Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

primary school Related Abstracts

9 Primary School Students’ Modeling Processes: Crime Problem

Authors: Neslihan Sahin Celik, Ali Eraslan


As a result of PISA (Program for International Student Assessments) survey that tests how well students can apply the knowledge and skills they have learned at school to real-life challenges, the new and redesigned mathematics education programs in many countries emphasize the necessity for the students to face complex and multifaceted problem situations and gain experience in this sense allowing them to develop new skills and mathematical thinking to prepare them for their future life after school. At this point, mathematical models and modeling approaches can be utilized in the analysis of complex problems which represent real-life situations in which students can actively participate. In particular, model eliciting activities that bring about situations which allow the students to create solutions to problems and which involve mathematical modeling must be used right from primary school years, allowing them to face such complex, real-life situations from early childhood period. A qualitative study was conducted in a university foundation primary school in the city center of a big province in 2013-2014 academic years. The participants were 4th grade students in a primary school. After a four-week preliminary study applied to a fourth-grade classroom, three students included in the focus group were selected using criterion sampling technique. A focus group of three students was videotaped as they worked on the Crime Problem. The conversation of the group was transcribed, examined with students’ written work and then analyzed through the lens of Blum and Ferri’s modeling processing cycle. The results showed that primary fourth-grade students can successfully work with model eliciting problem while they encounter some difficulties in the modeling processes. In particular, they developed new ideas based on different assumptions, identified the patterns among variables and established a variety of models. On the other hand, they had trouble focusing on problems and occasionally had breaks in the process.

Keywords: Modeling, Mathematical Modeling, primary school, crime problem

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8 Educatronic Prototype for Learning Geometry, Based on a Multitouch Surface

Authors: Vicario Marina, Bustos Freddy, Olivares Jesús, Gómez Pilar


This paper presents a didactic model and a tool as educational resources to support the learning of geometry; they focus on topics difficult to understand. The target population is elementary school students. The tool is based on a collaborative educational approach using multi-touch devices. The proposal is based on the challenges found in the instructional design and prototype implementation. Traditionally, elementary students have had many problems assimilating mathematical topics; this new Educatronic prototype facilitates the learning experience using exercises and they were tested with different children demonstrating the benefits of the prototype by improving their mathematical skills.

Keywords: Geometry, Mathematics, Educational Computing, primary school, educational informatics, educatronic prototype, multitouch surface

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7 Financial Literacy Testing: Results of Conducted Research and Introduction of a Project

Authors: J. Nesleha, H. Florianova


The goal of the study is to provide results of a conducted study devoted to financial literacy in the Czech Republic and to introduce a project related to financial education in the Czech Republic. Financial education has become an important part of education in the country, yet it is still neglected on the lowest level of formal education–primary schools. The project is based on investigation of financial literacy on primary schools in the Czech Republic. Consequently, the authors aim to formulate possible amendments related to this type of education. The gained dataset is intended to be used for analysis concerning financial education in the Czech Republic. With regard to used methods, the most important one is regression analysis for disclosure of predictors causing different levels of financial literacy. Furthermore, comparison of different groups is planned, for which t-tests are intended to be used. The study also employs descriptive statistics to introduce basic relationship in the data file.

Keywords: Financial Literacy, Financial Education, Czech Republic, primary school

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6 A Study of Patriotism through History Education in Primary School

Authors: Abdul Razak Bin Ahmad, Mohd Mahzan Awang


Appreciation of patriotism value is important for every student to be able to become a quality citizen and good for the country. Realizing this situation, Malaysia has introduced history education for primary school students since 2014. One of the aims is to provide basic knowledge on patriotism as well as to promote patriotic behaviour among school pupils. In order to examine the relationship between the students’ knowledge and their behaviour, a survey study was carried out. A set of questionnaire was designed and developed based prior studies on history education and patriotism. The sample of this survey was 153 primary school students aged 12 years old (Standard Six). Data collected and analysed using SPSS (Statistical Package for The Social Science 20.0). The results showed that the level of knowledge and patriotism practise at the moderate levels. Inferential statistic results revealed that there is no significant difference between genders with regards to patriotism knowledge and patriotism practice through history education subject. Results also demonstrated that there is a significant relationship between knowledge and the practice of patriotism values among the students. This means that knowledge on patriotism is important for promoting patriotic behaviour and practice in primary schools. This study implies that teaching students to understand and comprehend the concept of patriotism is vital to promote patriotic behaviour among students. Therefore, teachers should master pedagogical skills and good content knowledge on patriotism as mechanisms to promote effective learning in history education subjects. creativity in teaching history education subjects is also needed.

Keywords: Knowledge, Teachers, History Education, primary school, patriotism values

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5 Factors Influencing the Roles and Responsibilities of Middle Leaders in Saudi and English Primary Schools: A Comparative Critical Study

Authors: Saeed Musaid H. Alzahrani


The role of middle leaders, especially in primary schools, is a multi-faced role that has been subject to changes in nature over recent decades, with claims for more distributed leadership practices. This research examines the way 18 middle leaders in Saudi and English primary schools conceptualise their roles and responsibilities, and different factors influencing those roles and responsibilities. It begins from the premise that both the power of the role and the values of middle leaders are grounded in cultural and political bases, a belief held by the researcher as an 'insider' within the Saudi educational leadership context. The study consisted of a comparative analysis of the role and the responsibilities of middle leaders in Saudi primary schools and their equivalents in English primary schools. A purely qualitative methodological stance was adopted, using in-depth face-to-face semi-structured interviews, observations and document analysis. Middle leaders were asked to reflect deeply on their perceptions and understanding of their roles and explain what they thought influenced their daily practices and responsibilities. The findings suggest that the concept of middle leadership has been influenced by power imposed from above by political authority, via internal and external hierarchical structures, which shapes the nature of the role of the middle leaders and forces them to comply. Middle leaders seem to believe they have the power to make decisions and promote change, but these findings suggest that this is illusory. The power that keeps middle leaders performing is the power of their cultural and religious values. Those values are the resource to which they turn in their search for more energy when they lack support and are short of time taken. Middle leaders in Saudi, just like their equivalents in English schools must comply with the requirements of their role. However, Saudi middle leaders are given no leeway to make decisions or implement change, neither do they have the culture of collegiality that seems to give middle leaders in England more power over their resources and decisions. However, in neither educational setting have middle leaders been given the power to lead, so they remain managers rather than leaders. The findings of this research suggest that there are more similarities between the educational settings of Saudi and England than differences; and in the light of different factors identified in the study, suggest the establishment of a framework for middle leadership, in the hope of enhancing the way the role is practiced.

Keywords: Power, Culture, Educational Leadership, Saudi Arabia, Value, model, England, primary school, middle leader

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4 Teaching Children about Their Brains: Evaluating the Role of Neuroscience Undergraduates in Primary School Education

Authors: Clea Southall


Many children leave primary school having formed preconceptions about their relationship with science. Thus, primary school represents a critical window for stimulating scientific interest in younger children. Engagement relies on the provision of hands-on activities coupled with an ability to capture a child’s innate curiosity. This requires children to perceive science topics as interesting and relevant to their everyday life. Teachers and pupils alike have suggested the school curriculum be tailored to help stimulate scientific interest. Young children are naturally inquisitive about the human body; the brain is one topic which frequently engages pupils, although it is not currently included in the UK primary curriculum. Teaching children about the brain could have wider societal impacts such as increasing knowledge of neurological disorders. However, many primary school teachers do not receive formal neuroscience training and may feel apprehensive about delivering lessons on the nervous system. This is exacerbated by a lack of educational neuroscience resources. One solution is for undergraduates to form partnerships with schools - delivering engaging lessons and supplementing teacher knowledge. The aim of this project was to evaluate the success of a short lesson on the brain delivered by an undergraduate neuroscientist to primary school pupils. Prior to entering schools, semi-structured online interviews were conducted with teachers to gain pedagogical advice and relevant websites were searched for neuroscience resources. Subsequently, a single lesson plan was created comprising of four hands-on activities. The activities were devised in a top-down manner, beginning with learning about the brain as an entity, before focusing on individual neurons. Students were asked to label a ‘brain map’ to assess prior knowledge of brain structure and function. They viewed animal brains and created ‘pipe-cleaner neurons’ which were later used to depict electrical transmission. The same session was delivered by an undergraduate student to 570 key stage 2 (KS2) pupils across five schools in Leeds, UK. Post-session surveys, designed for teachers and pupils respectively, were used to evaluate the session. Children in all year groups had relatively poor knowledge of brain structure and function at the beginning of the session. When asked to label four brain regions with their respective functions, older pupils labeled a mean of 1.5 (± 1.0) brain regions compared to 0.8 (± 0.96) for younger pupils (p=0.002). However, by the end of the session, 95% of pupils felt their knowledge of the brain had increased. Hands-on activities were rated most popular by pupils and were considered the most successful aspect of the session by teachers. Although only half the teachers were aware of neuroscience educational resources, nearly all (95%) felt they would have more confidence in teaching a similar session in the future. All teachers felt the session was engaging and that the content could be linked to the current curriculum. Thus, a short fifty-minute session can successfully enhance pupils’ knowledge of a new topic: the brain. Partnerships with an undergraduate student can provide an alternative method for supplementing teacher knowledge, increasing their confidence in delivering future lessons on the nervous system.

Keywords: Education, Neuroscience, primary school, undergraduate

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3 Effectiveness of the Model in the Development of Teaching Materials for Malay Language in Primary Schools in Singapore

Authors: Salha Mohamed Hussain


As part of the review on the Malay Language curriculum and pedagogy in Singapore conducted in 2010, some recommendations were made to nurture active learners who are able to use the Malay Language efficiently in their daily lives. In response to the review, a new Malay Language teaching and learning package for primary school, called CEKAP (Cungkil – Elicit; Eksplorasi – Exploration; Komunikasi – Communication; Aplikasi – Application; Penilaian – Assessment), was developed from 2012 and implemented for Primary 1 in all primary schools from 2015. Resources developed in this package include the text book, activity book, teacher’s guide, big books, small readers, picture cards, flash cards, a game kit and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) resources. The development of the CEKAP package is continuous until 2020. This paper will look at a model incorporated in the development of the teaching materials in the new Malay Language Curriculum for Primary Schools and the rationale for each phase of development to ensure that the resources meet the needs of every pupil in the teaching and learning of Malay Language in the primary schools. This paper will also focus on the preliminary findings of the effectiveness of the model based on the feedback given by members of the working and steering committees. These members are academicians and educators who were appointed by the Ministry of Education to provide professional input on the soundness of pedagogical approach proposed in the revised syllabus and to make recommendations on the content of the new instructional materials. Quantitative data is derived from the interviews held with these members to gather their input on the model. Preliminary findings showed that the members provided positive feedback on the model and that the comprehensive process has helped to develop good and effective instructional materials for the schools. Some recommendations were also gathered from the interview sessions. This research hopes to provide useful information to those involved in the planning of materials development for teaching and learning.

Keywords: Materials Development, model, primary school, Malay language

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2 Teacher's Gender and Primary School Pupils Achievement in Social Studies and Its Educational Implications on Pupils

Authors: Elizabeth Oyenike Abegunrin


This study is borne out of the dire need to improve the academic achievement of pupils in social studies. The paper attempted to reconcile the lacuna in teacher’s gender and primary school pupils’ achievement. With specific reference to Social Studies classroom, the aim of this study was to detail how pupils’ achievement is a function of the teacher’s gender as well as to establish the link (if any) between teacher’s gender and pupils’ educational achievement. The significance of this was to create gender-template standard for teachers, school owners, administrators and policy makers to follow in the course of engendering pupils’ achievement in Social Studies. By adopting a quasi-experimental research design, a sample of two hundred pupils was selected across five primary schools in Education District I, Lagos State and assigned to experimental and control groups. A 40-item Gender and Social Studies Achievement Test (GSSAT) was used to obtain data from the pupils. Having analyzed the data collected using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC), a reliability of 0.78 was obtained. Result revealed that teacher’s gender (male/female) had no significant effect on pupils’ achievement in Social Studies and that there was significant interaction effect of teacher’s commitment devoid of gender on the general education output of pupils in Social Studies. Taken together, the results revealed that there is a high degree correlation between teacher’s commitment and pupils academic achievement in social studies, and not gender-based. The study recommended that social studies teachers should re-assess their classroom instructional strategies and use more innovative instructional methods and techniques that will give the pupils equal opportunities to excel in social studies, rather than their gender differences.

Keywords: Gender, Social Studies, Academic Achievement, primary school

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1 Modelling the Effect of Physical Environment Factors on Child Pedestrian Severity Collisions in Malaysia: A Multinomial Logistic Regression Analysis

Authors: Muhamad N. Borhan, Nur S. Darus, Siti Z. Ishak, Rozmi Ismail, Siti F. M. Razali


Children are at the greater risk to be involved in road traffic collisions due to the complex interaction of various elements in our transportation system. It encompasses interactions between the elements of children and driver behavior along with physical and social environment factors. The present study examined the effect between the collisions severity and physical environment factors on child pedestrian collisions. The severity of collisions is categorized into four injury outcomes: fatal, serious injury, slight injury, and damage. The sample size comprised of 2487 cases of child pedestrian-vehicle collisions in which children aged 7 to 12 years old was involved in Malaysia for the years 2006-2015. A multinomial logistic regression was applied to establish the effect between severity levels and physical environment factors. The results showed that eight contributing factors influence the probability of an injury road surface material, traffic system, road marking, control type, lighting condition, type of location, land use and road surface condition. Understanding the effect of physical environment factors may contribute to the improvement of physical environment design and decrease the collision involvement.

Keywords: Collisions, road injuries, primary school, child pedestrian

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