Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

primary health care Related Abstracts

11 Impact of a Training Course in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation for Primary Care Professionals

Authors: Luiz Ernani Meira Jr., Antônio Prates Caldeira, Gilson Gabriel Viana Veloso, Jackson Andrade

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Background: In Brazil, primary health care (PHC) system has developed with multidisciplinary teams in facilities located in peripheral areas, as the entrance doors for all patients. So, professionals must be prepared to deal with patients with simple and complex problems. Objective: To evaluate the knowledge and the skills of physicians and nurses of PHC on cardiorespiratory arrest (CRA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) before and after training in Basic Life Support. Methods: This is a before-and-after study developed in a Simulation Laboratory in Montes Claros, Brazil. We included physicians and nurses randomly chosen from PHC services. Written tests on CRA and CPR were carried out and performances in a CPR simulation were evaluated, based on the American Heart Association recommendations. Training practices were performed using special manikins. Statistical analysis included Wilcoxon’s test to compare before and after scores. Results: Thirty-two professionals were included. Only 38% had previous courses and updates on emergency care. Most of professionals showed poor skills to attend to CRA in a simulated situation. Subjects showed an increased in knowledge and skills about CPR after training (p-value=0.003). Conclusion: Primary health care professionals must be continuously trained to assist urgencies and emergencies, like CRA.

Keywords: Emergency, Cardiorespiratory, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, primary health care, professional training

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10 The Management of Care by People with Type 2 Diabetes versus the Professional Care at Primary Health Care in Brazil

Authors: Nunila Ferreira de Oliveira, Silvana Martins Mishima

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Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) prevalence, is increasing on the world, in Brazil is considered a public health problem. Treatment focuses on glycemic control depending primarily of lifestyle changes - not drug treatment (NDT), may involve drug therapy (DT) and requires continuous health monitoring. In Brazil this monitoring is performed by the Unified Health System (SUS) through Primary Health Care (PHC), which stimulate people with DM2 empowerment for care management. SUS was approved in 1988 and the PHC operationalization was strengthened with the creation of the Family Health Strategy (FHS) in 1994. Our aim was to analyze the people with DM2 participation in front of the care management health monitoring in the FHS. Qualitative research was carried out through non-participant observation of attendance of 25 people with DM2 in the FHS and interviewed at home. Ethical guidelines were followed. It was found that people with DM2 only follow professionals’ recommendations that make sense according to their own conceptions of health/disease; most of them emphasize the importance of (DT) with little emphasis on the NDT, was found great difficulty in the NDT and lack of knowledge about the disease and care. As regards monitoring the FHS, were observed therapeutic practices based on the bio medical model, although the APS search for another care perspective; NDT is not systematically accompanied by the health team and takes place a few educational activities on the DM2 in the FHS, with low user adoption. The work of the FHS is done by multidisciplinary teams, but we see the need for greater participation of nurses in clinical-care follow-up of this population and may also act in adapting to the NDT. Finally we emphasize the need for professional practices that consider the difficulties to care management by people with DM2, especially because of the NDT. It is noticed that the measures recommended by the FHS professionals are not always developed by people with DM2. We must seek the empowerment of people with DM2 to manage the form of care associated with the FHS team, seeking to reduce the incidence of complications and higher quality of life.

Keywords: Nursing, diabetes mellitus, primary health care, management of care

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9 Sequential Pattern Mining from Data of Medical Record with Sequential Pattern Discovery Using Equivalent Classes (SPADE) Algorithm (A Case Study : Bolo Primary Health Care, Bima)

Authors: Rezky Rifaini, Raden Bagus Fajriya Hakim

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This research was conducted at the Bolo primary health Care in Bima Regency. The purpose of the research is to find out the association pattern that is formed of medical record database from Bolo Primary health care’s patient. The data used is secondary data from medical records database PHC. Sequential pattern mining technique is the method that used to analysis. Transaction data generated from Patient_ID, Check_Date and diagnosis. Sequential Pattern Discovery Algorithms Using Equivalent Classes (SPADE) is one of the algorithm in sequential pattern mining, this algorithm find frequent sequences of data transaction, using vertical database and sequence join process. Results of the SPADE algorithm is frequent sequences that then used to form a rule. It technique is used to find the association pattern between items combination. Based on association rules sequential analysis with SPADE algorithm for minimum support 0,03 and minimum confidence 0,75 is gotten 3 association sequential pattern based on the sequence of patient_ID, check_Date and diagnosis data in the Bolo PHC.

Keywords: Data Mining, Diagnosis, Sequential Pattern Mining, primary health care, medical record, SPADE algorithm

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8 Decreased Non-Communicable Disease by Surveillance, Control, Prevention Systems, and Community Engagement Process in Phayao, Thailand

Authors: Vichai Tienthavorn

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Background: Recently, the patients of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are increasing in Thailand; especially hypertension and diabetes. Hypertension and Diabetes patients were found to be of 3.7 million in 2008. The varieties of human behaviors have been extensively changed in health. Hence, Thai Government has a policy to reduce NCDs. Generally, primary care plays an important role in treatment using medical process. However, NCDs patients have not been decreased. Objectives: This study not only reduce the patient and mortality rate but also increase the quality of life, could apply in different areas and propose to be the national policy, effectively for a long term operation. Methods: Here we report that primary health care (PHC), which is a primary process to screening, rapidly seek the person's risk. The screening tool of the study was Vichai's 7 color balls model, the medical education tool to transfer knowledge from student health team to community through health volunteers, creating community engagement in terms of social participation. It was found that people in community were realized in their health and they can evaluate the level of risk using this model. Results: Projects implementation (2015) in Nong Lom Health Center in Phayao (target group 15-65 years, 2529); screening hypertension coveraged 99.01%, risk group (light green) was decreased to normal group (white) from 1806 to 1893, significant severe patient (red) was decreased to moderate (orange) from 10 to 5. Health Program in behaving change with best practice of 3Es (Eating, Exercise, Emotion) and 3Rs (Reducing tobacco, alcohol, obesity) were applied in risk group; and encourage strictly medication, investigation in severe patient (red). Conclusion: This is the first demonstration of knowledge transfer to community engagement by student, which is the sustainable education in PHC.

Keywords: Community Engagement, primary health care, non-communicable disease, surveillance control and prevention systems

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7 Critical Approach to Define the Architectural Structure of a Health Prototype in a Rural Area of Brazil

Authors: Domenico Chizzoniti, Monica Moscatelli, Letizia Cattani, Luca Preis

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A primary healthcare facility in developing countries should be a multifunctional space able to respond to different requirements: Flexibility, modularity, aggregation and reversibility. These basic features could be better satisfied if applied to an architectural artifact that complies with the typological, figurative and constructive aspects of the context in which it is located. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to identify a procedure that can define the figurative aspects of the architectural structure of the health prototype for the marginal areas of developing countries through a critical approach. The application context is the rural areas of the Northeast of Bahia in Brazil. The prototype should be located in the rural district of Quingoma, in the municipality of Lauro de Freitas, a particular place where there is still a cultural fusion of black and indigenous populations. Based on the historical analysis of settlement strategies and architectural structures in spaces of public interest or collective use, this paper aims to provide a procedure able to identify the categories and rules underlying typological and figurative aspects, in order to detect significant and generalizable elements, as well as materials and constructive techniques typically adopted in the rural areas of Brazil. The object of this work is therefore not only the recovery of certain constructive approaches but also the development of a procedure that integrates the requirements of the primary healthcare prototype with its surrounding economic, social, cultural, settlement and figurative conditions.

Keywords: developing countries, primary health care, architectural typology, local construction techniques

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6 Lessons Learned in Implementing Programs to Delay Diabetic Nephropathy Management in Primary Health Care: Case Study in Sakon Nakhon Province

Authors: Sumattana Glangkarn, Sasiwan Tassana-iem

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Diabetic nephropathy is a major complication in diabetic patients whom as the glomerular filtration rate falls. The affects their quality of life and results in loss of money for kidney replacement therapy costs. There is an existing intervention, but the prevalence remains high, thus this research aims to study lessons learned in implementing programs to delay diabetic nephropathy management in primary health care. Method: The target settings are, 24 sub-district health promoting hospital in Sakon Nakhon province. Participants included the health care professionals, head of the sub-district health promoting hospital and the person responsible for managing diabetic nephropathy in each hospital (n= 50). There are 400 patients with diabetes mellitus in an area. Data were collected using questionnaires, patient records data, interviews and focus groups and analyzed by statistics and content analysis. Result: Reflection of participants that the interventions to delay diabetic nephropathy management in each area, the Ministry of Public Health has a policy to screen and manage this disease. The implementing programs aimed to provide health education, innovative teaching media used in communication to educate. Patients and caregivers had misunderstanding about the actual causes and prevention of this disease and how to apply knowledge suitable for daily life. Conclusion: The obstacles to the success of the implementing programs to delay diabetic nephropathy management in primary health care were most importantly, the patient needs self-care and should be evaluated for health literacy. This is crucial to promote health literacy; to access and understand health information as well to decide their health-related choices based on health information which will promote and maintain a good health. This preliminary research confirms that situation of diabetic nephropathy still exists. The results of this study will lead to the development of delay in diabetic nephropathy implementation among patients in the province studied.

Keywords: Implementation, Chronic kidney disease, Diabetic Nephropathy, primary health care

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5 Fulfillment of Models of Prenatal Care in Adolescents from Mexico and Chile

Authors: Alejandra Sierra, Gloria Valadez, Adriana Dávalos, Mirliana Ramírez

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For years, the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization and other organizations have made efforts to the improve access and the quality of prenatal care as part of comprehensive programs for maternal and neonatal health, the standards of care have been renewed in order to migrate from a medical perspective to a holistic perspective. However, despite the efforts currently antenatal care models have not been verified by a scientific evaluation in order to determine their effectiveness. The teenage pregnancy is considered as a very important phenomenon since it has been strongly associated with inequalities, poverty and the lack of gender quality; therefore it is important to analyze the antenatal care that’s been given, including not only the clinical intervention but also the activities surrounding the advertising and the health education. In this study, the objective was to describe if the previously established activities (on the prenatal care models) are being performed in the care of pregnant teenagers attending prenatal care in health institutions in two cities in México and Chile during 2013. Methods: Observational and descriptive study, of a transversal cohort. 170 pregnant women (13-19 years) were included in prenatal care in two health institutions (100 women from León-Mexico and 70 from Chile-Coquimbo). Data collection: direct survey, perinatal clinical record card which was used as checklists: WHO antenatal care model WHO-2003, Official Mexican Standard NOM-007-SSA2-1993 and Personalized Service Manual on Reproductive Process- Chile Crece Contigo; for data analysis descriptive statistics were used. The project was approved by the relevant ethics committees. Results: Regarding the fulfillment of interventions focused on physical, gynecological exam, immunizations, monitoring signs and biochemical parameters in both groups was met by more than 84%; the activities of guidance and counseling pregnant teenagers in Leon compliance rates were below 50%, on the other hand, although pregnant women in Coquimbo had a higher percentage of compliance, no one reached 100%. The topics that less was oriented were: family planning, signs and symptoms of complications and labor. Conclusions: Although the coverage of the interventions indicated in the prenatal care models was high, there were still shortcomings in the fulfillment of activities to orientation, education and health promotion. Deficiencies in adherence to prenatal care guidelines could be due to different circumstances such as lack of registration or incomplete filling of medical records, lack of medical supplies or health personnel, absences of people at prenatal check-up appointments, among many others. Therefore, studies are required to evaluate the quality of prenatal care and the effectiveness of existing models, considering the role of the different actors (pregnant women, professionals and health institutions) involved in the functionality and quality of prenatal care models, in order to create strategies to design or improve the application of a complete process of promotion and prevention of maternal and child health as well as sexual and reproductive health in general.

Keywords: Health Systems, Adolescent Health, Maternal Health, primary health care

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4 International Classification of Primary Care as a Reference for Coding the Demand for Care in Primary Health Care

Authors: Souhir Chelly, Chahida Harizi, Aicha Hechaichi, Sihem Aissaoui, Leila Ben Ayed, Maha Bergaoui, Mohamed Kouni Chahed

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Introduction: The International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC) is part of the morbidity classification system. It had 17 chapters, and each is coded by an alphanumeric code: the letter corresponds to the chapter, the number to a paragraph in the chapter. The objective of this study is to show the utility of this classification in the coding of the reasons for demand for care in Primary health care (PHC), its advantages and limits. Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in 4 PHC in Ariana district. Data on the demand for care during 2 days in the same week were collected. The coding of the information was done according to the CISP. The data was entered and analyzed by the EPI Info 7 software. Results: A total of 523 demands for care were investigated. The patients who came for the consultation are predominantly female (62.72%). Most of the consultants are young with an average age of 35 ± 26 years. In the ICPC, there are 7 rubrics: 'infections' is the most common reason with 49.9%, 'other diagnoses' with 40.2%, 'symptoms and complaints' with 5.5%, 'trauma' with 2.1%, 'procedures' with 2.1% and 'neoplasm' with 0.3%. The main advantage of the ICPC is the fact of being a standardized tool. It is very suitable for classification of the reasons for demand for care in PHC according to their specificity, capacity to be used in a computerized medical file of the PHC. Its current limitations are related to the difficulty of classification of some reasons for demand for care. Conclusion: The ICPC has been developed to provide healthcare with a coding reference that takes into account their specificity. The CIM is in its 10th revision; it would gain from revision to revision to be more efficient to be generalized and used by the teams of PHC.

Keywords: Tunisia, primary health care, international classification of primary care, medical file

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3 Demand for Care in Primary Health Care in the Governorate of Ariana: Results of a Survey in Ariana Primary Health Care and Comparison with the Last 30 Years

Authors: Chelly Souhir, Harizi Chahida, Hachaichi Aicha, Aissaoui Sihem, Chahed Mohamed Kouni

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Introduction: In Tunisia, few studies have attempted to describe the demand for primary care in a standardized and systematic way. The purpose of this study is to describe the main reasons for demand for care in primary health care, through a survey of the Ariana Governorate PHC and to identify their evolutionary trend compared to last 30 years, reported by studies of the same type. Materials and methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study which concerns the study of consultants in the first line of the governorate of Ariana and their use of care recorded during 2 days in the same week during the month of May 2016, in each of these PHC. The same data collection sheet was used in all CSBs. The coding of the information was done according to the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC). The data was entered and analyzed by the EPI Info 7 software. Results: Our study found that the most common ICPC chapters are respiratory (42%) and digestive (13.2%). In 1996 were the respiratory (43.5%) and circulatory (7.8%). In 2000, we found also the respiratory (39,6%) and circulatory (10,9%). In 2002, respiratory (43%) and digestive (10.1%) motives were the most frequent. According to the ICPC, the pathologies in our study were acute angina (19%), acute bronchitis and bronchiolitis (8%). In 1996, it was tonsillitis ( 21.6%) and acute bronchitis (7.2%). For Ben Abdelaziz in 2000, tonsillitis (14.5%) follow by acute bronchitis (8.3%). In 2002, acute angina (15.7%), acute bronchitis and bronchiolitis (11.2%) were the most common. Conclusion: Acute angina and tonsillitis are the most common in all studies conducted in Tunisia.

Keywords: Tunisia, primary health care, acute angina, classification of primary care, tonsillitis

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2 Challenges of Outreach Team Leaders in Managing Ward Based Primary Health Care Outreach Teams in National Health Insurance Pilot Districts in Kwazulu-Natal

Authors: E. M. Mhlongo, E. Lutge

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In 2010, South Africa’s National Department of Health (NDoH) launched national primary health care (PHC) initiative to strengthen health promotion, disease prevention, and early disease detection. The strategy, called Re-engineering Primary Health Care (rPHC), aims to support a preventive and health-promoting community-based PHC model by using community-based outreach teams (known in South Africa as Ward-based Primary Health Care Outreach teams or WBPHCOTs). These teams provide health education, promote healthy behaviors, assess community health needs, manage minor health problems, and support linkages to health services and health facilities. Ward based primary health care outreach teams are supervised by a professional nurse who is the outreach team leader. In South Africa, the WBPHCOTs have been established, registered, and are reporting their activities in the District Health Information System (DHIS). This study explored and described the challenges faced by outreach team leaders in supporting and supervising the WBPHCOTs. Qualitative data were obtained through interviews conducted with the outreach team leaders at a sub-district level. Thematic analysis of data was done. Findings revealed some challenges faced by team leaders in day to day execution of their duties. Issues such as staff shortages, inadequate resources to carry out health promotion activities, and lack of co-operation from team members may undermine the capacity of team leaders to support and supervise the WBPHCOTs. Many community members are under the impression that the outreach team is responsible for bringing the clinic to the community while the outreach teams do not carry any medication/treatment with them when doing home visits. The study further highlights issues around the challenges of WBPHCOTs at a household level. In conclusion, the WBPHCOTs are an important component of National Health Insurance (NHI), and in order for NHI to be optimally implemented, the issues raised in this research should be addressed with some urgency.

Keywords: primary health care, national health insurance, community health worker, ward-based primary health care outreach teams

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1 Challenges to Quality Primary Health Care in Saudi Arabia and Potential Improvements Implemented by Other Systems

Authors: Abdullah AlMutairi, Hilal Al Shamsi

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Introduction: As primary healthcare centres play an important role in implementing Saudi Arabia’s health strategy, this paper offers a review of publications on the quality of the country’s primary health care. With the aim of deciding on solutions for improvement, it provides an overview of healthcare quality in this context and indicates barriers to quality. Method: Using two databases, ProQuest and Scopus, data extracted from published articles were systematically analysed for determining the care quality in Saudi primary health centres and obstacles to achieving higher quality. Results: Twenty-six articles met the criteria for inclusion in this review. The components of healthcare quality were examined in terms of the access to and effectiveness of interpersonal and clinical care. Good access and effective care were identified in such areas as maternal health care and the control of epidemic diseases, whereas poor access and effectiveness of care were shown for chronic disease management programmes, referral patterns (in terms of referral letters and feedback reports), health education and interpersonal care (in terms of language barriers). Several factors were identified as barriers to high-quality care. These included problems with evidence-based practice implementation, professional development, the use of referrals to secondary care and organisational culture. Successful improvements have been implemented by other systems, such as mobile medical units, electronic referrals, online translation tools and mobile devices and their applications; these can be implemented in Saudi Arabia for improving the quality of the primary healthcare system in this country. Conclusion: The quality of primary health care in Saudi Arabia varies among the different services. To improve quality, management programmes and organisational culture must be promoted in primary health care. Professional development strategies are also needed for improving the skills and knowledge of healthcare professionals. Potential improvements can be implemented to improve the quality of the primary health system.

Keywords: Quality, Saudi Arabia, primary health care, health centres, general medical

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