Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

problem solving Related Abstracts

14 Process Modeling and Problem Solving: Connecting Two Worlds by BPMN

Authors: Gionata Carmignani, Mario G. C. A. Cimino, Franco Failli


Business Processes (BPs) are the key instrument to understand how companies operate at an organizational level, taking an as-is view of the workflow, and how to address their issues by identifying a to-be model. In last year’s, the BP Model and Notation (BPMN) has become a de-facto standard for modeling processes. However, this standard does not incorporate explicitly the Problem-Solving (PS) knowledge in the Process Modeling (PM) results. Thus, such knowledge cannot be shared or reused. To narrow this gap is today a challenging research area. In this paper we present a framework able to capture the PS knowledge and to improve a workflow. This framework extends the BPMN specification by incorporating new general-purpose elements. A pilot scenario is also presented and discussed.

Keywords: Business Process Management, problem solving, BPMN, process mapping

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13 Problem Solving: Process or Product? A Mathematics Approach to Problem Solving in Knowledge Management

Authors: A. Giannakopoulos, S. B. Buckley


Problem solving in any field is recognised as a prerequisite for any advancement in knowledge. For example in South Africa it is one of the seven critical outcomes of education together with critical thinking. As a systematic way to problem solving was initiated in mathematics by the great mathematician George Polya (the father of problem solving), more detailed and comprehensive ways in problem solving have been developed. This paper is based on the findings by the author and subsequent recommendations for further research in problem solving and critical thinking. Although the study was done in mathematics, there is no doubt by now in almost anyone’s mind that mathematics is involved to a greater or a lesser extent in all fields, from symbols, to variables, to equations, to logic, to critical thinking. Therefore it stands to reason that mathematical principles and learning cannot be divorced from any field. In management of knowledge situations, the types of problems are similar to mathematics problems varying from simple to analogical to complex; from well-structured to ill-structured problems. While simple problems could be solved by employees by adhering to prescribed sequential steps (the process), analogical and complex problems cannot be proceduralised and that diminishes the capacity of the organisation of knowledge creation and innovation. The low efficiency in some organisations and the low pass rates in mathematics prompted the author to view problem solving as a product. The authors argue that using mathematical approaches to knowledge management problem solving and treating problem solving as a product will empower the employee through further training to tackle analogical and complex problems. The question the authors asked was: If it is true that problem solving and critical thinking are indeed basic skills necessary for advancement of knowledge why is there so little literature of knowledge management (KM) about them and how they are connected and advance KM?This paper concludes with a conceptual model which is based on general accepted principles of knowledge acquisition (developing a learning organisation), knowledge creation, sharing, disseminating and storing thereof, the five pillars of knowledge management (KM). This model, also expands on Gray’s framework on KM practices and problem solving and opens the doors to a new approach to training employees in general and domain specific areas problems which can be adapted in any type of organisation.

Keywords: Knowledge Management, Mathematics, problem solving, Critical thinking

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12 An Innovative Approach to Improve Skills of Students in Qatar University Spending in Virtual Class though LMS

Authors: Mohammad Shahid Jamil


In this study we have investigated students’ learning and satisfaction in one of the course offered in the Foundation Program at Qatar University. We implied innovative teaching methodology that emphasizes on enhancing students’ thinking skills, decision making, and problem solving skills. Some interesting results were found which can be used to further improve the teaching methodology. To make sure the full use of technology in Foundation Program at Qatar University has started implementing new ways of teaching Math course by using Blackboard as an innovative interactive tool to support standard teaching such as Discussion board, Virtual class, and Study plan in My Math Lab “MML”. In MML Study Plan is designed in such a way that the student can improve their skills wherever they face difficulties with in their Homework, Quiz or Test. Discussion board and Virtual Class are collaborative learning tools encourages students to engage outside of class time. These tools are useful to share students’ knowledge and learning experiences, promote independent and active learning and they helps students to improve their critical thinking skills through the learning process.

Keywords: Active Learning, problem solving, Critical thinking, blackboard, discussion board, independent learning

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11 Effectiveness of Working Memory Training on Cognitive Flexibility

Authors: Leila Maleki, Ezatollah Ahmadi


The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of memory training exercise on cognitive flexibility. The method of this study was experimental. The statistical population selected 40 students 14 years old, samples were chosen by available sampling method and then they were replaced in experimental (training program) group and control group randomly and answered to Wisconsin Card Sorting Test; covariance test results indicated that there were a significant in post-test scores of experimental group (p<0.005).

Keywords: problem solving, Cognitive Flexibility, reaction time, working memory exercises

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10 Young Children’s Use of Representations in Problem Solving

Authors: Kamariah Abu Bakar, Jennifer Way


This study investigated how young children (six years old) constructed and used representations in mathematics classroom; particularly in problem solving. The purpose of this study is to explore the ways children used representations in solving addition problems and to determine whether their representations can play a supportive role in understanding the problem situation and solving them correctly. Data collection includes observations, children’s artifact, photographs and conversation with children during task completion. The results revealed that children were able to construct and use various representations in solving problems. However, they have certain preferences in generating representations to support their problem solving.

Keywords: problem solving, Representations, young children, addition

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9 A Development of Science Instructional Model Based on Stem Education Approach to Enhance Scientific Mind and Problem Solving Skills for Primary Students

Authors: Prasita Sooksamran, Wareerat Kaewurai


STEM is an integrated teaching approach promoted by the Ministry of Education in Thailand. STEM Education is an integrated approach to teaching Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. It has been questioned by Thai teachers on the grounds of how to integrate STEM into the classroom. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to develop a science instructional model based on the STEM approach to enhance scientific mind and problem-solving skills for primary students. This study is participatory action research, and follows the following steps: 1) develop a model 2) seek the advice of experts regarding the teaching model. Developing the instructional model began with the collection and synthesis of information from relevant documents, related research and other sources in order to create prototype instructional model. 2) The examination of the validity and relevance of instructional model by a panel of nine experts. The findings were as follows: 1. The developed instructional model comprised of principles, objective, content, operational procedures and learning evaluation. There were 4 principles: 1) Learning based on the natural curiosity of primary school level children leading to knowledge inquiry, understanding and knowledge construction, 2) Learning based on the interrelation between people and environment, 3) Learning that is based on concrete learning experiences, exploration and the seeking of knowledge, 4) Learning based on the self-construction of knowledge, creativity, innovation and 5) relating their findings to real life and the solving of real-life problems. The objective of this construction model is to enhance scientific mind and problem-solving skills. Children will be evaluated according to their achievements. Lesson content is based on science as a core subject which is integrated with technology and mathematics at grade 6 level according to The Basic Education Core Curriculum 2008 guidelines. The operational procedures consisted of 6 steps: 1) Curiosity 2) Collection of data 3) Collaborative planning 4) Creativity and Innovation 5) Criticism and 6) Communication and Service. The learning evaluation is an authentic assessment based on continuous evaluation of all the material taught. 2. The experts agreed that the Science Instructional Model based on the STEM Education Approach had an excellent level of validity and relevance (4.67 S.D. 0.50).

Keywords: problem solving, STEM Education, instructional model, scientific mind

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8 The Effect of Peer Support to Interpersonal Problem Solving Tendencies and Skills in Nursing Students

Authors: B. Özlük, A. Karaaslan


This study has been conducted as a supplementary and relationship seeking study with the purpose of measuring the tendency and success of support among peers amid nursing students studying at university in solving interpersonal problems. The population of the study (N:279) is comprised of nursing students who are studying at one state and one private university in the province of Konya, while its sample is comprised of 231 nursing students who agreed to take part in the study voluntarily. As a result of this study, it has been determined that the peer support and interpersonal problem solving characteristics among students were at medium levels and that the interpersonal problem solving skills of students studying in the third year were higher than those of first and second year students. While the interpersonal problem solving characteristics of students who are aged 20 and over were found to be higher, no difference could be determined in terms of the interpersonal problem solving skills and tendencies among students, based on their gender and where they reside. A positive – to a medium degree – and significant relationship was determined between peer support and interpersonal problem solving skills, and it is possible to say that as peer support increases, so do the skills and tendencies to solve problems.

Keywords: problem solving, nursing students, peer support, interpersonal problem

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7 Using Thinking Blocks to Encourage the Use of Higher Order Thinking Skills among Students When Solving Problems on Fractions

Authors: Abdul Halim Abdullah, Nur Liyana Zainal Abidin, Mahani Mokhtar


Problem-solving is an activity which can encourage students to use Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS). Learning fractions can be challenging for students since empirical evidence shows that students experience difficulties in solving the fraction problems. However, visual methods can help students to overcome the difficulties since the methods help students to make meaningful visual representations and link abstract concepts in Mathematics. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether there were any changes in students’ HOTS at the four highest levels when learning the fractions by using Thinking Blocks. 54 students participated in a quasi-experiment using pre-tests and post-tests. Students were divided into two groups. The experimental group (n=32) received a treatment to improve the students’ HOTS and the other group acted as the control group (n=22) which used a traditional method. Data were analysed by using Mann-Whitney test. The results indicated that during post-test, students who used Thinking Blocks showed significant improvement in their HOTS level (p=0.000). In addition, the results of post-test also showed that the students’ performance improved significantly at the four highest levels of HOTS; namely, application (p=0.001), analyse (p=0.000), evaluate (p=0.000), and create (p=0.000). Therefore, it can be concluded that Thinking Blocks can effectively encourage students to use the four highest levels of HOTS which consequently enable them to solve fractions problems successfully.

Keywords: problem solving, fractions, Thinking Blocks, Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)

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6 Number Sense Proficiency and Problem Solving Performance of Grade Seven Students

Authors: Laissa Mae Francisco, John Rolex Ingreso, Anna Krizel Menguito, Criselda Robrigado, Rej Maegan Tuazon


This study aims to determine and describe the existing relationship between number sense proficiency and problem-solving performance of grade seven students from Victorino Mapa High School, Manila. A paper pencil exam containing of 50-item number sense test and 5-item problem-solving test which measures their number sense proficiency and problem-solving performance adapted from McIntosh, Reys, and Bana were used as the research instruments. The data obtained from this study were interpreted and analyzed using the Pearson – Product Moment Coefficient of Correlation to determine the relationship between the two variables. It was found out that students who were low in number sense proficiency tend to be the students with poor problem-solving performance and students with medium number sense proficiency are most likely to have an average problem-solving performance. Likewise, students with high number sense proficiency are those who do excellently in problem-solving performance.

Keywords: Performance, problem solving, Proficiency, number sense

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5 Problem Solving in Chilean Higher Education: Figurations Prior in Interpretations of Cartesian Graphs

Authors: Verónica Díaz


A Cartesian graph, as a mathematical object, becomes a tool for configuration of change. Its best comprehension is done through everyday life problem-solving associated with its representation. Despite this, the current educational framework favors general graphs, without consideration of their argumentation. Students are required to find the mathematical function without associating it to the development of graphical language. This research describes the use made by students of configurations made prior to Cartesian graphs with regards to an everyday life problem related to a time and distance variation phenomenon. The theoretical framework describes the function conditions of study and their modeling. This is a qualitative, descriptive study involving six undergraduate case studies that were carried out during the first term in 2016 at University of Los Lagos. The research problem concerned the graphic modeling of a real person’s movement phenomenon, and two levels of analysis were identified. The first level aims to identify local and global graph interpretations; a second level describes the iconicity and referentiality degree of an image. According to the results, students were able to draw no figures before the Cartesian graph, highlighting the need for students to represent the context and the movement of which causes the phenomenon change. From this, they managed Cartesian graphs representing changes in position, therefore, achieved an overall view of the graph. However, the local view only indicates specific events in the problem situation, using graphic and verbal expressions to represent movement. This view does not enable us to identify what happens on the graph when the movement characteristics change based on possible paths in the person’s walking speed.

Keywords: Higher Education, problem solving, cartesian graphs, movement modeling

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4 The Relationship between Self Concept Clarity and Need for Absolute Truth and Problem Solving and Symptoms of Stress in Homosexual Male

Authors: Gizem Akcan, Erdinc Ozturk


When it is examined as historically, it has caught attention that homosexual people try to behave as heterosexual or come out to have a place in community. Homosexual people have identity confusion during identity development, they have high levels of need for absolute truth and their psychological well being is affected negatively because of high levels of need for absolute truth and they have problems about self concept clarity. People who have problems about self concept clarity have problems on problem solving and show lots of symptoms of stress. People who have clear self concept use healthier coping strategies to solve problems. The purpose of this study is to show whether need for absolute truth predicts problem solving and symptoms of stress via mediator effect of self concept clarity or not on homosexual men. The participants of this study were 200 homosexual men. The ages of participants were 20-50. In addition, Demographic Information Form, Self Concept Clarity Scale, Need for Absolute Truth Scale, Stres Self-Assessment Checklist and Problem Solving Inventory were applied to the participants. The assessment of the data was made with confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling analysis. According to the results of this study, need for absolute truth predicts problem solving and symptoms of stress via mediator effect of self concept clarity on homosexual men.

Keywords: problem solving, need for absolute truth, self concept clarity, symptoms of stress

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3 Incorporating Polya’s Problem Solving Process: A Polytechnic Mathematics Module Case Study

Authors: Pei Chin Lim


School of Mathematics and Science of Singapore Polytechnic offers a Basic Mathematics module to students who did not pass GCE O-Level Additional Mathematics. These students are weaker in Mathematics. In particular, they struggle with word problems and tend to leave them blank in tests and examinations. In order to improve students’ problem-solving skills, the school redesigned the Basic Mathematics module to incorporate Polya’s problem-solving methodology. During tutorial lessons, students have to work through learning activities designed to raise their metacognitive awareness by following Polya’s problem-solving process. To assess the effectiveness of the redesign, students’ working for a challenging word problem in the mid-semester test were analyzed. Sixty-five percent of students attempted to understand the problem by making sketches. Twenty-eight percent of students went on to devise a plan and implement it. Only five percent of the students still left the question blank. These preliminary results suggest that with regular exposure to an explicit and systematic problem-solving approach, weak students’ problem-solving skills can potentially be improved.

Keywords: Mathematics Education, problem solving, metacognition, weak students

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2 Limits Problem Solving in Engineering Careers: Competences and Errors

Authors: Veronica Diaz Quezada


In this article, the performance and errors are featured and analysed in the limit problems solving of a real-valued function, in correspondence to competency-based education in engineering careers, in the south of Chile. The methodological component is contextualised in a qualitative research, with a descriptive and explorative design, with elaboration, content validation and application of quantitative instruments, consisting of two parallel forms of open answer tests, based on limit application problems. The mathematical competences and errors made by students from five engineering careers from a public University are identified and characterized. Results show better performance only to solve routine-context problem-solving competence, thus they are oriented towards a rational solution or they use a suitable problem-solving method, achieving the correct solution. Regarding errors, most of them are related to techniques and the incorrect use of theorems and definitions of real-valued function limits of real variable.

Keywords: Engineering Education, problem solving, Errors, limits, mathematics competences

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1 Types of Limit Application Problems in Engineering Students: Case Studies

Authors: Veronica Diaz Quezada


The society of the 21st century requires training of engineers capable of solving routine and non-routine problems in applications of the limit of real functions, as part of the course Calculus I. For this purpose, research was conducted with a methodological design that combines quantitative and qualitative procedures and that aims, to identify and to characterize the types of problems according to their nature and context, through the application of a mathematics test; to know— through a questionnaire— the opinion of difficulties in their solution, previous and missing knowledge of some students of three engineering careers of a state university in Chile. This research is completed with three case studies. The results favor the performance of students in solving problems of a fantasist and realistic context, but these do not guarantee mathematical skills which are necessary to solve non-routine problems of limit applications. In conclusion, through this research, it became clear that the students of the three engineerings do not have all the necessary skills to solve problems of application of the limit of a function of the real variable.

Keywords: problem solving, Case studies, limits, engineering program

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