Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Process Optimization Related Abstracts

7 Reliability Enhancement by Parameter Design in Ferrite Magnet Process

Authors: Won Jung, Wan Emri

Abstract:

Ferrite magnet is widely used in many automotive components such as motors and alternators. Magnets used inside the components must be in good quality to ensure the high level of performance. The purpose of this study is to design input parameters that optimize the ferrite magnet production process to ensure the quality and reliability of manufactured products. Design of Experiments (DOE) and Statistical Process Control (SPC) are used as mutual supplementations to optimize the process. DOE and SPC are quality tools being used in the industry to monitor and improve the manufacturing process condition. These tools are practically used to maintain the process on target and within the limits of natural variation. A mixed Taguchi method is utilized for optimization purpose as a part of DOE analysis. SPC with proportion data is applied to assess the output parameters to determine the optimal operating conditions. An example of case involving the monitoring and optimization of ferrite magnet process was presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach. Through the utilization of these tools, reliable magnets can be produced by following the step by step procedures of proposed framework. One of the main contributions of this study was producing the crack free magnets by applying the proposed parameter design.

Keywords: Reliability, Process Optimization, Taguchi method, crack, ferrite magnet

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6 Optimized Renewable Energy Mix for Energy Saving in Waste Water Treatment Plants

Authors: J. D. García Espinel, Paula Pérez Sánchez, Carlos Egea Ruiz, Carlos Lardín Mifsut, Andrés López-Aranguren Oliver

Abstract:

This paper shortly describes three main actuations over a Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) for reducing its energy consumption: Optimization of the biological reactor in the aeration stage by including new control algorithms and introducing new efficient equipment, the installation of an innovative hybrid system with zero Grid injection (formed by 100kW of PV energy and 5 kW of mini-wind energy generation) and an intelligent management system for load consumption and energy generation control in the most optimum way. This project called RENEWAT, involved in the European Commission call LIFE 2013, has the main objective of reducing the energy consumptions through different actions on the processes which take place in a WWTP and introducing renewable energies on these treatment plants, with the purpose of promoting the usage of treated waste water for irrigation and decreasing the C02 gas emissions. WWTP is always required before waste water can be reused for irrigation or discharged in water bodies. However, the energetic demand of the treatment process is high enough for making the price of treated water to exceed the one for drinkable water. This makes any policy very difficult to encourage the re-use of treated water, with a great impact on the water cycle, particularly in those areas suffering hydric stress or deficiency. The cost of treating waste water involves another climate-change related burden: the energy necessary for the process is obtained mainly from the electric network, which is, in most of the cases in Europe, energy obtained from the burning of fossil fuels. The innovative part of this project is based on the implementation, adaptation and integration of solutions for this problem, together with a new concept of the integration of energy input and operative energy demand. Moreover, there is an important qualitative jump between the technologies used and the alleged technologies to use in the project which give it an innovative character, due to the fact that there are no similar previous experiences of a WWTP including an intelligent discrimination of energy sources, integrating renewable ones (PV and Wind) and the grid.

Keywords: Hybrid systems, Energy Efficiency, Process Optimization, Co2 Emissions, aeration system, biological reactor, LIFE 2013 call, renewable energy sources, wasted water treatment plants

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5 Formulation Development, Process Optimization and Comparative study of Poorly Compressible Drugs Ibuprofen, Acetaminophen Using Direct Compression and Top Spray Granulation Technique

Authors: Abhishek Pandey

Abstract:

Ibuprofen and Acetaminophen is widely used as prescription & non-prescription medicine. Ibuprofen mainly used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain related to headache, migraine, postoperative condition and in the management of spondylitis, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Acetaminophen is used as an analgesic and antipyretic drug. Ibuprofen having high tendency of sticking to punches of tablet punching machine while Acetaminophen is not ordinarily compressible to tablet formulation because Acetaminophen crystals are very hard and brittle in nature and fracture very easily when compressed producing capping and laminating tablet defects therefore wet granulation method is used to make them compressible. The aim of study was to prepare Ibuprofen and Acetaminophen tablets by direct compression and top spray granulation technique. In this Investigation tablets were prepared by using directly compressible grade excipients. Dibasic calcium phosphate, lactose anhydrous (DCL21), microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH 101). In order to obtain best or optimized formulation, nine different formulations were generated among them batch F7, F8, F9 shows good results and within the acceptable limit. Formulation (F7) selected as optimize product on the basis of dissolution study. Furtherly, directly compressible granules of both drugs were prepared by using top spray granulation technique in fluidized bed processor equipment and compressed .In order to obtain best product process optimization was carried out by performing four trials in which various parameters like inlet air temperature, spray rate, peristaltic pump rpm, % LOD, properties of granules, blending time and hardness were optimized. Batch T3 coined as optimized batch on the basis physical & chemical evaluation. Finally formulations prepared by both techniques were compared.

Keywords: Process Optimization, direct compression, top spray granulation, blending time

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4 Optimization of Process Parameters and Modeling of Mass Transport during Hybrid Solar Drying of Paddy

Authors: Aprajeeta Jha, Punyadarshini P. Tripathy

Abstract:

Drying is one of the most critical unit operations for prolonging the shelf-life of food grains in order to ensure global food security. Photovoltaic integrated solar dryers can be a sustainable solution for replacing energy intensive thermal dryers as it is capable of drying in off-sunshine hours and provide better control over drying conditions. But, performance and reliability of PV based solar dryers depend hugely on climatic conditions thereby, drastically affecting process parameters. Therefore, to ensure quality and prolonged shelf-life of paddy, optimization of process parameters for solar dryers is critical. Proper moisture distribution within the grains is most detrimental factor to enhance the shelf-life of paddy therefore; modeling of mass transport can help in providing a better insight of moisture migration. Hence, present work aims at optimizing the process parameters and to develop a 3D finite element model (FEM) for predicting moisture profile in paddy during solar drying. Optimization of process parameters (power level, air velocity and moisture content) was done using box Behnken model in Design expert software. Furthermore, COMSOL Multiphysics was employed to develop a 3D finite element model for predicting moisture profile. Optimized model for drying paddy was found to be 700W, 2.75 m/s and 13% wb with optimum temperature, milling yield and drying time of 42˚C, 62%, 86 min respectively, having desirability of 0.905. Furthermore, 3D finite element model (FEM) for predicting moisture migration in single kernel for every time step has been developed. The mean absolute error (MAE), mean relative error (MRE) and standard error (SE) were found to be 0.003, 0.0531 and 0.0007, respectively, indicating close agreement of model with experimental results. Above optimized conditions can be successfully used to dry paddy in PV integrated solar dryer in order to attain maximum uniformity, quality and yield of product to achieve global food and energy security

Keywords: Finite element modeling, Process Optimization, Mass Transport, paddy, hybrid solar drying

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3 Finite Element Modeling of Mass Transfer Phenomenon and Optimization of Process Parameters for Drying of Paddy in a Hybrid Solar Dryer

Authors: Aprajeeta Jha, Punyadarshini P. Tripathy

Abstract:

Drying technologies for various food processing operations shares an inevitable linkage with energy, cost and environmental sustainability. Hence, solar drying of food grains has become imperative choice to combat duo challenges of meeting high energy demand for drying and to address climate change scenario. But performance and reliability of solar dryers depend hugely on sunshine period, climatic conditions, therefore, offer a limited control over drying conditions and have lower efficiencies. Solar drying technology, supported by Photovoltaic (PV) power plant and hybrid type solar air collector can potentially overpower the disadvantages of solar dryers. For development of such robust hybrid dryers; to ensure quality and shelf-life of paddy grains the optimization of process parameter becomes extremely critical. Investigation of the moisture distribution profile within the grains becomes necessary in order to avoid over drying or under drying of food grains in hybrid solar dryer. Computational simulations based on finite element modeling can serve as potential tool in providing a better insight of moisture migration during drying process. Hence, present work aims at optimizing the process parameters and to develop a 3-dimensional (3D) finite element model (FEM) for predicting moisture profile in paddy during solar drying. COMSOL Multiphysics was employed to develop a 3D finite element model for predicting moisture profile. Furthermore, optimization of process parameters (power level, air velocity and moisture content) was done using response surface methodology in design expert software. 3D finite element model (FEM) for predicting moisture migration in single kernel for every time step has been developed and validated with experimental data. The mean absolute error (MAE), mean relative error (MRE) and standard error (SE) were found to be 0.003, 0.0531 and 0.0007, respectively, indicating close agreement of model with experimental results. Furthermore, optimized process parameters for drying paddy were found to be 700 W, 2.75 m/s at 13% (wb) with optimum temperature, milling yield and drying time of 42˚C, 62%, 86 min respectively, having desirability of 0.905. Above optimized conditions can be successfully used to dry paddy in PV integrated solar dryer in order to attain maximum uniformity, quality and yield of product. PV-integrated hybrid solar dryers can be employed as potential and cutting edge drying technology alternative for sustainable energy and food security.

Keywords: Finite element modeling, Process Optimization, moisture migration, paddy grain, PV integrated hybrid solar dryer

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2 Experimental Design and Optimization of Diesel Oil Desulfurization Process by Adsorption Processes

Authors: M. Firoz Kalam, Wilfried Schuetz, Jan Hendrik Bredehoeft

Abstract:

Thiophene sulfur compounds' removal from diesel oil by batch adsorption process using commercial powdered activated carbon was designed and optimized in two-level factorial design method. This design analysis was used to find out the effects of operating parameters directing the adsorption process, such as amount of adsorbent, temperature and stirring time. The desulfurization efficiency was considered the response or output variable. Results showed that the stirring time had the largest effects on sulfur removal efficiency as compared with other operating parameters and their interactions under the experimental ranges studied. A regression model was generated to observe the closeness between predicted and experimental values. The three-dimensional plots and contour plots of main factors were generated according to the regression results to observe the optimal points.

Keywords: Process Optimization, activated carbon, factorial design, adsorptive desulfurization

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1 Cluster Analysis and Benchmarking for Performance Optimization of a Pyrochlore Processing Unit

Authors: Ana C. R. P. Ferreira, Adriano H. P. Pereira

Abstract:

Given the frequent variation of mineral properties throughout the Araxá pyrochlore deposit, even if a good homogenization work has been carried out before feeding the processing plants, an operation with quality and performance’s high variety standard is expected. These results could be improved and standardized if the blend composition parameters that most influence the processing route are determined, and then the types of raw materials are grouped by them, finally presenting a great reference with operational settings for each group. Associating the physical and chemical parameters of a unit operation through benchmarking or even an optimal reference of metallurgical recovery and product quality reflects in the reduction of the production costs, optimization of the mineral resource, and guarantee of greater stability in the subsequent processes of the production chain that uses the mineral of interest. Conducting a comprehensive exploratory data analysis to identify which characteristics of the ore are most relevant to the process route, associated with the use of Machine Learning algorithms for grouping the raw material (ore) and associating these with reference variables in the process’ benchmark is a reasonable alternative for the standardization and improvement of mineral processing units. Clustering methods through Decision Tree and K-Means were employed, associated with algorithms based on the theory of benchmarking, with criteria defined by the process team in order to reference the best adjustments for processing the ore piles of each cluster. A clean user interface was created to obtain the outputs of the created algorithm. The results were measured through the average time of adjustment and stabilization of the process after a new pile of homogenized ore enters the plant, as well as the average time needed to achieve the best processing result. Direct gains from the metallurgical recovery of the process were also measured. The results were promising, with a reduction in the adjustment time and stabilization when starting the processing of a new ore pile, as well as reaching the benchmark. Also noteworthy are the gains in metallurgical recovery, which reflect a significant saving in ore consumption and a consequent reduction in production costs, hence a more rational use of the tailings dams and life optimization of the mineral deposit.

Keywords: Machine Learning, Process Optimization, mineral clustering, pyrochlore processing

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