Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Process Design Related Abstracts

4 Modeling and Simulation of Fluid Catalytic Cracking Process

Authors: Sungho Kim, Jong Min Lee, Dae Shik Kim

Abstract:

Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) process is one of the most important process in modern refinery industry. This paper focuses on the fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) process. As the FCC process is difficult to model well, due to its non linearities and various interactions between its process variables, rigorous process modeling of whole FCC plant is demanded for control and plant-wide optimization of the plant. In this study, a process design for the FCC plant includes riser reactor, main fractionator, and gas processing unit was developed. A reactor model was described based on four-lumped kinetic scheme. Main fractionator, gas processing unit and other process units are designed to simulate real plant data, using a process flow sheet simulator, Aspen PLUS. The custom reactor model was integrated with the process flow sheet simulator to develop an integrated process model.

Keywords: Simulation, Process Design, fluid catalytic cracking, plant data

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3 Simulation of a Fluid Catalytic Cracking Process

Authors: Sungho Kim, Jong Min Lee, Dae Shik Kim

Abstract:

Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) process is one of the most important process in modern refinery indusrty. This paper focuses on the fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) process. As the FCC process is difficult to model well, due to its nonlinearities and various interactions between its process variables, rigorous process modeling of whole FCC plant is demanded for control and plant-wide optimization of the plant. In this study, a process design for the FCC plant includes riser reactor, main fractionator, and gas processing unit was developed. A reactor model was described based on four-lumped kinetic scheme. Main fractionator, gas processing unit and other process units are designed to simulate real plant data, using a process flowsheet simulator, Aspen PLUS. The custom reactor model was integrated with the process flowsheet simulator to develop an integrated process model.

Keywords: Simulation, Process Design, fluid catalytic cracking, plant data

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
2 Lignin Valorization: Techno-Economic Analysis of Three Lignin Conversion Routes

Authors: Andrea Ramirez, Iris Vural Gursel

Abstract:

Effective utilization of lignin is an important mean for developing economically profitable biorefineries. Current literature suggests that large amounts of lignin will become available in second generation biorefineries. New conversion technologies will, therefore, be needed to carry lignin transformation well beyond combustion to produce energy, but towards high-value products such as chemicals and transportation fuels. In recent years, significant progress on catalysis has been made to improve transformation of lignin, and new catalytic processes are emerging. In this work, a techno-economic assessment of two of these novel conversion routes and comparison with more established lignin pyrolysis route were made. The aim is to provide insights into the potential performance and potential hotspots in order to guide the experimental research and ease the commercialization by early identifying cost drivers, strengths, and challenges. The lignin conversion routes selected for detailed assessment were: (non-catalytic) lignin pyrolysis as the benchmark, direct hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of lignin and hydrothermal lignin depolymerisation. Products generated were mixed oxygenated aromatic monomers (MOAMON), light organics, heavy organics, and char. For the technical assessment, a basis design followed by process modelling in Aspen was done using experimental yields. A design capacity of 200 kt/year lignin feed was chosen that is equivalent to a 1 Mt/y scale lignocellulosic biorefinery. The downstream equipment was modelled to achieve the separation of the product streams defined. For determining external utility requirement, heat integration was considered and when possible gasses were combusted to cover heating demand. The models made were used in generating necessary data on material and energy flows. Next, an economic assessment was carried out by estimating operating and capital costs. Return on investment (ROI) and payback period (PBP) were used as indicators. The results of the process modelling indicate that series of separation steps are required. The downstream processing was found especially demanding in the hydrothermal upgrading process due to the presence of significant amount of unconverted lignin (34%) and water. Also, external utility requirements were found to be high. Due to the complex separations, hydrothermal upgrading process showed the highest capital cost (50 M€ more than benchmark). Whereas operating costs were found the highest for the direct HDO process (20 M€/year more than benchmark) due to the use of hydrogen. Because of high yields to valuable heavy organics (32%) and MOAMON (24%), direct HDO process showed the highest ROI (12%) and the shortest PBP (5 years). This process is found feasible with a positive net present value. However, it is very sensitive to the prices used in the calculation. The assessments at this stage are associated with large uncertainties. Nevertheless, they are useful for comparing alternatives and identifying whether a certain process should be given further consideration. Among the three processes investigated here, the direct HDO process was seen to be the most promising.

Keywords: Process Design, Biorefinery, economic assessment, lignin conversion

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1 The Impact of Management Competency, Project Team, and Process Design to Corporate Performance through Implementing the Self-Development ERP

Authors: Sautma Ronni Basana, Zeplin Jiwa Husada Tarigan, Widjojo Suprapto

Abstract:

Manufacturing companies in East Java develop their own ERP system or alter the ERP system which is developed by other companies to suit their needs. To make their own system, the companies mostly assign several employees from various departments to create a project team, and the employees are from the departments that are going to utilize the ERP system as the integrated data. The project team decides the making of the ERP system from the preparation stage until the going live implementation process. In designing the business process, the top management is working together with the project team until the project is accomplished. The completion of the ERP projects depends on the project to be undertaken itself, the strategy chosen to complete the project, the work method selection, the measurement system to monitor the project, the evaluation system of the project, and, in the end, the declaration of 'going live' of the ERP project. There is an increase in the business performance for the companies that have implemented the information technology or ERP as they manage to integrate all management functions within their companies. To investigate, some questionnaires are distributed to 100 manufacturing companies, and 90 questionnaires are returned; however, there are only 46 companies that develop their own ERP system, so the response rate is 46%. The result of data analysis using PLS shows that the management competency brings impacts to the project team and the process design. The process design is adjusted to the real process in order to implement the ERP, but it does not bring direct impacts to the business performance. The implementation of ERP brings positive impacts to the company business performance.

Keywords: Process Design, Business Performance, management competency, project team, ERP implementation

Procedia PDF Downloads 70