacturing) which targets the development of resource efficient and adaptive manufacturing technology processes for complex turbo machinery components.

Keywords: Manufacturing, Product Design, Production, Technology Management, technology assessment

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42 Assessing Level of Pregnancy Rate and Milk Yield in Indian Murrah Buffaloes

Authors: Vijay Kumar, Rakesh Kumar, V. Jamuna, A. K. Chakravarty, C. S. Patil, M. A. Mir

Abstract:

Intense selection of buffaloes for milk production at organized herds of the country without giving due attention to fertility traits viz. pregnancy rate has lead to deterioration in their performances. Aim of study is to develop an optimum model for predicting pregnancy rate and to assess the level of pregnancy rate with respect to milk production Murrah buffaloes. Data pertaining to 1224 lactation records of Murrah buffaloes spread over a period 21 years were analyzed and it was observed that pregnancy rate depicted negative phenotypic association with lactation milk yield (-0.08 ± 0.04). For developing optimum model for pregnancy rate in Murrah buffaloes seven simple and multiple regression models were developed. Among the seven models, model II having only Service period as an independent reproduction variable, was found to be the best prediction model, based on the four statistical criterions (high coefficient of determination (R 2), low mean sum of squares due to error (MSSe), conceptual predictive (CP) value, and Bayesian information criterion (BIC). For standardizing the level of fertility with milk production, pregnancy rate was classified into seven classes with the increment of 10% in all parities, life time and their corresponding average pregnancy rate in relation to the average lactation milk yield (MY).It was observed that to achieve around 2000 kg MY which can be considered optimum for Indian Murrah buffaloes, level of pregnancy rate should be in between 30-50%.

Keywords: Production, standardization, life time, pregnancy rate, service period

Procedia PDF Downloads 475
41 Averting Food Crisis in Nigeria and Beyond, Activities of the National Food Security Programme

Authors: Musa M. Umar, S. G. Ado

Abstract:

The paper examines the activities of the National Programme for food security (NPFS) for averting food insecurity in Nigeria and beyond. The components of the NPFS include site development, outreach, community development and management support. On each site, core activities comprise crop productivity, production diversification and agro-processing. The outreach activities consist of inputs and commodity marketing, rural finance, strengthening research-extension-farmers-inputs linkages, health and nutrition and expansion of site activities. The community development activities include small-scale rural infrastructure, micro-earth dams and community forestry. The overall benefits include food security, improved productivity, marketing and processing, enhanced land and water use, increased animal production and fish catches, improved nutrition, reduction in post-harvest losses and value addition, improved rural infrastructure and diversification of production leading to improved livelihood. The NPFS would poster sustained development of small-holder agricultural and income generation.

Keywords: Production, Community Development, post-harvest, food-security

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40 Design of a Recombinant Expression System for Bacterial Cellulose Production

Authors: Gizem Buldum, Alexander Bismarck, Athanasios Mantalaris

Abstract:

Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on earth and it is currently being utilised in a multitude of industrial applications. Over the last 30 years, attention has been paid to the bacterial cellulose (BC), since BC exhibits unique physical, chemical and mechanical properties when compared to plant-based cellulose, including high purity and biocompatibility. Although Acetobacter xylinum is the most efficient producer of BC, it’s long doubling time results in insufficient yields of the cellulose production. This limits widespread and continued use of BC. In this study, E. coli BL21 (DE3) or E. coli HMS cells are selected as host organisms for the expression of bacterial cellulose synthase operon (bcs) of A.xylinum. The expression system is created based on pET-Duet1 and pCDF plasmid vectors, which carry bcs operon. The results showed that all bcs genes were successfully transferred and expressed in E.coli strains. The expressions of bcs proteins were shown by SDS and Native page analyses. The functionality of the bcs operon was proved by congo red binding assay. The effect of culturing temperature and the inducer concentration (IPTG) on cell growth and plasmid stability were monitored. The percentage of plasmid harboring cells induced with 0.025 mM IPTG was obtained as 85% at 22˚C in the end of 10-hr culturing period. It was confirmed that the high output cellulose production machinery of A.xylinum can be transferred into other organisms.

Keywords: Production, bacterial cellulose, biopolymer, recombinant expression system

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39 User-Friendly Task Creation Using a CAD Integrated Robotic System on a Real Workcell

Authors: Alireza Changizi, Arash Rezaei, Jamal Muhammad, Jyrki Latokartano, Minna Lanz

Abstract:

Offline programming (OLP) is a new method in robot programming which is used widely in the industry nowadays which is a simulation base method that can produce the robot codes for motion according to virtual world in the simulation software. In this project Delmia v5 is used as simulation software. First the work cell component was modelled by Catia v5 and all of them was imported to a process file in Delmia and placed roughly to form the virtual work cell. Then robot was added to the work cell from the Delmia library. Work cell was calibrated corresponding to real world work cell to have accurate code. Tool calibration is the first step of calibration scheme and then work cell equipment can be calibrated using 6 point calibration method. Finally generated code needs to be reformed to match related controller code instruction. At the last stage IO were set to accomplish robots cooperation and make their motion synchronized. The pros and cons also will be discussed to clarify the presented results show the feasibility of the method and its effect on production line efficiency. Finally the positive and negative points of the implementation will be discussed.

Keywords: Production, Robotic, Automated, CAD, offline programming

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38 Bioinformatic Study of Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor (FSHR) Gene in Different Buffalo Breeds

Authors: Hamid Mustafa, Adeela Ajmal, Kim EuiSoo, Noor-ul-Ain

Abstract:

World wild, buffalo production is considered as most important component of food industry. Efficient buffalo production is related with reproductive performance of this species. Lack of knowledge of reproductive efficiency and its related genes in buffalo species is a major constraint for sustainable buffalo production. In this study, we performed some bioinformatics analysis on Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor (FSHR) gene and explored the possible relationship of this gene among different buffalo breeds and with other farm animals. We also found the evolution pattern for this gene among these species. We investigate CDS lengths, Stop codon variation, homology search, signal peptide, isoelectic point, tertiary structure, motifs and phylogenetic tree. The results of this study indicate 4 different motif in this gene, which are Activin-recp, GS motif, STYKc Protein kinase and transmembrane. The results also indicate that this gene has very close relationship with cattle, bison, sheep and goat. Multiple alignment (MA) showed high conservation of motif which indicates constancy of this gene during evolution. The results of this study can be used and applied for better understanding of this gene for better characterization of Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor (FSHR) gene structure in different farm animals, which would be helpful for efficient breeding plans for animal’s production.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Production, buffalo, FSHR gene

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37 Comprehensive Assessment of Energy Efficiency within the Production Process

Authors: S. Kreitlein, N. Eder, J. Franke

Abstract:

The importance of energy efficiency within the production process increases steadily. Unfortunately, so far no tools for a comprehensive assessment of energy efficiency within the production process exist. Therefore the Institute for Factory Automation and Production Systems of the Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg has developed two methods with the goal of achieving transparency and a quantitative assessment of energy efficiency: EEV (Energy Efficiency Value) and EPE (Energetic Process Efficiency). This paper describes the basics and state of the art as well as the developed approaches.

Keywords: Production, Energy Efficiency, energy efficiency value, energetic process efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 509
36 Supply and Marketing of Floriculture in Ethiopia

Authors: Assefa Mitike Janko, Gosa Alemu

Abstract:

The review of supply and marketing of floriculture in Ethiopia was conducted to analyses the production potential and to know the marketing share of the country. The data was collected from secondary and primary. Ethiopia has been operating in the floriculture industry for over 20 years. As is the case in many developing countries, the major export items of Ethiopia are dominated by few agricultural products that earn very small amounts in the international market. Moreover, most of the exports are destined to only few countries. Given the highly capital intensive nature of production and processing, rose farming is not a smallholder activity. It is also important to note the extremely tightly controlled time dimension of the logistics process, given the product attributes desired and the fragility and perishability of the roses. Another characteristic of the Ethiopian floriculture sector is the lack of domestically produced inputs that flower producers can access. The export volume and value of cut-flowers accounts for a small proportion of the total exports of Ethiopia. In recent years the sector is showing improvements in terms of the quality and quantity of exports to the international market.

Keywords: Production, floriculture, Supply, Value Chain, roses

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
35 Production, Utilization and Marketing of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria

Authors: Nneka M. Chidieber-Mark, Roseline D. Ejike

Abstract:

Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) have been described as all biological materials, other than timber extracted from natural and managed forests for human subsistence and economic activities. This study focused on the production, utilization and marketing of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was adopted in the selection of respondents for the study. Data were from primary sources only. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistical tools as well as Net Income Analysis. Results show that a vast number of plant based and animal based NTFPs exist in the study area. They are harvested and used for multiple purposes. NTFPs are a source of income for the indigenes that depend on it for their livelihood. Unsustainable production and harvesting as well as poor marketing information was among the constraints impeding the growth and development of NTFPs sub-sector in the study area.

Keywords: Marketing, Production, Utilization, Non-Timber Forest Products

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34 Application of Recycled Paper Mill Sludge on the Growth of Khaya Senegalensis and Its Effect on Soil Properties, Nutrients and Heavy Metals

Authors: A. Rosazlin Abdullah, I. Che Fauziah, K. Wan Rasidah, A. B. Rosenani

Abstract:

The paper industry performs an essential role in the global economy of the world. A study was conducted on the paper mill sludge that is applied on the Khaya senegalensis for 1 year planning period at University Agriculture Park, Puchong, Selangor, Malaysia to determine the growth of Khaya senegalensis, soil properties, nutrients concentrations and effects on the status of heavy metals. Paper Mill Sludge (PMS) and composted Recycled Paper Mill Sludge (RPMS) were used with different rates of nitrogen (0, 150, 300 and 600 kg ha-1) at the ratio of 1:1 (Recycled Paper Mill Sludge (RPMS) : Empty Fruit Brunch (EFB). The growth parameters were measured twice a month for 1 year. Plant nutrients and heavy metal uptake were determined. The paper mill sludge has the potential to be a supplementary N fertilizer as well as a soil amendment. The application of RPMS with N, significantly contributed to the improvement in plant growth parameters such as plant height (4.24 m), basal diameter (10.30 cm), total plant biomass and improved soil physical and chemical properties. The pH, EC, available P and total C in soil were varied among the treatments during the planting period. The treatments with raw and RPM compost had higher pH values than those applied with inorganic fertilizer and control. Nevertheless, there was no salinity problem recorded during the planting period and available P in soil treated with raw and RPMS compost was higher than the control plots that reflects the mineralization of organic P from the decomposition of pulp sludge. The weight of the free and occluded light fractions of carbon concentration was significantly higher in the soils treated with raw and RPMS compost. The application of raw and composted RPMS gave significantly higher concentration of the heavy metals, but the total concentrations of heavy metals in the soils were below the critical values. Hence, the paper mill sludge can be successfully used as soil amendment in acidic soil without any serious threat. The use of paper mill sludge for the soil fertility, shows improvement in land application signifies a unique opportunity to recycle sludge back to the land to alleviate the potential waste management problem.

Keywords: Production, Waste Management, Growth, Heavy Metals, nutrients uptake

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33 Future of the Supply Chain Management

Authors: Mehmet Şimşek

Abstract:

In the rapidly changing market conditions, it is getting harder to survive without adapting new abilities. Technology and globalization have enabled foreign producers to enter into national markets, even local ones. For this reason there is now big competition among production companies for market share. Furthermore, competition has provided customer with broad range of options to choose from. To be able to survive in this environment, companies need to produce at low price and at high quality. The best way to succeed this is the efficient use of supply chain management that has started to get shaped by the needs of customers and the environment.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Logistics, Production, Outsourcing, cycle time

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32 Implementing a Strategy of Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM) in the Libyan Cement Industry

Authors: Khalid M. Albarkoly, Kenneth S. Park

Abstract:

The substantial development of the construction industry has forced the cement industry, its major support, to focus on achieving maximum productivity to meet the growing demand for this material. Statistics indicate that the demand for cement rose from 1.6 billion metric tons (bmt) in 2000 to 4bmt in 2013. This means that the reliability of a production system needs to be at the highest level that can be achieved by good maintenance. This paper studies the extent to which the implementation of RCM is needed as a strategy for increasing the reliability of the production systems component can be increased, thus ensuring continuous productivity. In a case study of four Libyan cement factories, 80 employees were surveyed and 12 top and middle managers interviewed. It is evident that these factories usually breakdown more often than once per month which has led to a decline in productivity, they cannot produce more than 50% of their designed capacity. This has resulted from the poor reliability of their production systems as a result of poor or insufficient maintenance. It has been found that most of the factories’ employees misunderstand maintenance and its importance. The main cause of this problem is the lack of qualified and trained staff, but in addition, it has been found that most employees are not found to be motivated as a result of a lack of management support and interest. In response to these findings, it has been suggested that the RCM strategy should be implemented in the four factories. The paper shows the importance of considering the development of maintenance strategies through the implementation of RCM in these factories. The purpose of it would be to overcome the problems that could reduce the level of reliability of the production systems. This study could be a useful source of information for academic researchers and the industrial organisations which are still experiencing problems in maintenance practices.

Keywords: Production, Reliability, Maintenance, Libyan cement industry, reliability centred maintenance

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31 Production of Hydroxy Marilone C as a Bioactive Compound from Streptomyces badius

Authors: Osama H. Elsayed, Mohsen M. S. Asker, Mahmoud A. Swelim, Ibrahim H. Abbas, Aziza I. Attwa, Mohamed E. El Awady

Abstract:

Hydroxy marilone C is a bioactive metabolite was produced from the culture broth of Streptomyces badius isolated from Egyptian soil. hydroxy marilone C was purified and fractionated by silica gel column with a gradient mobile phase dicloromethane (DCM) : Methanol then Sephadex LH-20 column using methanol as a mobile phase. It was subjected to many instruments as Infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Mass spectroscopy (MS) and UV spectroscopy to the elucidation of its structure. It was evaluated for antioxidant, cytotoxicity against human alveolar basal epithelial cell line (A-549) and human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7) and antiviral activities; showed that the maximum antioxidant activity was 78.8 % at 3000 µg/ml after 90 min. and the IC50 value against DPPH radical found about 1500 µg/ml after 60 min. By Using MTT assay the effect of the pure compound on the proliferation of A-549 cells and MCF-7 cells were 443 µg/ml and 147.9 µg/ml, respectively. While for detection of antiviral activity using Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells the maximum cytotoxicity was at 27.9% and IC50 was 128.1µg/ml. The maximum concentration required for protecting 50% of the virus-infected cells against H1N1 viral cytopathogenicity (EC50) was 33.25% for 80 µg/ml. This results indicated that the hydroxy marilone C has a potential antitumor and antiviral activities.

Keywords: Production, hydroxy marilone C, bioactive compound, Streptomyces badius

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30 Production and Purification of Pectinase by Aspergillus Niger

Authors: M. Umar Dahot, G. S. Mangrio

Abstract:

In this study Agro-industrial waste was used as a carbon source, which is a low cost substrate. Along with this, various sugars and molasses of 2.5% and 5% were investigated as substrate/carbon source for the growth of A.niger and Pectinase production. Different nitrogen sources were also used. An overview of results obtained show that 5% sucrose, 5% molasses and 0.4% (NH4)2SO4 were found the best carbon and nitrogen sources for the production of pectinase by A. niger. The maximum production of pectinase (26.87units/ml) was observed at pH 6.0 after 72 hrs incubation. The optimum temperature for the maximum production of pectinase was achieved at 35ºC when maximum production of pectinase was obtained as 28.25Units/ml.Pectinase enzyme was purified with ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialyzed sample was finally applied on gel filtration chromatography (Sephadex G-100) and Ion Exchange DEAE A-50. The enzyme was purified 2.5 fold by gel chromatography on Sephadex G-100 and Four fractions were obtained, Fraction 1, 2, 4 showed single band while Fraction -3 showed multiple bands on SDS Page electrophoresis. Fraction -3 was pooled, dialyzed and separated on Sephdex A-50 and two fractions 3a and 3b showed single band. The molecular weights of the purified fractions were detected in the range of 33000 ± 2000 and 38000± 2000 Daltons. The purified enzyme was specifically most active with pure pectin, while pectin, Lemon pectin and orange peel given lower activity as compared to (control). The optimum pH and temperature for pectinase activity was found between pH 5.0 and 6.0 and 40°- 50°C, respectively. The enzyme was stable over the pH range 3.0-8.0. The thermostability of was determined and it was observed that the pectinase activity is heat stable and retains activity more than 40% when incubated at 90°C for 10 minutes. The pectinase activity of F3a and F3b was increased with different metal ions. The Pectinase activity was stimulated in the presence of CaCl2 up to 10-30%. ZnSO4, MnSO4 and Mg SO4 showed higher activity in fractions F3a and F3b, which indicates that the pectinase belongs to metalo-enzymes. It is concluded that A. niger is capable to produce pH stable and thermostable pectinase, which can be used for industrial purposes.

Keywords: Characterization, Production, Purification, pectinase, a. niger

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29 Determination of Various Properties of Biodiesel Produced from Different Feedstocks

Authors: Faisal Anwar, Dawar Zaidi, Shubham Dixit, Nafees Ahmedii

Abstract:

This paper analyzes the various properties of biodiesel such as pour point, cloud point, viscosity, calorific value, etc produced from different feedstocks. The aim of the work is to analyze change in these properties after converting feedstocks to biodiesel and then comparring it with ASTM 6751-02 standards to check whether they are suitable for diesel engines or not. The conversion of feedstocks is carried out by a process called transesterification. This conversion is carried out to reduce viscosity, pour point, etc. It has been observed that there is some remarkable change in the properties of oil after conversion.

Keywords: Production, Biodiesel, free fatty acid, ethyl ester

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28 Silage for Dairy Production: A Case Study of Pakistan

Authors: Hamid Mustafa, Adeela Ajmal, Noor-ul-Ain, Muhammad Thair Khan

Abstract:

Pakistan is an agricultural country and livestock only share 11.8 percent to national GDP during 2015-16. Pakistan is a 3rd largest milk producing country having 41.2, 35.6, 29.4, 68.4 and 1.0 million head cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat and camel, respectively. Modern urbanization and shortage of feed resources for livestock species in a country is an alarming threat. The introduction of new technology and advanced techniques solve this issue. This includes drought feeding, increase production, aid to crop management, balance nutrition and easily storaged of wet feed products. It is therefore clear that silage has important role in animal feed and feeding. Financial model of this study clear the effectiveness of silage. Therefore, it is revealed from this study that silage is a cost-effective option for a profitable dairy farming in Pakistan.

Keywords: Production, Pakistan, Dairy, silage, feed

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27 Energy Consumption and GHG Production in Railway and Road Passenger Regional Transport

Authors: Martin Kendra, Tomas Skrucany, Jozef Gnap, Jan Ponicky

Abstract:

Paper deals with the modeling and simulation of energy consumption and GHG production of two different modes of regional passenger transport – road and railway. These two transport modes use the same type of fuel – diesel. Modeling and simulation of the energy consumption in transport is often used due to calculation satisfactory accuracy and cost efficiency. Paper deals with the calculation based on EN standards and information collected from technical information from vehicle producers and characteristics of tracks. Calculation included maximal theoretical capacity of bus and train and real passenger’s measurement from operation. Final energy consumption and GHG production is calculated by using software simulation. In evaluation of the simulation is used system ‘well to wheel’.

Keywords: Simulation, Production, bus, consumption energy, GHG, train

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26 Characteristics of Pore Pressure and Effective Stress Changes in Sandstone Reservoir Due to Hydrocarbon Production

Authors: Wan Ismail Wan Yusoff, Kurniawan Adha, Luluan Almanna Lubis

Abstract:

Preventing hazardous events during oil and gas operation is an important contribution of accurate pore pressure data. The availability of pore pressure data also contribute in reducing the operation cost. Suggested methods in pore pressure estimation were mostly complex by the many assumptions and hypothesis used. Basic properties which may have significant impact on estimation model are somehow being neglected. To date, most of pore pressure determinations are estimated by data model analysis and rarely include laboratory analysis, stratigraphy study or core check measurement. Basically, this study developed a model that might be applied to investigate the changes of pore pressure and effective stress due to hydrocarbon production. In general, this paper focused velocity model effect of pore pressure and effective stress changes due to hydrocarbon production with illustrated by changes in saturation. The core samples from Miri field from Sarawak Malaysia ware used in this study, where the formation consists of sandstone reservoir. The study area is divided into sixteen (16) layers and encompassed six facies (A-F) from the outcrop that is used for stratigraphy sequence model. The experimental work was firstly involving data collection through field study and developing stratigraphy sequence model based on outcrop study. Porosity and permeability measurements were then performed after samples were cut into 1.5 inch diameter core samples. Next, velocity was analyzed using SONIC OYO and AutoLab 500. Three (3) scenarios of saturation were also conducted to exhibit the production history of the samples used. Results from this study show the alterations of velocity for different saturation with different actions of effective stress and pore pressure. It was observed that sample with water saturation has the highest velocity while dry sample has the lowest value. In comparison with oil to samples with oil saturation, water saturated sample still leads with the highest value since water has higher fluid density than oil. Furthermore, water saturated sample exhibits velocity derived parameters, such as poisson’s ratio and P-wave velocity over S-wave velocity (Vp/Vs) The result shows that pore pressure value ware reduced due to the decreasing of fluid content. The decreasing of pore pressure result may soften the elastic mineral frame and have tendency to possess high velocity. The alteration of pore pressure by the changes in fluid content or saturation resulted in alteration of velocity value that has proportionate trend with the effective stress.

Keywords: Production, Pore Pressure, effective stress, miri formation

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25 Cross-Cultural Variations in Creative Perception Modulate Creative Performance

Authors: Anatoliy Kharkhurin

Abstract:

The study argues that variations in creative performance may be stipulated by cross-cultural differences in perception of the creativity construct. In Experiment 1, 50 Russian and 50 Emirati college students received structured imagination test that requires producing a drawing of an alien creature. In Experiment 2, 53 Russian and 53 Emirati college students (different from Experiment 1) on 5-point Likert-type scale evaluated the level of creativity of the drawings produced in the Experiment I. Repeated-measure ANOVA revealed an interaction between the country where the drawings were produced and the country where they were evaluated. Russians evaluated their country mates’ drawings as more creative than the Emiratis evaluated their country mates’ drawings. Regression analysis revealed that the creativity level of the drawings was positively predicted by the Russians’ evaluation and negatively predicted by the Emiratis’ evaluation. Finally, the evaluation of the drawings by the Russians predicted divergent thinking performance.

Keywords: Production, Perception, Culture, Creativity, Cross-cultural

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24 Providing a Suitable Model for Launching New Home Appliances Products to the Market

Authors: Ebrahim Sabermaash Eshghi, Donna Sandsmark

Abstract:

In changing modern economic conditions of the world, one the most important issues facing managers of firms, is increasing the sales and profitability through sales of newly developed products. This is while purpose of decreasing unnecessary costs is one of the most essential programs of smart managers for more implementation with new conditions in current business. In modern life, condition of misgiving is dominant in all of the industries. Accordingly, in this research, influence of different aspects of presenting products to the market is investigated. This study is done through a Quantitative-Qualitative (Interviews and Questionnaire) approach. In sum, 103 of informed managers and experts of Pars-Khazar Company have been examined through census. Validity of measurement tools was approved through judgments of experts. Reliability of tools was gained through Cronbach's alpha coefficient in size of 0.930 and in sum, validity and reliability of tools were approved generally. Results of regression test revealed that the influence of all aspects of product introduction supported the performance of product, positively and significantly. In addition that influence of two new factors raised from the interview, namely Human Resource Management and Management of product’s pre-test on performance of products was approved.

Keywords: Production, Performance, Advertisement, price, home appliances, introducing products

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
23 An Economic Study for Fish Production in Egypt

Authors: Manal Elsayed Elkheshin, Rasha Saleh Mansour, Mohamed Fawzy Mohamed Eldnasury, Mamdouh Elbadry Mohamed

Abstract:

This research Aims to identify the main factors affecting the production and the fish consumption in Egypt, through the econometric estimation for various forms functions of fish production and fish consumption during the period (1991-2014), as the aim of this research to forecast the production and the fish consumption in Egypt until 2020, through determine the best standard methods using (ARIMA).This research also aims to the economic feasibility of the production of fish in aquaculture farms study; investment cost and represents the value of land, buildings, equipment and irrigation. Aquaculture requires three types of fish (Tilapia, carp fish, and mullet fish), and the total area of the farm, about an acre. The annual Fish production from this project about 3.5 tons. The annual investment costs of about 50500 pounds, Find conclude that the project can repay the cost of their investments after about 4 years and 5 months, and therefore recommend the implementation of the project, and internal rate of return reached (IRR) of about 22.1%, where it is clear that the rate of large internal rate of return, and achieves pound invested in this project annual return is estimated at 22.1 pounds, more than the opportunity cost, so we recommend the need to implement the project.Recommendations:1. Increasing the fish agriculture to decrease the gap of animal protein. 2.Increasing the number of mechanism fishing boats, and the provision of transport equipped to maintain the quality of fish production. 3.Encourage and attract the local and foreign investments, providing advice to the investor on the aquaculture field. 4. Action newsletters awareness of the importance of these projects where these projects resulted in a net profit after recovery in less than five years, IRR amounted to about 23%, which is much more than the opportunity cost of a bank interest rate is about 7%, helping to create work and graduates opportunities, and contribute to the reduction of imports of the fish, and improve the performance of the food trade balance.

Keywords: Aquaculture, Production, consumption, Fish Production, feasibility study, equation model, individual share, red meat, endogenous variable, exogenous variable, financial performance evaluates fish culture

Procedia PDF Downloads 164