Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Problem-Based Learning Related Abstracts

18 Implementation of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) in the Classroom

Authors: Jarmon Sirigunna


The objective of this study were to investigate the success of the implementation of problem-based learning in classroom and to evaluate the level of satisfaction of Suan Sunandra Rajabhat University’s students who participated in the study. This paper aimed to study and focus on a university students survey conducted in Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University during January to March of 2014. The quota sampling was utilized to obtain the sample which included 60 students, 50 percent male and 50 percent female students. The pretest and posttest method was utilized. The findings revealed that the majority of respondents had gained higher knowledge after the posttest significantly. The respondents’ knowledge increased about 40 percent after the experiment. Also, the findings revealed the top three highest level of satisfaction as follows: 1) the proper roles of teacher and students, 2) the knowledge gained from the method of the problem-based learning, 3) the activities of the problem-based learning, 4) the interaction of students from the problem-based learning, and 5) the problem-based learning model. Also, the mean score of all categories was 4.22 with a standard deviation of 0.7435 which indicated that the level of satisfaction was high.

Keywords: Implement, Problem-Based Learning, satisfaction, university students

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17 Lifelong Learning in Applied Fields (LLAF) Tempus Funded Project: A Case Study of Problem-Based Learning

Authors: Nirit Raichel, Dorit Alt


Although university teaching is claimed to have a special task to support students in adopting ways of thinking and producing new knowledge anchored in scientific inquiry practices, it is argued that students' habits of learning are still overwhelmingly skewed toward passive acquisition of knowledge from authority sources rather than from collaborative inquiry activities. In order to overcome this critical inadequacy between current educational goals and instructional methods, the LLAF consortium is aimed at developing updated instructional practices that put a premium on adaptability to the emerging requirements of present society. LLAF has created a practical guide for teachers containing updated pedagogical strategies based on the constructivist approach for learning, arranged along Delors’ four theoretical ‘pillars’ of education: Learning to know, learning to do, learning to live together, and learning to be. This presentation will be limited to problem-based learning (PBL), as a strategy introduced in the second pillar. PBL leads not only to the acquisition of technical skills, but also allows the development of skills like problem analysis and solving, critical thinking, cooperation and teamwork, decision- making and self-regulation that can be transferred to other contexts. This educational strategy will be exemplified by a case study conducted in the pre-piloting stage of the project. The case describes a three-fold process implemented in a postgraduate course for in-service teachers, including: (1) learning about PBL (2) implementing PBL in the participants' classes, and (3) qualitatively assessing the contributions of PBL to students' outcomes. An example will be given regarding the ways by which PBL was applied and assessed in civic education for high-school students. Two 9th-grade classes have participated the study; both included several students with learning disability. PBL was applied only in one class whereas traditional instruction was used in the other. Results showed a robust contribution of PBL to students' affective and cognitive outcomes as reflected in their motivation to engage in learning activities, and to further explore the subject. However, students with learning disability were less favorable with this "active" and "annoying" environment. Implications of these findings for the LLAF project will be discussed.

Keywords: Higher Education, Problem-Based Learning, pedagogical strategies

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16 Ubiquitous Scaffold Learning Environment Using Problem-based Learning Activities to Enhance Problem-solving Skills and Context Awareness

Authors: Noppadon Phumeechanya, Panita Wannapiroon


The purpose of this research is to design the ubiquitous scaffold learning environment using problem-based learning activities that enhance problem-solving skills and context awareness, and to evaluate the suitability of the ubiquitous scaffold learning environment using problem-based learning activities. We divide the research procedures into two phases. The first phase is to design the ubiquitous scaffold learning environment using problem-based learning activities, and the second is to evaluate the ubiquitous scaffold learning environment using problem-based learning activities. The sample group in this study consists of five experts selected using the purposive sampling method. We analyse data by arithmetic mean and standard deviation. The research findings are as follows; the ubiquitous scaffold learning environment using problem-based learning activities consists of three major steps, the first is preparation before learning. This prepares learners to acknowledge details and learn through u-LMS. The second is the learning process, where learning activities happen in the ubiquitous learning environment and learners learn online with scaffold systems for each step of problem solving. The third step is measurement and evaluation. The experts agree that the ubiquitous scaffold learning environment using problem-based learning activities is highly appropriate.

Keywords: Problem-Based Learning, context awareness, ubiquitous learning environment scaffolding, learning activities, problem-solving skills

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15 Rationalizing the Utilization of Interactive Engagement Strategies in Teaching Specialized Science Courses of STEM and GA Strands in the Academic Track of Philippine Senior High School Curriculum

Authors: Raul G. Angeles


The Philippine government instituted major reforms in its educational system. The Department of Education pushes the K to 12 program that makes kindergarten mandatory and adds two years of senior high school to the country's basic education. In essence, the students’ stay in basic education particularly those who are supposedly going to college is extended. The majority of the students expressed that they will be taking the Academic Track of the Senior High School curriculum specifically the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) and General Academic (GA) strands. Almost certainly, instruction should match the students' styles and thus through this descriptive study a city survey was conducted to explore the teaching strategies preferences of junior high school students and teachers who will be promoted to senior high school during the Academic Year 2016-2017. This study was conducted in selected public and private secondary schools in Metro Manila. Questionnaires were distributed to students and teachers; and series of follow-up interviews were also carried out to generate additional information. Preferences of students are centered on employing innovations such as technology, cooperative and problem-based learning. While the students will still be covered by basic education their interests in science are sparking to a point where the usual teaching styles may no longer work to them and for that cause, altering the teaching methods is recommended to create a teacher-student style matching. Other effective strategies must likewise be implemented.

Keywords: Science Education, Curriculum Development, Technology, Problem-Based Learning, senior high school, effective teaching strategies

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14 Learning Instructional Managements between the Problem-Based Learning and Stem Education Methods for Enhancing Students Learning Achievements and their Science Attitudes toward Physics the 12th Grade Level

Authors: Achirawatt Tungsombatsanti, Toansakul Santiboon, Kamon Ponkham


Strategies of the STEM education was aimed to prepare of an interdisciplinary and applied approach for the instructional of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics in an integrated students for enhancing engagement of their science skills to the Problem-Based Learning (PBL) method in Borabu School with a sample consists of 80 students in 2 classes at the 12th grade level of their learning achievements on electromagnetic issue. Research administrations were to separate on two different instructional model groups, the 40-experimental group was designed with the STEM instructional experimenting preparation and induction in a 40-student class and the controlling group using the PBL was designed to students identify what they already know, what they need to know, and how and where to access new information that may lead to the resolution of the problem in other class. The learning environment perceptions were obtained using the 35-item Physics Laboratory Environment Inventory (PLEI). Students’ creating attitude skills’ sustainable development toward physics were assessed with the Test Of Physics-Related Attitude (TOPRA) The term scaling was applied to the attempts to measure the attitude objectively with the TOPRA was used to assess students’ perceptions of their science attitude toward physics. Comparisons between pretest and posttest techniques were assessed students’ learning achievements on each their outcomes from each instructional model, differently. The results of these findings revealed that the efficiency of the PLB and the STEM based on criteria indicate that are higher than the standard level of the 80/80. Statistically, significant of students’ learning achievements to their later outcomes on the controlling and experimental physics class groups with the PLB and the STEM instructional designs were differentiated between groups at the .05 level, evidently. Comparisons between the averages mean scores of students’ responses to their instructional activities in the STEM education method are higher than the average mean scores of the PLB model. Associations between students’ perceptions of their physics classes to their attitudes toward physics, the predictive efficiency R2 values indicate that 77%, and 83% of the variances in students’ attitudes for the PLEI and the TOPRA in physics environment classes were attributable to their perceptions of their physics PLB and the STEM instructional design classes, consequently. An important of these findings was contributed to student understanding of scientific concepts, attitudes, and skills as evidence with STEM instructional ought to higher responding than PBL educational teaching. Statistically significant between students’ learning achievements were differentiated of pre and post assessments which overall on two instructional models.

Keywords: Enhancement, STEM Education, Method, Problem-Based Learning, science attitude, learning instructional managements, students learning achievements, physics classes

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13 Changing Misconceptions in Heat Transfer: A Problem Based Learning Approach for Engineering Students

Authors: Paola Utreras, Yazmina Olmos, Loreto Sanhueza


This work has the purpose of study and incorporate Problem Based Learning (PBL) for engineering students, through the analysis of several thermal images of dwellings located in different geographical points of the Region de los Ríos, Chile. The students analyze how heat is transferred in and out of the houses and how is the relation between heat transfer and climatic conditions that affect each zone. As a result of this activity students are able to acquire significant learning in the unit of heat and temperature, and manage to reverse previous conceptual errors related with energy, temperature and heat. In addition, student are able to generate prototype solutions to increase thermal efficiency using low cost materials. Students make public their results in a report using scientific writing standards and in a science fair open to the entire university community. The methodology used to measure previous Conceptual Errors has been applying diagnostic tests with everyday questions that involve concepts of heat, temperature, work and energy, before the unit. After the unit the same evaluation is done in order that themselves are able to evidence the evolution in the construction of knowledge. As a result, we found that in the initial test, 90% of the students showed deficiencies in the concepts previously mentioned, and in the subsequent test 47% showed deficiencies, these percent ages differ between students who carry out the course for the first time and those who have performed this course previously in a traditional way. The methodology used to measure Significant Learning has been by comparing results in subsequent courses of thermodynamics among students who have received problem based learning and those who have received traditional training. We have observe that learning becomes meaningful when applied to the daily lives of students promoting internalization of knowledge and understanding through critical thinking.

Keywords: Heat Flow, Problem-Based Learning, thermal images, engineering students

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12 Proposing Problem-Based Learning as an Effective Pedagogical Technique for Social Work Education

Authors: Christine K. Fulmer


Social work education is competency based in nature. There is an expectation that graduates of social work programs throughout the world are to be prepared to practice at a level of competence, which is beneficial to both the well-being of individuals and community. Experiential learning is one way to prepare students for competent practice. The use of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is a form experiential education that has been successful in a number of disciplines to bridge the gap between the theoretical concepts in the classroom to the real world. PBL aligns with the constructivist theoretical approach to learning, which emphasizes the integration of new knowledge with the beliefs students already hold. In addition, the basic tenants of PBL correspond well with the practice behaviors associated with social work practice including multi-disciplinary collaboration and critical thinking. This paper makes an argument for utilizing PBL in social work education.

Keywords: pedagogy, Social work Education, Experiential Learning, Problem-Based Learning, constructivist theoretical approach

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11 Savinglife®: An Educational Technology for Basic and Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support

Authors: Naz Najma, Grace T. M. Dal Sasso, Maria de Lourdes de Souza


The development of information and communication technologies and the accessibility of mobile devices has increased the possibilities of the teaching and learning process anywhere and anytime. Mobile and web application allows the production of constructive teaching and learning models in various educational settings, showing the potential for active learning in nursing. The objective of this study was to present the development of an educational technology (Savinglife®, an app) for learning cardiopulmonary resuscitation and advanced cardiovascular life support training. Savinglife® is a technological production, based on the concept of virtual learning and problem-based learning approach. The study was developed from January 2016 to November 2016, using five phases (analyze, design, develop, implement, evaluate) of the instructional systems development process. The technology presented 10 scenarios and 12 simulations, covering different aspects of basic and advanced cardiac life support. The contents can be accessed in a non-linear way leaving the students free to build their knowledge based on their previous experience. Each scenario is presented through interactive tools such as scenario description, assessment, diagnose, intervention and reevaluation. Animated ECG rhythms, text documents, images and videos are provided to support procedural and active learning considering real life situation. Accessible equally on small to large devices with or without an internet connection, Savinglife® offers a dynamic, interactive and flexible tool, placing students at the center of the learning process. Savinglife® can contribute to the student’s learning in the assessment and management of basic and advanced cardiac life support in a safe and ethical way.

Keywords: Educational Technology, Nursing Education, Problem-Based Learning, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, advanced cardiac life support

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10 A Qualitative Study on Metacognitive Patterns among High and Low Performance Problem Based on Learning Groups

Authors: Zuhairah Abdul Hadi, Mohd Nazir bin Md. Zabit, Zuriadah Ismail


Metacognitive has been empirically evidenced to be one important element influencing learning outcomes. Expert learners engage in metacognition by monitoring and controlling their thinking, and listing, considering and selecting the best strategies to achieve desired goals. Studies also found that good critical thinkers engage in more metacognition and people tend to activate more metacognition when solving complex problems. This study extends past studies by performing a qualitative analysis to understand metacognitive patterns among two high and two low performing groups by carefully examining video and audio records taken during Problem-based learning activities. High performing groups are groups with majority members scored well in Watson Glaser II Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA II) and academic achievement tests. Low performing groups are groups with majority members fail to perform in the two tests. Audio records are transcribed and analyzed using schemas adopted from past studies. Metacognitive statements are analyzed using three stages model and patterns of metacognitive are described by contexts, components, and levels for each high and low performing groups.

Keywords: Critical thinking, Academic Achievement, Problem-Based Learning, metacognitive

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9 Using Problem-Based Learning on Teaching Early Intervention for College Students

Authors: Chen-Ya Juan


In recent years, the increasing number of children with special needs has brought a lot of attention by many scholars and experts in education, which enforced the preschool teachers face the harsh challenge in the classroom. To protect the right of equal education for all children, enhance the quality of children learning, and take care of the needs of children with special needs, the special education paraprofessional becomes one of the future employment trends for students of the department of the early childhood care and education. Problem-based learning is a problem-oriented instruction, which is different from traditional instruction. The instructor first designed an ambiguous problem direction, following the basic knowledge of early intervention, students had to find clues to solve the problem defined by themselves. In the class, the total instruction included 20 hours, two hours per week. The primary purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship of student academic scores, self-awareness, learning motivation, learning attitudes, and early intervention knowledge. A total of 105 college students participated in this study and 97 questionnaires were effective. The effective response rate was 90%. The student participants included 95 females and two males. The average age of the participants was 19 years old. The questionnaires included 125 questions divided into four major dimensions: (1) Self-awareness, (2) learning motivation, (3) learning attitudes, and (4) early intervention knowledge. The results indicated (1) the scores of self-awareness were 58%; the scores of the learning motivations was 64.9%; the scores of the learning attitudes was 55.3%. (2) After the instruction, the early intervention knowledge has been increased to 64.2% from 38.4%. (3) Student’s academic performance has positive relationship with self-awareness (p < 0.05; R = 0.506), learning motivation (p < 0.05; R = 0.487), learning attitudes (p < 0.05; R = 0.527). The results implied that although students had gained early intervention knowledge by using PBL instruction, students had medium scores on self-awareness and learning attitudes, medium high in learning motivations.

Keywords: Problem-Based Learning, college students, learning motivation, children with special needs

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8 The Effect of Problem-Based Mobile-Assisted Tasks on Spoken Intelligibility of English as a Foreign Language Learners

Authors: Loghman Ansarian, Teoh Mei Lin


In an attempt to increase oral proficiency of Iranian EFL learners, the researchers compared the effect of problem-based mobile-assisted language learning with the conventional language learning approach (Communicative Language Teaching) in Iran. The experimental group (n=37) went through PBL instruction and the control group (n=33) went through conventional instruction. The results of quantitative data analysis after 26 sessions of treatment revealed that PBL could positively affect participants' knowledge of grammar, vocabulary, spoken fluency, and pronunciation; however, in terms of task achievement, no significant effect was found. This study can have pedagogical implications for language teachers, and material developers.

Keywords: Problem-Based Learning, spoken intelligibility, Iranian EFL context, cognitive learning

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7 A Project-Based Learning Approach in the Course of 'Engineering Skills' for Undergraduate Engineering Students

Authors: Armin Eilaghi, Ahmad Sedaghat, Hayder Abdurazzak, Fadi Alkhatib, Shiva Sadeghi, Martin Jaeger


A summary of experiences, recommendations, and lessons learnt in the application of PBL in the course of “Engineering Skills” in the School of Engineering at Australian College of Kuwait in Kuwait is presented. Four projects were introduced as part of the PBL course “Engineering Skills” to 24 students in School of Engineering. These students were grouped in 6 teams to develop their skills in 10 learning outcomes. The learning outcomes targeted skills such as drawing, design, modeling, manufacturing and analysis at a preliminary level; and also some life line learning and teamwork skills as these students were exposed for the first time to the PBL (project based learning). The students were assessed for 10 learning outcomes of the course and students’ feedback was collected using an anonymous survey at the end of the course. Analyzing the students’ feedbacks, it is observed that 67% of students preferred multiple smaller projects than a single big project because it provided them with more time and attention focus to improve their “soft skills” including project management, risk assessment, and failure analysis. Moreover, it is found that 63% of students preferred to work with different team members during the course to improve their professional communication skills. Among all, 62% of students believed that working with team members from other departments helped them to increase the innovative aspect of projects and improved their overall performance. However, 70% of students counted extra time needed to regenerate momentum with the new teams as the major challenge. Project based learning provided a suitable platform for introducing students to professional engineering practice and meeting the needs of students, employers and educators. It was found that students achieved their 10 learning outcomes and gained new skills developed in this PBL unit. This was reflected in their portfolios and assessment survey.

Keywords: Problem-Based Learning, Project-Based Learning, engineering skills, undergraduate engineering

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6 Social Network Analysis as a Research and Pedagogy Tool in Problem-Focused Undergraduate Social Innovation Courses

Authors: Sean McCarthy, Patrice M. Ludwig, Will Watson


This exploratory case study explores the deployment of Social Network Analysis (SNA) in mapping community assets in an interdisciplinary, undergraduate, team-taught course focused on income insecure populations in a rural area in the US. Specifically, it analyzes how students were taught to collect data on community assets and to visualize the connections between those assets using Kumu, an SNA data visualization tool. Further, the case study shows how social network data was also collected about student teams via their written communications in Slack, an enterprise messaging tool, which enabled instructors to manage and guide student research activity throughout the semester. The discussion presents how SNA methods can simultaneously inform both community-based research and social innovation pedagogy through the use of data visualization and collaboration-focused communication technologies.

Keywords: pedagogy, Social innovation, Data Visualization, Social Network Analysis, Problem-Based Learning, information communication technologies

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5 Training Undergraduate Engineering Students in Robotics and Automation through Model-Based Design Training: A Case Study at Assumption University of Thailand

Authors: Sajed A. Habib


Problem-based learning (PBL) is a student-centered pedagogy that originated in the medical field and has also been used extensively in other knowledge disciplines with recognized advantages and limitations. PBL has been used in various undergraduate engineering programs with mixed outcomes. The current fourth industrial revolution (digital era or Industry 4.0) has made it essential for many science and engineering students to receive effective training in advanced courses such as industrial automation and robotics. This paper presents a case study at Assumption University of Thailand, where a PBL-like approach was used to teach some aspects of automation and robotics to selected groups of undergraduate engineering students. These students were given some basic level training in automation prior to participating in a subsequent training session in order to solve technical problems with increased complexity. The participating students’ evaluation of the training sessions in terms of learning effectiveness, skills enhancement, and incremental knowledge following the problem-solving session was captured through a follow-up survey consisting of 14 questions and a 5-point scoring system. From the most recent training event, an overall 70% of the respondents indicated that their skill levels were enhanced to a much greater level than they had had before the training, whereas 60.4% of the respondents from the same event indicated that their incremental knowledge following the session was much greater than what they had prior to the training. The instructor-facilitator involved in the training events suggested that this method of learning was more suitable for senior/advanced level students than those at the freshmen level as certain skills to effectively participate in such problem-solving sessions are acquired over a period of time, and not instantly.

Keywords: Automation, Industry 4.0, Problem-Based Learning, model-based design training

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4 Digital Design and Practice of The Problem Based Learning in College of Medicine, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ahmed Elzainy, Abir El Sadik, Waleed Al Abdulmonem, Ahmad Alamro, Homaidan Al-Homaidan


Problem-based learning (PBL) is an educational modality which stimulates critical and creative thinking. PBL has been practiced in the college of medicine, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia, since the 2002s with offline face to face activities. Therefore, crucial technological changes in paperless work were needed. The aim of the present study was to design and implement the digitalization of the PBL activities and to evaluate its impact on students' and tutors’ performance. This approach promoted the involvement of all stakeholders after their awareness of the techniques of using online tools. IT support, learning resources facilities, and required multimedia were prepared. Students’ and staff perception surveys reflected their satisfaction with these remarkable changes. The students were interested in the new digitalized materials and educational design, which facilitated the conduction of PBL sessions and provided sufficient time for discussion and peer sharing of knowledge. It enhanced the tutors for supervision and tracking students’ activities on the Learning Management System. It could be concluded that introducing of digitalization of the PBL activities promoted the students’ performance, engagement and enabled a better evaluation of PBL materials and getting prompt students as well as staff feedback. These positive findings encouraged the college to implement the digitalization approach in other educational activities, such as Team-Based Learning, as an additional opportunity for further development.

Keywords: Problem-Based Learning, multimedia in PBL, online PBL, PBL digitalization

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3 Upgrading of Problem-Based Learning with Educational Multimedia to the Undergraduate Students

Authors: Sharifa Alduraibi, Abir El Sadik, Ahmed Elzainy, Alaa Alduraibi, Ahmed Alsolai


Introduction: Problem-based learning (PBL) is an active student-centered educational modality, influenced by the students' interest that required continuous motivation to improve their engagement. The new era of professional information technology facilitated the utilization of educational multimedia, such as videos, soundtracks, and photographs promoting students' learning. The aim of the present study was to introduce multimedia-enriched PBL scenarios for the first time in college of medicine, Qassim University, as an incentive for better students' engagement. In addition, students' performance and satisfaction were evaluated. Methodology: Two multimedia-enhanced PBL scenarios were implemented to the third years' students in the urinary system block. Radiological images, plain CT scan, and X-ray of the abdomen and renal nuclear scan correlated with their pathological gross photographs were added to the scenarios. One week before the first sessions, pre-recorded orientation videos for PBL tutors were submitted to clarify the multimedia incorporated in the scenarios. Other two traditional PBL scenarios devoid of multimedia demonstrating the pathological and radiological findings were designed. Results and Discussion: Comparison between the formative assessments' results by the end of the two PBL modalities was done. It revealed significant increase in students' engagement, critical thinking and practical reasoning skills during the multimedia-enhanced sessions. Students' perception survey showed great satisfaction with the new strategy. Conclusion: It could be concluded from the current work that multimedia created technology-based teaching strategy inspiring the student for self-directed thinking and promoting students' overall achievement.

Keywords: Multimedia, Problem-Based Learning, videos, pathology and radiology images

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2 The Effects of Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Problem-Based Learning on Native Hawaiians and Other Underrepresented, Low-Income, Potential First-Generation High School Students

Authors: Nahid Nariman


The prosperity of any nation depends on its ability to use human potential, in particular, to offer an education that builds learners' competencies to become effective workforce participants and true citizens of the world. Ever since the Second World War, the United States has been a dominant player in the world politically, economically, socially, and culturally. The rapid rise of technological advancement and consumer technologies have made it clear that science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) play a crucial role in today’s world economy. Exploring the top qualities demanded from new hires in the industry—i.e., problem-solving skills, teamwork, dependability, adaptability, technical and communication skills— sheds light on the kind of path that is needed for a successful educational system to effectively support STEM. The focus of 21st century education has been to build student competencies by preparing them to acquire and apply knowledge, to think critically and creatively, to competently use information, be able to work in teams, to demonstrate intellectual and moral values as well as cultural awareness, and to be able to communicate. Many educational reforms pinpoint various 'ideal' pathways toward STEM that educators, policy makers, and business leaders have identified for educating the workforce of tomorrow. This study will explore how problem-based learning (PBL), an instructional strategy developed in the medical field and adopted with many successful results in K-12 through higher education, is the proper approach to stimulate underrepresented high school students' interest in pursuing STEM careers. In the current study, the effect of a problem-based STEM model on students' attitudes and career interests was investigated using qualitative and quantitative methods. The participants were 71 low-income, native Hawaiian high school students who would be first-generation college students. They were attending a summer STEM camp developed as the result of a collaboration between the University of Hawaii and the Upward Bound Program. The project, funded by the National Science Foundation's Innovative Technology Experiences for Students and Teachers (ITEST) program, used PBL as an approach in challenging students to engage in solving hands-on, real-world problems in their communities. Pre-surveys were used before camp and post-surveys on the last day of the program to learn about the implementation of the PBL STEM model. A Career Interest Questionnaire provided a way to investigate students’ career interests. After the summer camp, a representative selection of students participated in focus group interviews to discuss their opinions about the PBL STEM camp. The findings revealed a significantly positive increase in students' attitudes towards STEM disciplines and STEM careers. The students' interview results also revealed that students identified PBL to be an effective form of instruction in their learning and in the development of their 21st-century skills. PBL was acknowledged for making the class more enjoyable and for raising students' interest in STEM careers, while also helping them develop teamwork and communication skills in addition to scientific knowledge. As a result, the integration of PBL and a STEM learning experience was shown to positively affect students’ interest in STEM careers.

Keywords: Science Education, Problem-Based Learning, STEM, underrepresented students

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1 Co-Creational Model for Blended Learning in a Flipped Classroom Environment Focusing on the Combination of Coding and Drone-Building

Authors: A. Schuchter, M. Promegger


The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has shown us that online education is so much more than just a cool feature for teachers – it is an essential part of modern teaching. In online math teaching, it is common to use tools to share screens, compute and calculate mathematical examples, while the students can watch the process. On the other hand, flipped classroom models are on the rise, with their focus on how students can gather knowledge by watching videos and on the teacher’s use of technological tools for information transfer. This paper proposes a co-educational teaching approach for coding and engineering subjects with the help of drone-building to spark interest in technology and create a platform for knowledge transfer. The project combines aspects from mathematics (matrices, vectors, shaders, trigonometry), physics (force, pressure and rotation) and coding (computational thinking, block-based programming, JavaScript and Python) and makes use of collaborative-shared 3D Modeling with, where students create mathematics knowhow. The instructor follows a problem-based learning approach and encourages their students to find solutions in their own time and in their own way, which will help them develop new skills intuitively and boost logically structured thinking. The collaborative aspect of working in groups will help the students develop communication skills as well as structural and computational thinking. Students are not just listeners as in traditional classroom settings, but play an active part in creating content together by compiling a Handbook of Knowledge (called “open book”) with examples and solutions. Before students start calculating, they have to write down all their ideas and working steps in full sentences so other students can easily follow their train of thought. Therefore, students will learn to formulate goals, solve problems, and create a ready-to use product with the help of “reverse engineering”, cross-referencing and creative thinking. The work on drones gives the students the opportunity to create a real-life application with a practical purpose, while going through all stages of product development.

Keywords: Coding, Making, Drones, Problem-Based Learning, Flipped Classroom, co-creational education, co-education, ARCS-model

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