Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 38

Probiotics Related Abstracts

38 The Effect of Concentrate Containing Probiotics on Fermentation Characteristics and in vitro Nutrient Digestibility

Authors: B. Santoso, B. Tj. Hariadi, H. Abubakar

Abstract:

The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of probiotic addition in concentrate on fermentation characteristics and in vitro nutrient digestibility of the grass Pennisetum purpureophoides. Two strains lactic acid bacteria (LAB) i.e Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus acidhophilus, and one strain yeast of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used as probiotic. The probiotics was added at 2% and 4% (v/w) in the concentrate. The result showed the concentrate containing between 1.5 × 106 and 3 × 107 CFU/g of lactic acid bacteria and 3 × 103 CFU/g of S. cerevisiae. The DM, OM and NDF digestibility were higher (P<0.01) in grass substrate with concentrate than in grass alone. Addition of probiotic in concentrate increased (P<0.01) DM, OM and NDF compared to concentrate without probiotic. Total VFA and propionic acid concentrations were higher (P<0.01) in grass substrate with concentrate than in grass alone. Concentration of acetic acid decreased (P<0.01) in grass substrate with concentrate than in grass substrate alone. Addition of L. plantarum and L. acidophilus and S. cerevisiae in concentrate increased (P<0.01) propionic acid concentration. It was concluded that addition of probiotic in concentrate increased propionic concentration and in vitro nutrient digestibility.

Keywords: Probiotics, by-products, digestibility, concentrate

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37 Influence of Probiotics on Dairy Cows Diet

Authors: V. Endo, V. A. Vieira, M. P. Sforcini, G. C. Magioni, M. D. S. Oliveira

Abstract:

The main goal of this paper was evaluate the effect of diets containing different levels of probiotic on performance and milk composition of lactating cows. Eight Holstein cows were distributed in two 4x4 Latin square. The diets were based on corn silage, concentrate and the treatment (0, 3, 6 or 9 grams of probiotic/animal/day). It was evaluated the dry matter intake of nutrients, milk yield and composition. The use of probiotics did not affect the nutrient intake (p>0.05) neither the daily milk production or corrected to 4% fat (p>0.05). However, it was observed that there was a significant fall in milk composition with higher levels of probiotics supplementation. These results emphasize the need of further studies with different experimental designs or improve the number of Latin square with longer periods of adaptation.

Keywords: Probiotics, Milk Composition, dairy cow, daily milk production

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36 Some Probiotic Traits of Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Pollen

Authors: Daoud HARZALLAH, Seddik Khennouf, Saliha Dahamna, Hani Belhadj, Mouloud Ghadbane

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In this study, Lactobacillus strains isolated from pollen were identified by means of phenotypic and genotypic methods, At pH 2, most strains proved to be acid resistants, with losses in cell viability ranging from 0.77 to 4.04 Log orders. In addition, at pH 3 all strains could grew and resist the acidic conditions, with losses in cell viability ranging from 0.40 to 3.61 Log orders. It seems that, 0.3% and 0.5% of bile salts does not affect greatly the survival of most strains, excluding Lactobacillus sp. BH1398. Survival ranged from 81.0±3.5 to 93.5±3.9%. In contrast, in the presence of 1.0% bile salts, survival of five strains was decreased by more than 50%. Lactobacillus fermentum BH1509 was considered the most tolerant strain (77.5% for 1% bile) followed by Lactobacillus plantarum BH1541 (59.9% for 1% bile). Furthermore, all strains were resistant to colistine, clindamycine, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacine, but most of the strains were susceptible to Peniciline, Oxacillin, Oxytetracyclin, and Amoxicillin. Functionally interesting Lactobacillus isolates may be used in the future as probiotic cultures for manufacturing fermented foods and as bioactive delivery systems.

Keywords: Probiotics, Lactobacillus, Pollen, bile, acid tolerance

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35 Growth Performance of New Born Holstein Calves Supplemented with Garlic (Allium sativum) Powder and Probiotics

Authors: J. J. Baloyi, T. W. Kekana, M. C. Muya, F. V. Nherera

Abstract:

Secondary metabolites (thiosulphinates) from Allium sativum are able to stimulate the production of volatile fatty acids. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of feeding Garlic powder or probiotics or a combination of both on feed intake and growth performance of Holstein calves. Neonatal calves were randomly allocated, according to birth weight, to four dietary treatments, each with 8 calves. The treatments were: C control, no additive (C), G: supplemented with either 5g/d garlic powder (G) or 4 g/d probiotics (P) or GP 5g/d garlic powder and 4 g/d probiotics compound (GP) with the total viable count of 1.3 x 107 cfu/g. Garlic and probiotics were diluted in the daily milk allocation from day 4. Commercial (17.5% CP) starter feed and fresh water were available ad libitum from day 4 until day 42 of age. Calves fed GP (0.27 kg day-1) tended (P=0.055) to have higher DMI than C (0.22 kg day-1). Milk, water, CP, fat intake and FCR were not affected (P>0.05) by the treatments. Metibolisable energy (ME) intake for GP group tended (P=0.058) to be higher than C calves. Combination of G and P (60.3 kg) tended (P = 0.056) to be higher than C (56.0 kg) calves on final BW. Garlic, probiotics or their combination did not affect calve’s HG, ADG and BL (P>0.05). The results of the current study indicated that combination of garlic and probiotics may improve nutrients intake and body weight when fed to calves during the first 42 days of life.

Keywords: Growth, Probiotics, intake, garlic powder, Holstein calves

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34 The Effect of Double Fortification of Iron and Zinc of Synbiotic Fermented Milk on Growth of Rat

Authors: Siti Helmyati, Endri Yuliati, Narendra Yoga Hendarta, Moh. Darussalam, Maharani Jibbriella, Fauziah Oktavira Hayati Fakhruddin, Faisal Hanin

Abstract:

Background: Both of iron and zinc has vital role in growth. The prebiotics fermentation by probiotics lower the acidity of intestine thus increase mineral absorption. Objective: To know the effect of double fortification of synbiotic fermented milk on growth. Methods: An Indonesian local isolate, Lactobacillus plantarum Dad-13 and Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) were used in making synbiotic fermented milk. It, then was double fortified with 100 ppm Fe and 50 ppm Zn. A total of 15 Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups and given: synbiotic fermented milk (CO), synbiotic fermented milk with NaFeEDTA and Zn acetate (NZ) and synbiotic fermented milk with Fe gluconate and Zn acetate (FZ) every day for one month. Body weight and body length were measured before, every week and after intervention. Results: Body weight and body length were similar at baseline among three groups (p > 0.05). All groups showed similar growth after intervention, from 62,40 + 6,1 to 109,0 + 9,0; 62,0 + 7,9 to 110,3 + 14,2; and 64,40 + 4,7 to 115,1 + 7,7 g for CO, NZ, and FZ, respectively (p > 0.05). The body length after intervention was also similar (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Fortification of iron and zinc did not modify effect of synbiotic fermented milk on growth.

Keywords: Growth, Probiotics, Prebiotics, Iron, zinc

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33 High Efficacy of Combined Therapy with Microbicide BASANT and Triple Combination of Selected Probiotics for Treatment of Vaginosis and Restoration of Vaginal Health

Authors: Priyanka Singh, Nishu Atrey, G. P. Talwar, Jagdish Gupta, Alka Kriplani, Rohini Sehgal, Indrani Ganguli, Soni Sinha

Abstract:

Background: Vaginosis is a widely prevalent syndrome in India and elsewhere. Recurrence is frequent in women treated with antibiotics, whose vagina pH remains above 5.0 indicative of the loss of resident lactobacilli. The objective of the present trial was to determine whether a Polyherbal microbicide BASANT can regress Vaginosis. Another objective was to determine whether the three selected strains of Probiotics endowed with making high amounts of lactic acid can colonise and restore the pH of the vagina to the acidic healthy range. Materials and Procedure: BASANT, was employed in powder form in veg (cellulose) capsules. TRF#36 strain of Lactobacillus fermentum, TRF#8 strain of L.gasseri, and TRF#30 strain of L.salivarius (combination termed as Pro-vag-Health) were employed at 3x109 bacilli lyophilized, packaged in capsules. The trials were conducted in women suffering from vaginosis with vaginal pH above 5.0. Women were given intravaginally either BASANT, Pro-vag-Health or a combination of the two intravaginally for seven days and thereafter once weekly as a maintenance dose. Results: BASANT cleared vaginosis in 14/20 women and Pro-vag-Health in 13/20 women. Interestingly, the combination of BASANT plus Pro-vag-Health was effective in 19/20 women, in contrast to Placebo capsules effective only in 1/20 women. Interpretation and Conclusion: The combination of BASANT and Pro-veg-Health Probiotics taken together intravaginally for seven days relieves 19 out of 20 women from vaginosis to restore acidic pH and healthy vagina. Extension of trial with this combination in larger number is indicated.

Keywords: Probiotics, microbicide, vaginal pH, vaginosis

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32 Bifidobacterium lactis Fermented Milk Was Not Effective to Eradication of Helicobacter Pylori Infection: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Study

Authors: R. C. Barbuti, M. N. Oliveira, N. P. Perina, C. Haro, P. Bosch, C. S. Bogsan, J. N. Eisig, T. Navarro-Rodriguez

Abstract:

Background: The management of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication is still a matter of discussion, full effectiveness is rarely achieved and it has many adverse effects. Probiotics are believed to have a role in eradicating and possibly preventing H. pylori infection as an adjunctive treatment. The present clinical study was undertaken to see the efficacy of a specially designed fermented milk product containing Bifidobacterium lactis B420 on the eradication of H. pylori infection in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled study in humans. Method: Four test products were specially designed fermented milks, counts of viable cells in all products were 1010 Log CFU. 100 mL-1 for Bifidobacterium lactis-Bifidobacterium species 420, and 1011 Log CFU. 100 mL-1 for Streptococcus thermophiles were administered to subjects infected with H. pylori with a previous diagnosis of functional dyspepsia according to the Rome III criteria in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in humans. Results: After FM supplementation, not all subjects showed a reduction in H. pylori colonization. Conclusion: Bifidobacterium lactis B420, administered twice a day for 90 days did not show an increase in H. pylori eradication effectiveness in Brazilian patients with functional dyspepsia.

Keywords: Probiotics, Helicobacter pylori, antibacterial therapy, Bifidobacteria fermented milk

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31 Growth Inhibition of Candida Albicans Strains Co-Cultured with Lactobacillus Strains in a Cereal Medium

Authors: Richard Nyanzi, Maupi E. Letsoalo, Jacobus N. Eloff, Piet J. Jooste

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Candida albicans naturally occurs in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of more than 50% of humans. Overgrowth of the fungus causes several forms of candidiasis including oral thrush. Overgrowth tends to occur in immunocompromised humans such as diabetic, cancer and HIV patients. Antifungal treatment is available, but not without shortcomings. In this study, inhibitory activity of five probiotic Lactobacillus strains was demonstrated against the growth of seven clinical strains of Candida albicans by co-culturing of the organisms in a maize gruel (MG) medium. Phenotypic tests, molecular techniques and phylogenetic analysis have enabled precise identification of the organisms used in the study. The quantitative pour plate technique was used to enumerate colonies of the yeasts and the lactobacilli and the Kruskal-Wallis test and ANOVA tests were employed to compare the distributions of the colonies of the organisms. The cereal medium, containing added carbon sources, was inoculated with a Candida and a Lactobacillus strain in combination and incubated at 37 °C for 168 h. Aliquots were regularly taken and subjected to pH determination and colony enumeration. Certain Lactobacillus strains proved to be inhibitory and also lethal to some Candida albicans strains. A low pH due to Lactobacillus acid production resulted in significant low Candida colony counts. Higher Lactobacillus colony counts did not necessarily result in lower Candida counts suggesting that inhibitory factors besides low pH and competitive growth by lactobacilli contributed to the reduction in Candida counts. Such anti-Candida efficacy however needs to be confirmed by in vivo studies.

Keywords: Probiotics, Lactobacillus, Candida albicans, candidiasis, oral thrush

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30 Cocoa Stimulates the Production Bioactive Components of Lactobacillus Casei and Competitively Excludes Foodborne Pathogens

Authors: Debabrata Biswas, Mengfei Peng, Serajus Salaheen

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Lactobacillus casei found in the human intestine and mouth is commonly applied for dairy production. Recently, it was found that some byproducts produced by Lactobacillus exhibited antimicrobial activities against multiple bacteria. Meanwhile, introduction of prebiotic-like foods (e.g. cocoa) or probiotics or both of them as food supplements in human diets as well as in farm animal feeds is believed to be an effective ways in control/reduce the colonization of foodborne bacterial pathogens infection in the gut environment. We hypothesized that cocoa may stimulate the production antimicrobial components of Lactobacillus casei and may potentially inhibit/reduce the colonization and infection of foodborne bacterial pathogens in the gut. Mixed culture of L. casei (LC) with enterohemorrhagic E. coli EDL933 (EHEC), Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 (ST), or Listeria monocytogenes LM2 (LM) showed that LC could competitively exclude (100%) them within 72 h. Further, investigation of cell-free culture supernatant (CFCS) revealed that the antimicrobial effects of LC came from CFCS. CFCS of LC eliminated (100%) EHEC, ST, and LM within 72 h, and 2 h CFCS treatment increased the hydrophobicity of EHEC (5.10 folds), ST (8.48 folds), and LM (2.03 folds). In addition, LC cells exhibited more inhibitive effects than CFCS on cell adhesive and invasive activities of EHEC (52.14% & 90.45%), ST (66.89% & 93.83%), and LM (61.10% & 83.40%). Two clusters of poly-peptides in CFCS were identified by SDS-PAGE, the molecular weights of which are ≈5 KD and 40-45 KD. LC CFCS with overnight growth in the presence of 3% strengthened all of the antimicrobial activities (growth inhibition, outer membrane disruption, and cell infective ability reduction). Liquid chromatography/Mass spectrometry analysis detected 5 unique components in class of flavonoids in LC CFCS with overnight 3% cocoa supplement. Furthermore, qPCR results showed that CFCSs up-regulated the expression level of genes responsible for flagellin synthesis and motility, but down-regulated genes for specific binding and invasion-associated proteins synthesis. The stimulatory effects of cocoa in producing bioactive components of probiotics may aid prevention of foodborne illness caused by major foodborne enteric bacterial pathogens.

Keywords: Probiotics, Prebiotics, foodborne pathogens, pathogen exclusion

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29 Effect of Probiotic Feeding on Weight Gain, Blood Biochemical and Hematological Indices of Crossbred Dairy Goat Kids

Authors: Claire B. Salvedia, Enrico P. Supangco, Francisco B. Eligado, Renato Sa Vega, Antonio A. Rayos

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The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of probiotic feeding on weight gain, blood biochemical and hematological indices of crossbred dairy goat kids. Sixteen (16) crossbred Anglo-Nubian x Saanen dairy goat kids, 3 to 4 months old, ranging from 19 to 23kg were randomly assigned into four treatments fed with 5x109 cfu/ml probiotic supplements; Treatment 1 – control; Treatment 2 – lactic acid bacteria (L. plantarum BS and P. acidilactici 3G3); treatment 3 – S. cerevisiae 2030; Treatment 4 – multi-strain probiotics (L. plantarum BS, P. acidilactici 3G3, and S.cerevisiae 2030). Feed ration provided daily for each of the experimental animals were composed of 1kg mixed concentrate feed ((Leucaena leucocephala dried leaves and pollard), and 4 kg fresh Pennisetum purpureum and Gliciridia sepium leaves (50:50). The experimental feeding trial lasted for 9 weeks. Result revealed that treatments fed with probiotics had significantly (P≤0.05) higher weight gain compared to the control. Significant effect on plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) and triglyceride were noted during 30th and 60th day of probiotic feeding. White blood cell counts were significantly affected by probiotic feeding during the 60th day. Concentrations of glucose and cholesterol remained unchanged throughout the experimental period. The findings suggests, under the condition of the experiment, that live probiotic feeding could have a significant role in improving weight gain and metabolism of crossbred dairy goat kids.

Keywords: Probiotics, weight gain, blood biochemical indices, crossbred dairy goat kids

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28 Evaluation of the Level of Knowledge about Probiotics amongst Community Pharmacy Staff in Jordan

Authors: Feras Darwish Elhajji, Alberto Berardi, Manal Ayyash, Iman Basheti

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The concept of the use of probiotics for humans now has been known for decades however, their intake by the Jordanian population seems to be less common when compared to population in the developed countries. Community pharmacy is the main supplier of probiotics, however, after conducting an extensive literature review, not any published research article could be found talking about the role, knowledge, and practice of the pharmacists in the area of probiotics. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the level of knowledge about probiotics and their dispensing practice in community pharmacies in Jordan. Community pharmacy staff (pharmacists and technicians) in Amman and north of Jordan were randomly selected to complete an anonymous questionnaire that had been pre-tested and validated. Ethical approval was obtained from the university ethics committee. The questionnaire included the following sections: demographics, knowledge and perceptions about probiotics, and role of the pharmacist Pharmacists and technicians were visited and interviewed in 281 community pharmacies. Asking about probiotics, 90.4% of them said that they know what probiotics are, although only 29.5% agreed that pharmacy staff in Jordan have good knowledge about probiotics, and 88.3% agreed that pharmacy staff in Jordan need more training and knowledge about probiotics. Variables that were significantly related to knowledge about probiotics were being a pharmacist (ρ= 0.012), area of the community pharmacy (ρ= 0.019), and female staff (ρ= 0.031) after conducting logistic regression statistical analysis. More than two-thirds of the participants thought that probiotics are classified as dietary supplements by Jordan Food and Drug Administration (JFDA). Of those who knew probiotics, the majority of them – 76.8% and 91.7% – agreed that probiotics are effective and safe, respectively. Believing in efficacy of the probiotics was significantly associated with answering their use to be with or after antibiotic administration and to increase normal flora gut population (ρ= 0.007). Efficacy was also significantly associated with recommending probiotics to consumers by the pharmacist (ρ< 0.001) and by the doctor (ρ= 0.041). At the same time, the concept of safety was mainly associated with their use for flatulence and gases (ρ= 0.048). Level of knowledge about probiotics and their uses, efficacy and safety amongst community pharmacy staff in Jordan is found to be good. However, this level can be raised in the future, especially knowledge about uses of probiotics.

Keywords: Probiotics, Community Pharmacy, Prebiotics, jordan

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27 Screening of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Traditional Fermented Products: Potential Probiotic Bacteria with Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities

Authors: Genesis Julyus T. Agcaoili, Esperanza C. Cabrera

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Thirty (30) isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from traditionally-prepared fermented products specifically fermented soy-bean paste, fermented mustard and fermented rice-fish mixture were studied for their in vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Seventeen (17) isolates were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, while 13 isolates were identified as Enterococcus spp using 16s rDNA sequences. Disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity of LAB against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), while the modified agar overlay method was used to determine the antifungal activity of LAB isolates on the yeast Candida albicans, and the dermatophytes Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and Epidermophyton floccosum. The filter-sterilized LAB supernatants were evaluated for their cytotoxicity to mammalian colon cancer cell lines (HT-29 and HCT116) and normal human dermal fibrolasts (HDFn) using resazurin assay (PrestoBlueTM). Colchicine was the positive control. No antimicrobial activity was observed against the bacterial test organisms and the yeast Candida albicans. On the other hand, all of the tested LAB strains were fungicidal for all the test dermatophytes. Cytotoxicity index profiles of the supernatants of the 15 randomly picked LABs and negative control (brain heart infussion broth) suggest nontoxicity to the cells when compared to colchicine, whereas all LAB supernatants were found to be cytotoxic to HT-29 and HCT116 colon cancer cell lines. Results provide strong support for the role of the lactic acid bacteria studied in antimicrobial treatment and anticancer therapy.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Probiotics, Lactic Acid Bacteria, fungicidal activity, fermented products

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26 Lactobacillus sp. Isolates Slaughterhouse Waste as Probiotics for Broilers

Authors: Nourmalita Safitri Ningsih, Ridwan, Iqri Puspa Yunanda

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The aim of this study was to utilize the waste from slaughterhouses for chicken feed ingredients is probiotic. Livestock waste produced by livestock activities such as feces, urine, food remains, as well as water from livestock and cage cleaning. The process starts with the isolation of bacteria. Rumen fluid is taken at Slaughterhouse Giwangan, Yogyakarta. Isolation of Lactobacillus ruminus is done by using de Mann Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) medium. In the sample showed a rod-shaped bacteria are streaked onto an agar plates. After it was incubated at 37ºC for 48 hours, after which it is observed. The observation of these lactic acid bacteria it will show a clear zone at about the colony. These bacterial colonies are white, round, small, shiny on the agar plate mikroenkapsul In the manufacturing process carried out by the method of freeze dried using skim milk in addition capsulated material. Then the results of these capsulated bacteria are mixed with feed for livestock. The results from the mixing of capsulated bacteria in feed are to increase the quality of animal feed so as to provide a good effect on livestock. Scanning electron microscope testing we have done show the results of bacteria have been shrouded in skim milk. It can protect the bacteria so it is more durable in use. The observation of the bacteria showed a sheath on Lactobacillus sp. Preservation of bacteria in this way makes the bacteria more durable for use. As well as skim milk can protect bacteria that are resistant to the outside environment. Results of probiotics in chicken feed showed significant weight gain in chickens. Calculation Anova (P <0.005) shows the average chicken given probiotics her weight increased.

Keywords: Waste, Probiotics, Bacteria, Chicken, Lactobacillus sp

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25 In vivo Evaluation of LAB Probiotic Potential with the Zebrafish Animal Model

Authors: Iñaki Iturria, Pasquale Russo, Montserrat Nacher-Vázquez, Giuseppe Spano, Paloma López, Miguel Angel Pardo

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Introduction: It is known that some Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) present an interesting probiotic effect. Probiotic bacteria stimulate host resistance to microbial pathogens and thereby aid in immune response, and modulate the host's immune responses to antigens with a potential to down-regulate hypersensitivity reactions. Therefore, probiotic therapy is valuable against intestinal infections and may be beneficial in the treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Several in vitro tests are available to evaluate the probiotic potential of a LAB strain. However, an in vivo model is required to understand the interaction between the host immune system and the bacteria. During the last few years, zebrafish (Danio rerio) has gained interest as a promising vertebrate model in this field. This organism has been extensively used to study the interaction between the host and the microbiota, as well as the host immune response under several microbial infections. In this work, we report on the use of the zebrafish model to investigate in vivo the colonizing ability and the immunomodulatory effect of probiotic LAB. Methods: Lactobacillus strains belonging to different LAB species were fluorescently tagged and used to colonize germ-free zebrafish larvae gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Some of the strains had a well-documented probiotic effect (L. acidophilus LA5); while others presented an exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing phenotype, thus allowing evaluating the influence of EPS in the colonization and immunomodulatory effect. Bacteria colonization was monitored for 72 h by direct observation in real time using fluorescent microscopy. CFU count per larva was also evaluated at different times. The immunomodulatory effect was assessed analysing the differential expression of several innate immune system genes (MyD88, NF-κB, Tlr4, Il1β and Il10) by qRT- PCR. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated using a chemical enterocolitis zebrafish model. The protective effect against a pathogen was also studied. To that end, a challenge test was developed using a fluorescently tagged pathogen (Vibrio anguillarum-GFP+). The progression of the infection was monitored up to 3 days using a fluorescent stereomicroscope. Mortality rates and CFU counts were also registered. Results and conclusions: Larvae exposed to EPS-producing bacteria showed a higher fluorescence and CFU count than those colonized with no-EPS phenotype LAB. In the same way, qRT-PCR results revealed an immunomodulatory effect on the host after the administration of the strains with probiotic activity. A downregulation of proinflammatory cytoquines as well as other cellular mediators of inflammation was observed. The anti-inflammatory effect was found to be particularly marked following exposure to LA% strain, as well as EPS producing strains. Furthermore, the challenge test revealed a protective effect of probiotic administration. As a matter of fact, larvae fed with probiotics showed a decrease in the mortality rate ranging from 20 to 35%. Discussion: In this work, we developed a promising model, based on the use of gnotobiotic zebrafish coupled with a bacterial fluorescent tagging in order to evaluate the probiotic potential of different LAB strains. We have successfully used this system to monitor in real time the colonization and persistence of exogenous LAB within the gut of zebrafish larvae, to evaluate their immunomodulatory effect and for in vivo competition assays. This approach could bring further insights into the complex microbial-host interactions at intestinal level.

Keywords: Probiotics, Lactic Acid Bacteria, Immune System, zebrafish, gnotobiotic

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24 Comparing Pathogen Inhibition Effect of Different Preparations of Probiotic L. reuteri Strains

Authors: Tejinder Pal Singh, Ravinder Kumar Malik, Gurpreet Kaur

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Adhesion is key factor for colonization of the gastrointestinal tract and the ability of probiotic strains to inhibit pathogens. Therefore, the adhesion ability is considered as a suitable biomarker for the selection of potential probiotic. In the present study, eight probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri strains were evaluated as viable, LiCl treated or heat-killed forms and compared with probiotic reference strains (L. reuteri ATCC55730). All strains investigated were able to adhere to Caco-2 cells. All probiotic L. reuteri strains tested were able to inhibit and displace (P < 0.05) the adhesion of Escherichia coli ATCC25922, Salmonella typhi NCDC113, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC53135 and Enterococcus faecalis NCDC115. The probiotic strain L. reuteri LR6 showed the strongest adhesion and pathogen inhibition ability among the eight L. reuteri strains tested. In addition, the abilities to inhibit and to displace adhered pathogens depended on both the probiotic and the pathogen strains tested suggesting the involvement of various mechanisms. The adhesion and antagonistic potential of the probiotic strains were significantly decreased upon exposure to 5M LiCl, showing that surface molecules, proteinaceous in nature, are involved. The heat-killed forms of the probiotic L. reuteri strains also inhibited the attachment of selected pathogens to Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, in vitro assays showed that L. reuteri strains, as viable or heat-killed forms, are adherent to Caco-2 cell line model and are highly antagonistic to selected pathogens in which surface molecules, proteinaceous molecules in particular, plays an important role.

Keywords: Probiotics, Adhesion, Lactobacillus reuteri, Caco-2 cells

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23 Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Micro-Architecture of Respiratory Organs with and without Dietary Probiotics

Authors: Muhammad Younus, Sanan Raza, Komal Khan, Hafsa Zaneb, Saima Masood

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Cigarette smoke induces many physiological and pathological changes in respiratory tract like goblet cell hyperplasia and regional distention of airspaces. It is also associated with elevation of inflammatory profiles in different airway compartments. As probiotics are generally known to promote mucosal tolerance, it was postulated that prophylactic use of probiotics can be helpful in reduction of respiratory damage induced by cigarette smoke exposure. Twenty-four adult mice were randomly divided into three groups (cigarette-smoke (CS) group, cigarette-smoke+ Lactobacillus (CS+ P) group, control (Cn) group), each having 8 mice. They were exposed to cigarette smoke for 28 days (6 cigarettes/ day for 6 days/week). Wright-Giemsa staining of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was performed in three mice per group. Tissue samples of trachea and lungs of 7 mice from each group were processed by paraffin embedding technique for haematoxylin & eosin (H & E) and alcian blue- periodic acid-Schiff (AB-PAS) staining. Then trachea (goblet cell number, ratio and loss of cilia) and lungs (airspace distention) were studied. The results showed that the number of goblet cells was increased in CS group as a result of defensive mechanism of the respiratory system against irritating substances. This study also revealed that the cells of CS group having acidic glycoprotein were found to be higher in quantity as compared to those containing neutral glycoprotein. However, CS + P group showed a decrease in goblet cell index due to enhanced immunity by prophylactically used probiotics. Moreover, H & E stained tracheas showed significant loss of cilia in CS group due to propelling of mucous but little loss in CS + P group because of having good protective tracheal epithelium. In lungs, protection of airspaces was also much more evident in CS+ P group as compared to CS group having distended airspaces, especially at 150um distance from terminal bronchiole. In addition, a comprehensive analysis of inflammatory cells population of BALF showed neutrophilia and eosinophilia was significantly reduced in CS+ P group. This study proved that probiotics are found to be useful for reduction of changes in micro-architecture of the respiratory system. Thus, dietary supplementation of probiotic as prophylactic measure can be useful in achieving immunomodulatory effects.

Keywords: Probiotics, goblet cells, cigarette smoke, airspace enlargement, BALF

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22 Relative Expression and Detection of MUB Adhesion Domains and Plantaricin-Like Bacteriocin among Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum-Group Strains Isolated from Fermented Foods

Authors: Sundru Manjulata Devi, Prakash M. Halami

Abstract:

The immemorial use of fermented foods from vegetables, dairy and other biological sources are of great demand in India because of their health benefits. However, the diversity of Lactobacillus plantarum group (LPG) of vegetable origin has not been revealed yet, particularly with reference to their probiotic functionalities. In the present study, the different species of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum group (LPG) i.e., L. plantarum subsp. plantarum MTCC 5422 (from fermented cereals), L. plantarum subsp. argentoratensis FG16 (from fermented bamboo shoot) and L. paraplantarum MTCC 9483 (from fermented gundruk) (as characterized by multiplex recA PCR assay) were considered to investigate their relative expression of MUB domains of mub gene (mucin binding protein) by Real time PCR. Initially, the allelic variation in the mub gene was assessed and found to encode three different variants (Type I, II and III). All the three types had 8, 9 and 10 MUB domains respectively (as analysed by Pfam database) and were found to be responsible for adhesion of bacteria to the host intestinal epithelial cells. These domains either get inserted or deleted during speciation or evolutionary events and lead to divergence. The reverse transcriptase qPCR analysis with mubLPF1+R1 primer pair supported variation in amplicon sizes with 300, 500 and 700 bp among different LPG strains. The relative expression of these MUB domains significantly unregulated in the presence of 1% mucin in overnight grown cultures. Simultaneously, the mub gene expressed efficiently by 7 fold in the culture L. paraplantarum MTCC 9483 with 10 MUB domains. An increase in the expression levels for L. plantarum subsp. plantarum MTCC 5422 and L. plantarum subsp. argentoratensis FG16 (MCC 2974) with 9 and 8 repetitive domains was around 4 and 2 fold, respectively. The detection and expression of an integrase (int) gene in the upstream region of mub gene reveals the excision and integration of these repetitive domains. Concurrently, an in vitro adhesion assay to mucin and exclusion of pathogens (such as Listeria monocytogenes and Micrococcus leuteus) was investigated and observed that the L. paraplantarum MTCC 9483 with more adhesion domains has more ability to adhere to mucin and inhibited the growth of pathogens. The production and expression of plantaricin-like bacteriocin (plnNC8 type) in MTCC 9483 suggests the pathogen inhibition. Hence, the expression of MUB domains can act as potential biomarkers in the screening of a novel probiotic LPG strain with adherence property. The present study provides a platform for an easy, rapid, less time consuming, low-cost methodology for the detection of potential probiotic bacteria. It was known that the traditional practices followed in the preparation of fermented bamboo shoots/gundruk/cereals of Indian foods contain different kinds of neutraceuticals for functional food and novel compounds with health promoting factors. In future, a detailed study of these food products can add more nutritive value, consumption and suitable for commercialization.

Keywords: Probiotics, Fermented Foods, adhesion gene, MUB domains

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21 Probiotics’ Antibacterial Activity on Beef and Camel Minced Meat at Altered Ranges of Temperature

Authors: Rania Samir Zaki

Abstract:

Because of their inhibitory effects, selected probiotic Lactobacilli may be used as antimicrobial against some hazardous microorganisms responsible for spoilage of fresh minced beef (cattle) minced meat and camel minced meat. Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from camel meat. These included 10 isolates; 1 Lactobacillus fermenti, 4 Lactobacillus plantarum, 4 Lactobacillus pulgaricus, 3 Lactobacillus acidophilus and 1 Lactobacillus brevis. The most efficient inhibitory organism was Lactobacillus plantarum which can be used as a propiotic with antibacterial activity. All microbiological analyses were made at the time 0, first day and the second day at altered ranges of temperature [4±2 ⁰C (chilling temperature), 25±2 ⁰C, and 38±2 ⁰C]. Results showed a significant decrease of pH 6.2 to 5.1 within variant types of meat, in addition to reduction of Total Bacterial Count, Enterococci, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli together with the stability of Coliforms and absence of Staphylococcus aureus.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Probiotics, inhibition, camel meat

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20 Probiotics as an Alternative to Antibiotic Use in Pig Production

Authors: A. I. Okoh, Z. C. Dlamini, R. L. S. Langa, O. A. Aiyegoro

Abstract:

The indiscriminate usage of antibiotics in swine production have consequential outcomes; such as development of bacterial resistance to prophylactic antibiotics and possibility of antibiotic residues in animal products. The use of probiotics appears to be the most effective procedure with positive metabolic nutritional implications. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus reuteri ZJ625, Lactobacillus reuteri VB4, Lactobacillus salivarius ZJ614 and Streptococcus salivarius NBRC13956) administered as direct-fed microorganisms in weaned piglets. 45 weaned piglets blocked by weight were dived into 5 treatments groups: diet with antibiotic, diet with no-antibiotic and no probiotic, and diet with probiotic and diet with combination of probiotics. Piglets performance was monitored during the trials. Faecal and Ileum samples were collected for microbial count analysis. Blood samples were collected from pigs at the end of the trial, for analysis of haematological, biochemical and IgG stimulation. The data was analysed by Split-Plot ANOVA using SAS statistically software (SAS 9.3) (2003). The difference was observed between treatments for daily weight and feed conversion ratio. No difference was observed in analysis of faecal samples in regards with bacterial counts, difference was observed in ileums samples with enteric bacteria colony forming unit being lower in P2 treatment group as compared with lactic acid and total bacteria. With exception of globulin and albumin, biochemistry blood parameters were not affected, likewise for haematology, only basophils and segmented neutrophils were differed by having higher concentration in NC treatment group as compared with other treatment groups. Moreover, in IgG stimulation analysis, difference was also observed, with P2 treatment group having high concentration of IgG in P2 treatment group as compared to other groups. The results of this study suggest that probiotics have a beneficial effect on growth performances, blood parameters and IgG stimulation of pigs, most effective when they are administered in synergy form. This means that it is most likely that these probiotics will offer a significant benefit in pig farming by reducing risk of morbidity and mortality and produce quality meat that is more affordable to poorer communities, and thereby enhance South African pig industry’s economy. In addition, these results indicate that there is still more research need to be done on probiotics in regards with, i.e. dosage, shelf life and mechanism of action.

Keywords: Biochemistry, Probiotics, Antibiotics, Haematology, IgG-stimulation, microbial count

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19 The Effect of Inulin on Aflatoxin M1 Binding Ability of Probiotic Bacteria in Yoghurt

Authors: Sumeyra Sevim, Gulsum Gizem Topal, Mercan Merve Tengilimoglu-Metin, Banu Sancak, Mevlude Kizil

Abstract:

Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) represents mutagenic, carcinogenic, hepatotoxic and immunosuppressive properties, and shows adverse effect on human health. Recently the use of probiotics are focused on AFM1 detoxification because of the fact that probiotic strains have a binding ability to AFM1. Moreover, inulin is a prebiotic to improve the ability of probiotic bacteria. Therefore, the aim of the study is to investigate the effect of inulin on AFM1 binding ability of some probiotic bacteria. Yoghurt samples were manufactured by using skim milk powder artificially contaminated with AFM1 at concentration 100 pg/ml. Different samples were prepared for the study as: first sample consists of yoghurt starter bacteria (L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus), the second sample consists of starter and L. plantarum, starter and B. bifidum ATCC were added to the third sample, starter and B. animalis ATCC 27672 were added to the forth sample, and the fifth sample is a binary culture consisted of starter and B. bifidum and B. animalis. Moreover, the same work groups were prepared with inulin (4%). The samples were incubated at 42°C for 4 hours, then stored for three different time interval (1,5 and 10 days). The toxin was measured by the ELISA. When inulin was added to work groups, there was significant change on AFM1 binding ability at least one sample in all groups except the one with L. plantarum (p<0.05). The highest levels of AFM1 binding ability (68.7%) in samples with inulin were found in the group which B. bifidum was added, whereas the lowest levels of AFM1 binding ability (44.4%) in samples with inulin was found in the fifth sample. The most impressive effect of inulin was found on B.bifidum. In this study, it was obtained that there was a significant effect of storage on AFM1 binding ability in the all groups with inulin except the one with L. plantarum (p<0.05). Consequently, results show that AFM1 detoxification by probiotics have a potential application to reduce toxin concentrations in yoghurt. Besides, inulin has different effects on AFM1 binding ability of each probiotic bacteria strain.

Keywords: Probiotics, Storage, inulin, aflatoxin M1

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18 The Effect of Probiotic Bacteria on Aflatoxin M1 Detoxification in Phosphate Buffer Saline

Authors: Sumeyra Sevim, Gulsum Gizem Topal, Mercan Merve Tengilimoglu-Metin, Mevlude Kizil

Abstract:

Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a major toxic and carcinogenic molecule in milk and milk products. Therefore, it poses a risk for public health. Probiotics can be biological agent to remove AFM1. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of probiotic bacteria on AFM1 detoxification in phosphate buffer saline. The PBS samples artificially contaminated with AFM1 at concentration 100 pg/ml were prepared with probiotics bacteria that including monoculture (L. plantarum, B. bifidum ATCC, B. animalis ATCC 27672) and binary culture (L. bulgaricus + S. thermophiles, B. bifidum ATCC + B. animalis ATCC 27672, L. plantarum+B. bifidum ATCC, L. plantarum+ B. animalis ATCC 27672). The samples were incubated at 37°C for 4 hours and stored for 1, 5 and 10 days. The toxin was measured by the ELISA. The highest levels of AFM1 binding ability (63.6%) in PBS were detected yoghurt starter bacteria, while L. plantarum had the lowest levels of AFM1 binding ability (35.5%) in PBS. In addition, it was found that there was significant effect of storage on AFM1 binding ability in all groups except the one including B. animalis (p < 0.05). Consequently, results demonstrate that AFM1 detoxification by probiotic bacteria has a potential application to reduce toxin concentrations in yoghurt. Moreover, probiotic strains can react with itself as synergic or antagonist.

Keywords: Probiotics, Storage, ELISA, aflatoxin M1

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17 Bioactivity of Local Isolated Probiotic to Inhibiting Important Bacterial Pathogens in Aquaculture

Authors: Jiraporn Rojtinnakorn, Abhichet Nobhiwong, Udomluk Sompong

Abstract:

Six probiotic strains isolated from Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai province, Thailand; CR1-2, CM3-4, CM5-2, CR7-8, CM10-5 and CM10-8 were used to study their morphology and inhibition activity on three pathogenic bacteria; Aeromonas sp., Streptococcus sp. and Flavobacterium sp. that isolated from infected Nile tilapia. The agar well diffusion technique was applied for 24 and 48 hours incubation. Interestingly, some probiotics showed good inhibition activity both 24 and 48 hours on each 3 bacterial pathogens. The capable inhibiting Aeromonas sp. were CR1-2 and CR5-2 with inhibition diameters of 13.0 mm and 11.2 mm, respectively. For Streptococcus sp., effective probiotics were CR10-2 with inhibition diameters of 10.7 mm. Whereas for Flavobacterium sp., effective probiotics were CR5-2 with inhibition diameter of 9.7 mm. It can be concluded that these probiotics have potentiality to develop as the pathogens biocontrol products. These will be support for safety and organic aquaculture that which the most worthy for people health.

Keywords: Probiotics, Aeromanas sp, Streptococcus sp, Flavobacterium sp

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16 Protein Stabilized Foam Structures as Protective Carrier Systems during Microwave Drying of Probiotics

Authors: Jannika Dombrowski, Sabine Ambros, Ulrich Kulozik

Abstract:

Due to the increasing popularity of healthy products, probiotics are still of rising importance in food manufacturing. With the aim to amplify the field of probiotic application to non-chilled products, the cultures have to be preserved by drying. Microwave drying has proved to be a suitable technique to achieve relatively high survival rates, resulting from drying at gentle temperatures, among others. However, diffusion limitation due to compaction of cell suspension during drying can prolong drying times as well as deteriorate product properties (grindability, rehydration performance). Therefore, we aimed to embed probiotics in an aerated matrix of whey proteins (surfactants) and di-/polysaccharides (foam stabilization, probiotic protection) during drying. As a result of the manifold increased inner surface of the cell suspension, drying performance was enhanced significantly as compared to non-foamed suspensions. This work comprises investigations on suitable foam matrices, being stable under vacuum (variation of protein concentration, type and concentration of di-/polysaccharide) as well as development of an applicable microwave drying process in terms of microwave power, chamber pressure and maximum product temperatures. Performed analyses included foam characteristics (overrun, drainage, firmness, bubble sizes), and properties of the dried cultures (survival, activity). In addition, efficiency of the drying process was evaluated.

Keywords: Probiotics, Polysaccharides, microwave drying, foam structure

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15 Preservation of Sensitive Biological Products: An Insight into Conventional and Upcoming Drying Techniques

Authors: Jannika Dombrowski, Sabine Ambros, Ulrich Kulozik

Abstract:

Several drying techniques are used to preserve sensitive substances such as probiotic lactic acid bacteria. With the aim to better understand differences between these processes, this work gives new insights into structural variations resulting from different preservation methods and their impact on product quality and storage stability. Industrially established methods (freeze drying, spray drying) were compared to upcoming vacuum, microwave-freeze, and microwave-vacuum drying. For freeze and microwave-freeze dried samples, survival and activity maintained 100%, whereas vacuum and microwave-vacuum dried cultures achieved 30-40% survival. Spray drying yielded in lowest viability. The results are directly related to temperature and oxygen content during drying. Interestingly, most storage stable products resulted from vacuum and microwave-vacuum drying due to denser product structures as determined by helium pycnometry and SEM images. Further, lower water adsorption velocities were responsible for lower inactivation rates. Concluding, resulting product structures as well as survival rates and storage stability mainly depend on the type of water removal instead of energy input. Microwave energy compared to conductive heating did not lead to significant differences regarding the examined factors. Correlations could be proven for three investigated microbial strains. The presentation will be completed by an overview on the energy efficiency of the presented methods.

Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Probiotics, Lactic Acid Bacteria, drying techniques, survival rates, structure characterization

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14 Assessment of Lactic Acid Bacteria of Probiotic Potentials in Dairy Produce in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Rashad R. Al-Hindi

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to isolate and identify lactic acid bacteria and evaluate their therapeutic and food preservation importance. Ninety-three suspected lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from thirteen different raw and fermented milk of indigenous sources in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The identification of forty-six selected LAB strains and genetic relatedness were performed based on 16S rDNA gene sequence comparison. The LAB counts in certain samples were higher under microaerobic than anaerobic conditions. The identified LAB belonged to genera Enterococcus (16 strains), Lactobacillus (9 strains), Weissella (10 strains), Streptococcus (8 strains) and Lactococcus (3 strains). Phylogenetic tree generated from the full-length (~1.6 kb) sequences confirmed previous findings. Utilization of shorter 16S rDNA sequences (~1.0 kb) also discriminated among strains of which V2 region was the most effective. None of the strains exhibited resistance to clinically relevant antibiotics or undesirable hemolytic activity, while they differed in other probiotic characteristics, e.g., tolerance to acidic pH, resistance to bile salt, and antibacterial activity. In conclusion, the isolates Lactobacillus casei MSJ1, Lactobacillus casei Dwan5, Lactobacillus plantarum EyLan2 and Enterococcus faecium Gail-BawZir8 are likely the best probiotic LAB and we speculate that studying the synergistic effects of bacterial combinations might result in the occurrence of more effective probiotic potential. We argue that the raw and fermented milk of animals hosted in Saudi Arabia, especially stirred yogurt (Laban) made from camel milk, are rich in LAB with promising probiotics potential.

Keywords: Probiotics, Lactic Acid Bacteria, Saudi Arabia, Fermented Foods

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13 Different Feedings on Chemical Characteristics of Atlantic Salmon Fillet

Authors: Mahsa Jalili, Trude Johansen, Signe Dille Lovmo, Turid Rustad, Rolf Erik Olsen, Atle M. Bones

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The quality of fish muscle is a key factor in fish industry, and dietary ingredients can influence fish quality. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of krill meal, soybean meal, Bactocell® and butyrate fortified feeds and control diet on characteristics of salmon fillet. Thirty Atlantic salmon (6 per each group) were farmed for 12 weeks. All the fish were killed and frozen immediately. The white muscle from top posterior part of dorsal fin was dissected to analyze fat content, carotenoid content, content of water-soluble and salt-soluble proteins, cathepsin B and cathepsin B-L activities. ANOVA test was used to analyze mean and standard error of mean values at 0.05 significance level. There were significant difference in cathepsin B activity, water-soluble proteins and salt-soluble proteins (p-value= 0.005, 0.009 and 0.002). The mean values of other factors were not significantly different among the groups. Cathepsin B activity was higher in soymeal group. Water-soluble proteins were reported higher in soy meal and krill groups and salt-soluble proteins were significantly higher in soy meal and butyrate rich diets. Although soy meal has proven effect on enteritis, it results in higher percentage of protein in fillets. On the other hand, this feeding may have role in textural deterioration of fillets owing to higher values of endogenous cathepsin B in soymeal group.

Keywords: Aquaculture, Food Quality, Probiotics, Prebiotics, soy, Krill protein extract, Salmo salar

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12 Transcriptomic and Translational Regulation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors after Different Feedings in Salmon

Authors: Mahsa Jalili, Signe Dille Lovmo, Rolf Erik Olsen, Essa Ehsan Khan, Augustine Akruwe, Egil Lien, Trygve Sigholt, Atle Magnus Bones

Abstract:

Data from the Norwegian Directorate of Fisheries reported that >1.2 million tons of Atlantic salmon were produced in Norway aquaculture industry in 2016. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are one of the key transcription factor families that respond to nutritional ligands. Recent studies have shown the connection between PPARs with lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in aquaculture. To our knowledge, there is no published data about the effects of krill meal, soybean meal, Bactocell ® and butyrate feedings compared to control group on PPARs gene and protein expressions in Atlantic salmon. Fish, 1year +postsmolt, average weight 250 gram were cultured for 12 weeks after acclimatization by control commercial feeding in 2 weeks after hatchery. Water oxygen rate, salinity, and temperature were monitored every second day. At the end of the trial, fish were taken from tanks randomly, and four replicates per group were collected and stored in -80 freezers until analysis. Total RNA extracted from posterior part of dorsal fin muscle tissues and Nanodrop and Bioanalyzer was used to check the quality of RNA. Gene expression of PPAR α, β and γ were determined by RT-PCR. The expression of genes of interest was measured relative to control group after normalization to three reference genes. Total protein concentration was calculated by Bradford method, and protein expression was determined with primary PPARγ antibody by western blot. All data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Benjamini-Hochberg and Bonferroni tests. Probability values <0.05 considered significant. Bactocell® and butyrate groups showed significantly lower PPARα expression. PPARβ and γ were not significantly different among groups. PPARγ mRNA expression was approximately consistent with protein expression pattern, except than butyrate group showed lower mRNA level. The order of PPARγ expression was Bactocell® > soy meal > butyrate > krill meal > control respectively. PPARβ gene expression decreased more in soy meal > butyrate > krill meal > Bactocell® > control groups respectively. In conclusion, the increased expression of PPARγ and α is proposed to represent a reduction tendency of lipid storage in fish fed by Bactocell®, butyrate, soy and krill meal.

Keywords: Aquaculture, Probiotics, Gene expression, Prebiotics, Krill protein extract, Salmo salar, blotting western

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11 Nutritional Evaluation of Pregnant Women in Nairobi, Kenya for Implementation of a Probiotic Yogurt Program

Authors: Sharareh Hekmat, Michelle Lane

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Pregnancy during adolescence affects both the growth and development of mother and baby, particularly in low socioeconomic and food insecure areas. This mixed methods study is aimed at discovering a need for a community-based probiotic yogurt program to assist pregnant women in the Mukuru slum Nairobi, Kenya. Surveys were conducted with pregnant women (14-25 years old, n=43), which included questionnaires on dietary intake, food access, and health/quality of life perception. The frequency and means procedure was used to analyze maternal characteristics, Women’s Dietary Diversity Score (WDDS) and Household Hunger Scale. 24-hour recalls were analyzed via ESHA Food Processor, and median nutrient intakes were reported as a percent of recommendations. An environmental scan was conducted to assess food availability, accessibility, and quality. WDDS reflected a low-moderate diet variation (3.86 food groups out of 9, SD ± 1.3) among the women. The 24-hour recall suggested an inadequate intake of many nutrients, most significantly B12, potassium and calcium. 86% of women reported little to no household hunger. However, the environmental scan revealed low quality and poor sanitation of food. This study provides evidence that a probiotic program would be desirable, and contribute to the nutritional status of women in the Mukuru community.

Keywords: Probiotics, Pregnant Women, Kenya, dietary diversity, urban slum

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10 Effects of Probiotic Pseudomonas fluorescens on the Growth Performance, Immune Modulation, and Histopathology of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

Authors: Nelson R. Osungbemiro, O. A. Bello-Olusoji, M. Oladipupo

Abstract:

This study was carried out to determine the effects of probiotics Pseudomonas fluorescens on the growth performance, histology examination and immune modulation of African Catfish, (Clarias gariepinus) challenged with Clostridium botulinum. P. fluorescens, and C. botulinum isolates were removed from the gut, gill and skin organs of procured adult samples of Clarias gariepinus from commercial fish farms in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. The physical and biochemical tests were performed on the bacterial isolates using standard microbiological techniques for their identification. Antibacterial activity tests on P. fluorescens showed inhibition zone with mean value of 3.7 mm which indicates high level of antagonism. The experimental diets were prepared at different probiotics bacterial concentration comprises of five treatments of different bacterial suspension, including the control (T1), T2 (10³), T3 (10⁵), T4 (10⁷) and T5 (10⁹). Three replicates for each treatment type were prepared. Growth performance and nutrients utilization indices were calculated. The proximate analysis of fish carcass and experimental diet was carried out using standard methods. After feeding for 70 days, haematological values and histological test were done following standard methods; also a subgroup from each experimental treatment was challenged by inoculating Intraperitonieally (I/P) with different concentration of pathogenic C. botulinum. Statistically, there were significant differences (P < 0.05) in the growth performance and nutrient utilization of C. gariepinus. Best weight gain and feed conversion ratio were recorded in fish fed T4 (10⁷) and poorest value obtained in the control. Haematological analyses of C. gariepinus fed the experimental diets indicated that all the fish fed diets with P. fluorescens had marked significantly (p < 0.05) higher White Blood Cell than the control diet. The results of the challenge test showed that fish fed the control diet had the highest mortality rate. Histological examination of the gill, intestine, and liver of fish in this study showed several histopathological alterations in fish fed the control diets compared with those fed the P. fluorescens diets. The study indicated that the optimum level of P. fluorescens required for C. gariepinus growth and white blood cells formation is 10⁷ CFU g⁻¹, while carcass protein deposition required 10⁵ CFU g⁻¹ of P. fluorescens concentration. The study also confirmed P. fluorescens as efficient probiotics that is capable of improving the immune response of C. gariepinus against the attack of a virulent fish pathogen, C. botulinum.

Keywords: Probiotics, Clarias gariepinus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Clostridium botulinum

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9 Potential of Lactic Acid Bacteria for Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solution

Authors: Ana M. Guzman, Claudia M. Rodriguez, Pedro F. B. Brandao, Elianna Castillo

Abstract:

Cadmium (Cd) is a carcinogenic metal to which humans are exposed mainly due to its presence in the food chain. Lactic acid bacteria have the capability to bind cadmium and thus the potential to be used as probiotics to treat this metal toxicity in the human body. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the potential of native lactic acid bacteria, isolated from Colombian fermented cocoa, to remove cadmium from aqueous solutions. An initial screening was made with the Lactobacillus plantarum JCM 1055 type strain, and Cd was quantified by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Lb. plantarum JCM 1055 was grown in ½ MRS medium to follow growth kinetics during 32 h at 37 °C, by measuring optical density at 600 nm. Washed cells, grown for 18 h, were adjusted to obtain dry biomass concentrations of 1.5 g/L and 0.5 g/L for removal assays in 10 mL of Cd(NO₃)₂ solution with final concentrations of 10 mg/Kg or 1.0 mg/Kg. The assays were performed at two different pH values (2.0 and 5.0), and results showed better adsorption abilities at higher pH. After incubation for 1 h at 37 °C and 150 rpm, the removal percentages for 10 mg/Kg Cd with 1.5 g/L and 0.5 g/L biomass concentration at pH 5.0 were, respectively, 71% and 50%, while the efficiency was 9.15 and 4.52 mg Cd/g dry biomass, respectively. For the assay with 1.0 mg/Kg Cd at pH 5.0, the removal was 100% and 98%, respectively for the same biomass concentrations, and the efficiency was 1.63 and 0.56 mg Cd/g dry biomass, respectively. These results suggest the efficiency of Lactobacillus strains to remove cadmium and their potential to be used as probiotics to treat cadmium toxicity and reduce its accumulation in the human body.

Keywords: Probiotics, Lactic Acid Bacteria, cadmium removal, fermented cocoa

Procedia PDF Downloads 46