Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 67

Prevalence Related Abstracts

67 Deformed Wing Virus and Varroa Destructor in the Local Honey Bee Colonies Apis mellifera intermissa in Algeria

Authors: Noureddine Adjlane, Nizar Haddad

Abstract:

Deformed Wing Virus (DWV) is considered as the most prevalent virus that dangerous the honeybee health worldwide today. In this study we aimed to evaluate the impact of the virus on honeybees (Apis mellifera intermissa) mortality in Algeria and we conducted the study on samples collected from the central area in the country. We used PCR for the diagnoses of the (DWV) in the diagnosis. The results had shown a high infestation in the sampled colonies and it represented 42% of the total sample. In this study, we found a clear role of both Varroa destructor mite and DWV on hive mortality in the experimented apiary. Further studies need to be conducted in order to give soled recommendations to the beekeepers, decision makers and stockholders of the Algerian beekeeping sector.

Keywords: Mortality, Prevalence, honey bee, DWV, Varroa destructor, infestation

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66 Computational Methods in Official Statistics with an Example on Calculating and Predicting Diabetes Mellitus [DM] Prevalence in Different Age Groups within Australia in Future Years, in Light of the Aging Population

Authors: D. Hilton

Abstract:

An analysis of the Australian Diabetes Screening Study estimated undiagnosed diabetes mellitus [DM] prevalence in a high risk general practice based cohort. DM prevalence varied from 9.4% to 18.1% depending upon the diagnostic criteria utilised with age being a highly significant risk factor. Utilising the gold standard oral glucose tolerance test, the prevalence of DM was 22-23% in those aged >= 70 years and <15% in those aged 40-59 years. Opportunistic screening in Australian general practice potentially can identify many persons with undiagnosed type 2 DM. An Australian Bureau of Statistics document published three years ago, reported the highest rate of DM in men aged 65-74 years [19%] whereas the rate for women was highest in those over 75 years [13%]. If you consider that the Australian Bureau of Statistics report in 2007 found that 13% of the population was over 65 years of age and that this will increase to 23-25% by 2056 with a further projected increase to 25-28% by 2101, obviously this information has to be factored into the equation when age related diabetes prevalence predictions are calculated. This 10-15% proportional increase of elderly persons within the population demographics has dramatic implications for the estimated number of elderly persons with DM in these age groupings. Computational methodology showing the age related demographic changes reported in these official statistical documents will be done showing estimates for 2056 and 2101 for different age groups. This has relevance for future diabetes prevalence rates and shows that along with many countries worldwide Australia is facing an increasing pandemic. In contrast Japan is expected to have a decrease in the next twenty years in the number of persons with diabetes.

Keywords: Aging, diabetes mellitus, Epidemiological Methods, Prevalence

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65 Predictors of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Egyptian Obese Adolescents

Authors: Moushira Zaki, Wafaa Ezzat, Yasser Elhosary, Omnia Saleh

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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased in conjunction with obesity. The accuracy of risk factors for detecting NAFLD in obese adolescents has not undergone a formal evaluation. The aim of this study was to evaluate predictors of NAFLD among Egyptian female obese adolescents. The study included 162 obese female adolescents. All were subjected to anthropometry, biochemical analysis and abdominal ultrasongraphic assessment. Metabolic syndrome (MS) was diagnosed according to the IDF criteria. Significant association between presence of MS and NAFLD was observed. Obese adolescents with NAFLD had significantly higher levels of ALT, triglycerides, fasting glucose, insulin, blood pressure and HOMA-IR, whereas decreased HDL-C levels as compared with obese cases without NAFLD. Receiver–operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis shows that ALT is a sensitive predictor for NAFLD, confirming that ALT can be used as a marker of NAFLD.

Keywords: Obesity, Adolescents, Risk Factors, Prevalence, NAFLD, predictors, Egyptians

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64 Prevalence and Fungicidal Activity of Endophytic Micromycetes of Plants in Kazakhstan

Authors: Togzhan D. Mukasheva, Anel A. Omirbekova, Ramza Zh. Berzhanova, Lyudmila V. Ignatova, Yelena V. Brazhnikova

Abstract:

Endophytic microorganisms are presented in plants of different families growing in the foothills and piedmont plains of Trans-Ili Alatau. It was found that the maximum number of endophytic micromycetes is typical to the Fabaceae family. The number of microscopic fungi in the roots reached (145.9±5.9)×103 CFU/g of plant tissue; yeasts - (79.8±3.5)×102 CFU/g of plant tissue. Basically, endophytic microscopic fungi are typical for underground parts of plants. In contrast, yeasts more infected aboveground parts of plants. Small amount of micromycetes is typical to inflorescence and fruits. Antagonistic activity of selected micromycetes against Fusarium graminearum, Cladosporium sp., Phytophtora infestans and Botrytis cinerea phytopathogens was detected. Strains with a broad, narrow and limited range of action were identified. For further investigations Rh2 and T7 strains were selected, they are characterized by a broad spectrum of fungicidal activity and they formed the large inhibition zones against phytopathogens. Active antagonists are attributed to the Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Beauveria bassiana species.

Keywords: Plants, Prevalence, endophytic micromycetes, fungicidal activity

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63 Progression Rate, Prevalence, Incidence of Black Band Disease on Stony (Scleractinia) in Barranglompo Island, South Sulawesi

Authors: Baso Hamdani, Arniati Massinai, Jamaluddin Jompa

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Coral diseases are one of the factors affect reef degradation. This research had analysed the progression rate, incidence, and prevalence of Black Band Disease (BBD) on stony coral (Pachyseris sp.) in relation to the environmental parameters (pH, nitrate, phospate, Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM), and turbidity). The incidence of coral disease was measured weekly for 6 weeks using Belt Transect Method. The progression rate of BBD was measured manually. Furthermore, the prevalence and incidence of BBD were calculated each colonies infected. The relationship between environmental parameters and the progression rate, prevalence and incidence of BBD was analysed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The results showed the average of progression rate is 0,07 ± 0,02 cm/ hari. The prevalence of BBD increased from 0,92% - 19,73% in 7 weeks observation with the average incidence of new infected colonies coral 0,2 - 0,65 colony/day The environment factors which important were pH, Nitrate, Phospate, DOM, and Turbidity.

Keywords: Prevalence, progression rate, incidence, Black Band Disease, Barranglompo

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62 Prevalence of Polypharmacy in Elderly Cardiac Patients at King Fahad Cardiac Center (KFCC) in King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Mohamed N. Al-Arifi, Hessa Othman Al-Husein, Mostafa Q. Al Shamiri, Ragab Said, Syed Wajid, Salmeen D. Babelghaith

Abstract:

Polypharmacy was defined as a taking more than 4 medications per single patients (minor polypharmacy), patients who are taking more than 10 medications we considered as a major polypharmacy. This study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of polypharmacy in elderly Saudi cardiac patient. A retrospective observational study was carried out at the department of CCU and cardiology unit of the King Fahad cardiac centre (KFCC) in King Khalid university hospital from May 2012 to October 2012. All Parameters was analyzed by using Statistical Packages for Social Science (SPSS) to conclude the result; tests of association were performed using the chi-square statistic. The mean age of patients was 70.1 ± 7.75 years, more than half 83 (51.6%) were males. The highest frequency of chronic diseases found were hypertension (91.0%) followed by, dyslipidemia (74.9%), and diabetes mellitus. Results showed that 82% had polypharmacy (>4 drugs) during the study period, and 47.9% had major polypharmacy. The incidence of inappropriate drug use was found to be higher with men than female (p = 0.984). In conclusion, this study revealed that high prevalence of polypharmacy and potentially inappropriate medications in elderly Saudi cardiac inpatients.

Keywords: medications, Polypharmacy, Prevalence, cardiac inpatients

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61 The Epidemiological Study on Prevalence of Giardia lamblia among Children in Esfahan City of Iran

Authors: Shahla Rostamirad

Abstract:

Purpose: Giardiasis is a widespread infection in humans caused by Giardia lamblia. The prevalence of this parasite among children in Isfahan of Iran is unknown. This study intended to estimate Giardia lamblia infection prevalence and identify possible associated risk factors in a healthy pediatric population living in the Isfahan, a metropolitan city of Iran. Methods: Between September 2010 and March 2012, 1448 stool sample from children with clinical manifestation that refer to clinical lab in Isfahan city for stool examination were collected and analyzed. About 1218 samples were positive for parasitic disease. All of samples were examined and diagnosed by direct examination and formalin-ether concentration of stools. Results: A total of 1218 positive cases were analyzed in this study. The findings showed that 92.5% of patients were infected by protozoa and 7.5 percent with helminth infection. The highest and lowest rate of infection belongs to Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica with 75% and 1.1%, respectively. Other infection cases were included of Blastocystys hominis 9.9%, E. coli 6.5%, H. nana 1.3%, Enterobious vermicolaris 4% and Ascaris lumbricoides 2.2% percent. The population studied revealed a gender distribution of 53.2% male and 46.8% female. Age distribution was 57.3% between 0-5 years and 42.7% between 6-15 years.The prevalence was higher among children aged 0-5 years (57.8%), than among older children (42.2%). Conclusion: The prevalence of protozoan parasite, especially Giardiasis, in children residing in the region of Isfahan is high. Several risk factors were associated with this prevalence and highlight the importance of parents' education and sanitation conditions in the children's well being. The association between Giardia lamblia and H. pylori seems an important issue deserving further investigation in order to promote prevention or treatment strategies. Other risk factor include presence of Helicobacter pylori infection, living in houses with own drainage system and reported household, pet contact, especially with cat and dog.

Keywords: Children, Risk Factors, Prevalence, Iran, Giardia duodenalis, Isfahan

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60 Increasing Prevalence of CVD and Its Risk Factors in India: A Review

Authors: Deepa Shokeen, Bani Tamber Aeri

Abstract:

Non-communicable diseases in general and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in particular are a big cause of concern worldwide especially in fast growing economy like India. CVD is one of the leading causes of deaths in India. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease are now significant in all populations. At least one-third of all CVD is attributable to five risk factors: tobacco use, alcohol use, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and obesity. Methods: This article aspires to collate data gathered by relevant studies conducted after year 2000 and provide an overview of the prevalence of CVD in India and worldwide. Results: Studies show an increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in India as compared to other developing and developed countries with recent trends showing incidence in younger age group. It is seen to affect almost all sections of the society from young to old and most affluent to least affluent. High blood pressure, high cholesterol, tobacco and alcohol use, as well as low vegetable and fruit intake, already figure among the top risk factors. Conclusion: The prevalence of risk factors associated with CVD has increased and will keep on increasing in India as indicated by studies in the last decade and as predicted by the projections for future estimates. Some major risks are modifiable in that they can be prevented, treated, and controlled. There are considerable health benefits at all ages, for both men and women, in stopping smoking, reducing cholesterol and blood pressure, eating a healthy diet and increasing physical activity.

Keywords: Cardiovascular Disease, India, Risk Factors, Prevalence

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59 Exploring the Food Environments and Their Influence on Food Choices of Working Adults

Authors: Deepa Shokeen, Bani Tamber Aeri

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Food environments are believed to play a significant role in the obesity epidemic and robust research methods are required to establish which factors or aspects of the food environment are relevant to food choice and to adiposity. The relationship between the food environment and obesity is complex. While there is little research linking food access with obesity as an outcome measure in any age group, with the help of this article we will try to understand the relationship between what we eat and the environmental context in which these food choices are made. Methods: A literature search of studies published between January 2000 and December 2013 was undertaken on computerized medical, social science, health, nutrition and education databases including Google, PubMed etc. Reports of organisations such as World Health Organisation (WHO), Centre for Chronic Disease Control (CCDC) were studied to project the data. Results: Studies show that food environments play a significant role in the obesity epidemic and robust research methods are required to establish which factors or aspects of the food environment are relevant to food choice and to adiposity. Evidence indicates that the food environment may help explain the obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors among young adults. Conclusion: Cardiovascular disease is the ever growing chronic disease, the incidence of which will increase markedly in the coming decades. Therefore, it is the need of the hour to assess the prevalence of various risk factors that contribute to the incidence of cardiovascular diseases especially in the work environment. Research is required to establish how different environments affect different individuals as individuals interact with the environment on a number of levels. We need to ascertain the impact of selected food and nutrition environments (Information, organization, community, consumer) on food choice and dietary intake of the working adults as it is important to learn how these food environments influence the eating perceptions and health behaviour of the adults.

Keywords: Cardiovascular Disease, India, Food Environment, Risk Factors, Prevalence, worksite

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58 Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome According to Different Criteria in Population over 20 Years Old in Ahvaz

Authors: Armaghan Moravej Aleali, Seyed Mahmoud Latifi, Hajieh Shahbazian, Leila Yazdanpanah

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Objective: Metabolic syndrome or insulin resistance syndrome or syndrome X is a collection of abdominal obesity, hypertension, glucose intolerance and lipid abnormalities (elevated triglycerides, elevated LDL, and decrease the amount of HDL). That increases the incidence of diabetes and risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in people over 20 years of Ahvaz according to IDF, ATPIII, Harmonized I and Harmonized II. Material & Methods: A cross-sectional study with a random cluster sampling in six health centers in Ahvaz was done. After obtaining informed consent, questionnaire for each person filled up including demographic data and examinations, including blood pressure in sitting position, weight, height, waist circumference, and waist circumference measurement. Results: From all participating 912 people, (434 (2/47%) male and 478 (2/52%) female) were evaluated. Mean age was 42/27± 14years (44/2±14/26 for male and 40/5±13/5 for female). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22/8%, 28/4%, 30/9% and 16/9% according to ATPIII, IDF, Harmonized I and Harmonized II criteria respectively and increased with age in both sexes. IDF and Harmonized I had most kappa coordination (0/94). Conclusion: The results show a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Ahvaz. So, identification of the risk factors should be attempted to prevent metabolic syndrome.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, Prevalence, IDF, ATP III

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57 Prevalence, Awareness, and Risk Factors of Diabetes in Ahvaz: South West of Iran

Authors: Armaghan Moravej Aleali, Seyed Mahmoud Latifi, Hajieh Shahbazian, Leila Yazdanpanah, Saeed Ghanbari

Abstract:

Introduction: This study was designed to determine the prevalence of diabetes in people aged over 20 years in Ahvaz, Iran. Material and Methods: The study population selected by cluster sampling. Fasting blood sugar (FBS) assessed after minimum 8 hours night fasting. A questionnaire included: age, sex, weight, height, blood pressure, waist circumference and previous history of diabetes were completed for each patient. FBS≥126mg/dl and/or oral hypoglycemic treatment and/or insulin was defined as diabetes, FBS=100-125 mg/dl as impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and FBS<100mg/dl as normal. Results: Study population was 936 persons (47.2 % male and 52.8% female). The mean age of a population was 42.2±14 years. Diabetes was detected in 15.1 % of population. Only 57cases(6.1%) were aware of their disease and 9% had unknown diabetes. Diabetes was detected in 14.5% of male (11.3% unknown and 3.2 % known diabetes) and in 11.7% of female (7% unknown and 4.7% known diabetes). Prevalence of diabetes had no significant difference (P=0.21) in male and female but unknown diabetes was significantly higher in male (P=0.025). Prevalence of diabetes was increased with rising of age between 20-60 years old but decreasing after 60 years old. Diabetes was related to age, waist circumference and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, TG level and BMI in both sex (P=0.0001). Conclusion: More than half of female and three-fourth of male diabetic patients are unaware of their disease in South of Iran. Diabetes screening should be intensified in this population.

Keywords: Diabetes, awareness, Prevalence, risk factor

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56 Resons for Seeking Dental Care, Caries Profile and Treatment Need of Children in Tabuk, KSA

Authors: Syed Ameer Haider Jafri, Mariam Amri

Abstract:

Dental caries is the most prevalent dental disease of childhood. The aims and objectives of this study were to identify the most common reason for seeking dental treatment and to determine caries profile and there is a treatment need in children visiting the hospital. A total of 170 Saudi children of age 1-5 years studied. Results show the most common reason for visiting hospital was decay followed by pain. These children show mean DMFT/DMFS of 9.8/22.4 and most commonly needed treatment was one-surface restoration followed by pulp treatment.

Keywords: Dental Caries, Prevalence, DMFT/DMFS index, dental treatment need

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55 Identifying Future Helminth Zoonotic in Indonesian Slow Loris (Nycticebus coucang)

Authors: Nafisatul Ulfa, Elok Budi Retnani, R. P. Agus Lelana

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Emerging zoonotic parasite infection could originate in wildlife so its time very important to identify zoonotic agents in wild populations or maintained. According to the International Union Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Sumateran slow loris (Nycticebus coucang) was protected primate which have vulnerable status. Their population in wildlife decreased cause hunting for trade and destroy habitat. Helminthiasis can caused dead regularly and its so The study was conducted to know prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infection of slow loris (Nycticebus coucang) in The Centre of Primate Rehabilitation of International Animal Rescue Indonesia (YIARI). Total of 13 fecal sampel from captive group of Nycticebus coucang were collected for 6 days and analysed from Februari-Mei 2014 by using McMaster, flotasion and Baermann technique. All fecal sampel was examined based on its fecal pool. Out of 13 fecal sampel examined, all of sampel (100%) was infected with five types of helminth Ascaris (84,61%), Hymenolepis (76,92%), Strongylid (61,54%), Oxyurid (15,38%) dan Trichuris (7,69%). The average number of egg per gram (EPG) was 11-1810.

Keywords: Parasite, Prevalence, fecal, helminth, Nycticebus coucang, slow loris

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54 Patterns of Self-Medication with Over-the-Counter Pain Relievers (Acetaminophen, Ibuprofen, and Aspirin) among the Kuwaiti Population

Authors: Nabil Ahmed Kamal Badawy, Ali Falah Alhajraf, Mawaheb Falah Alsamdan

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Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of self-medication with over-the-counter pain relievers (acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and aspirin) among Kuwaiti citizens above the age of 16 years old and describe their patterns of use, perceived awareness of, and concerns about the drugs’ potential side effects. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey. Setting: Samples were selected from the six Kuwaiti governorates. Subjects: The data were collected over a four-month period in 2012, from 850 subjects who identified as Kuwaiti citizens. These subjects were recruited using stratified random sampling. Results: Overall, a 67% response rate was obtained. In total, 68% (573) of the respondents reported the use of over-the-counter pain relievers. Women, middle-aged or single individuals, and those who had completed higher education used these drugs more than any other subgroup (p<0.05). We found evidence of inappropriate use of these drugs, with 15% (88) of the consumers using them almost daily. Further, 19% (111) of the consumers exceeded the recommended dosage at least once. Not only were 81% of the consumers unaware of the potential side effects, but also more than 61% were not concerned about them. Women were more knowledgeable than men regarding the maximum dose (p=0.036, OR 1.49, CI 1.03–2.17). Consumers with higher levels of education did not show distinct knowledge regarding the maximum allowed dose of the drugs (p=0.252, OR 1.71, CI 0.68-4.25). Conclusion: The results showed a high prevalence of self-medication with over-the-counter pain relievers among Kuwaiti citizens. The subjects showed marked unawareness and a lack of concern regarding the potential complications resulting from the inappropriate use of these analgesics. This demonstrates the need for educational interventions directed toward both patients and health care workers.

Keywords: Prevalence, awareness of side effects, concern, patterns of use

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53 The Prevalence of Verocytotoxin-Producing Escherichia Coli O157 (VTEC) in Dairy Cattle in Tripoli Area, Libya

Authors: Imad Buishi, Almabrouk Fares, Hallowma Helmi

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Infection with verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 in humans can lead to mild or bloody diarrhea with the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) as a possible complication. Cattle appear to be important reservoirs for VTEC O157. Epidemiologic studies on the prevalence of VTEC O157 in dairy cattle in Libya have never been conducted. To investigate the prevalence and the risk factors associated with VTEC O157 on dairy farms in Tripoli region, fecal samples from 200 apparently healthy cows were collected once from 15 randomly selected dairy farms in the period July 2010 through September 2010. All fecal samples were examined for the prevalence of VTEC O157 by conventional plating using Sorbitol-MacConkey agar (SMAC). Isolated of E. coli were subjected to slide agglutination test using E. coli O157 antiserum. The results pointed out that the prevalence within-herd and among herds were 9% and 60% respectively. The prevalence of VTEC O157 in fecal samples of dairy cattle was significantly associated with husbandry practices on farm-level such as signs of diarrhoea (p=0.02, OR=3.2) and sharing water trough (p= 0.03, OR=3.0). It was concluded that dairy cattle in Tripoli area are important reservoirs of VTEC O157 strains that are potentially pathogenic for humans. When aiming at reducing risks for human by intervention at farm-level, it is of importance to reduce the number of positive animals and farms. For this, more research is needed to devise mitigation strategies that will reduce the on-farm contamination of VTEC O157.

Keywords: Dairy Cattle, Prevalence, VTEC O157, tripoli

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52 Studies on the Prevalence and Determination of Associated Risk Factors of Babesia in Goats of District Toba Tek Singh, Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Tauseef-ur-Rehman, Rao Zahid Abbas, Wasim Babar, Arbab Sikandar

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Babesiosis is an infection due to the multiplication of tick borne parasite, Babesia sp., in erythrocytes of host (variety of vertebrates) including small ruminants and is responsible for decreased livestock output and hence economic losses. A cross-sectional study was designed in order to evaluate the prevalence of Babesia and its relation with various associated factors in district Toba Tek Singh, Central Punjab, Pakistan in 2009-2010. A total 10.84% (50/461) out of 461 examined cases for Babesia were found positive for Babesia infection. Month-wise peak prevalence was observed in July (17.95%), while no positive case was recorded in Dec-2009 and Jan-2010. The prevalence of infection in different goat breeds was found as non-significant (P < 0.05) for Babesia infection. The prevalence of Babesia was found significantly (P < 0.05) dependent to the goat age and sex. The feeding system, housing system, floor type and herd size revealed strong correlation with Babesia prevalence, while watering system and body conditions were found to be non-significant (P < 0.05), and hence it is suggested that with the improvement of management precautions Babesiosis can be avoided.

Keywords: Pakistan, Goat, Risk Factors, Prevalence, Babesia

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51 Prevalence and Distribution of Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (Vtec) Non-O157 Serotypes in Cattle in Abuja, Nigeria

Authors: S. I. Enem, S. I. Oboegbulem

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Objective: The most frequently implicated E. coli serotype causing haemorrhagic colitis and haemorrhagic uraemic syndrome (HUS) is VTEC 0157. However, non-O157 VTEC is now known to be as prevalent as VETC O157 infection (or even more) in most parts of the world. The objective of the study was to establish the occurrence of non-O157 VTEC serotypes in cattle in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja, Nigeria. The level of significance of the infection with sex, age and season were also tested. Methods: The study was carried out in the FCT, Abuja, Nigeria which is located between latitude 8o and 90 25` North of the equator and longitude 60 45` and 7045` East of the Greenwich meridian. The cross sectional epidemiological method and multi-staged sampling technique were used in this study. Samples were collected from the freshly voided faeces of both apparently healthy and diarrhoeic cattle in selected abattoirs and cattle herds. Enriched samples were analyzed bacteriologically and biochemically after which they were characterised using commercially prepared latex agglutination test kits. Results: A total of 718 faecal samples from cattle were analyzed for the presence of VTEC non-O157. Thirty eight (5.23%) were positive for non-O157. There was no significant association (p > 0.05) between sex and infection with non-O157 VTEC in cattle. There was a significant association (P < 0.05) between age and infection with non-O157 VTEC in cattle. Calves were more associated than the adults. There was also a significant association (P < 0.05) between season and infection with non-O157 VTEC in cattle. The dry season was more associated than the wet season. Conclusion: The study established the occurrence and prevalence of non-O157 VTEC in cattle in FCT, Abuja, Nigeria. As a major food animal in Nigeria, infection in cattle provides an epidemiological causal association to the infection in humans. The result showed that warmer seasons (dry season) stimulate the presence of VTEC infection in animals and thus, as a consequence, increases the number of human cases. The prevalence was also higher in younger calves (< 6 months) probably as a result of undeveloped immune system.

Keywords: Distribution, Cattle, Prevalence, Verocytotoxigenic escherichia coli (VTEC), non-O157 serotypes

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50 Clinical Case Report of Fulminating Leptospirosis in a 4-Months Old Caucasian Dog: Public Health Significance and Ramifications

Authors: N. N. Pilau, M. S. Abubakar, A. Danmaigoro, P. C. Mshelia, Y. Sani

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A severely debilitated 4months old Caucasian male dog presented dehydration, emaciation, vomiting, icteric ocular and oral mucous membranes, generalized lymphadenopathy, hematuria, anorexia and prolonged recumbency. Clinical workup was done in established protocols for diagnosis based on history, clinical signs and selected laboratory tests. Treatment course were administered over 48hours during which the patient died of overwhelming hepatopathy, nephropathy and pneumonia. Postmortem findings supported by ante mortem laboratory test results tentatively diagnosed leptospirosis, a disease endemic and presenting potentially fatal epidemics and zoonoses in some countries amongst the developing regions of the world. This disease is reviewed and a call for attention on the public health significance of the disease is hereby presented through this case report.

Keywords: Prevalence, canine, endemic, leptospirosis

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49 Association between a Forward Lag of Historical Total Accumulated Gasoline Lead Emissions and Contemporary Autism Prevalence Trends in California, USA

Authors: Mark A. S. Laidlaw, Howard W. Mielke

Abstract:

In California between the late 1920’s and 1986 the lead concentrations in urban soils and dust climbed rapidly following the deposition of greater than 387,000 tonnes of lead emitted from gasoline. Previous research indicates that when children are lead exposed around 90% of the lead is retained in their bones and teeth due to the substitution of lead for calcium. Lead in children’s bones has been shown to accumulate over time and is highest in inner-city urban areas, lower in suburban areas and lowest in rural areas. It is also known that women’s bones demineralize during pregnancy due to the foetus's high demand for calcium. Lead accumulates in women’s bones during childhood and the accumulated lead is subsequently released during pregnancy – a lagged response. This results in calcium plus lead to enter the blood stream and cross the placenta to expose the foetus with lead. In 1970 in the United States, the average age of a first‐time mother was about 21. In 2008, the average age was 25.1. In this study, it is demonstrated that in California there is a forward lagged relationship between the accumulated emissions of lead from vehicle fuel additives and later autism prevalence trends between the 1990’s and current time period. Regression analysis between a 24 year forward lag of accumulated lead emissions and autism prevalence trends in California are associated strongly (R2=0.95, p=0.00000000127). It is hypothesized that autism in genetically susceptible children may stem from vehicle fuel lead emission exposures of their mothers during childhood and that the release of stored lead during subsequent pregnancy resulted in lead exposure of foetuses during a critical developmental period. It is furthermore hypothesized that the 24 years forward lag between lead exposures has occurred because that is time period is the average length for women to enter childbearing age. To test the hypothesis that lead in mothers bones is associated with autism, it is hypothesized that retrospective case-control studies would show an association between the lead in mother’s bones and autism. Furthermore, it is hypothesized that the forward lagged relationship between accumulated historical vehicle fuel lead emissions (or air lead concentrations) and autism prevalence trends will be similar in cities at the national and international scale. If further epidemiological studies indicate a strong relationship between accumulated vehicle fuel lead emissions (or accumulated air lead concentrations) and lead in mother’s bones and autism rates, then urban areas may require extensive soil intervention to prevent the development of autism in children.

Keywords: autism, Prevalence, lead, gasoline, petrol, bones

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48 Sero-Prevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen and Associated Factors among Pregnant Mothers Attending Antenatal Care Service, Mekelle, Ethiopia: Evidence from Institutional Based Quantitative Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Semaw A., Awet H., Yohannes M.

Abstract:

Background: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is a major global public health problem. Individuals living in Sub-Sahara Africa have 60% lifetime risk of acquiring HBV infection. Evidences showed that 80-90% of those born from infected mothers developed chronic HBV. Perinatal HBV transmission is a major determinant of HBV carrier status, its chronic squeal and maintains HBV transmission across generations. Method: Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 406 pregnant mothers attending Antenatal clinics at Mekelle and Ayder referral hospital from January 30 to April 1/2014. Epidata version 3.1 was used for data entry and SPSS version 21 statistical software was used for data cleaning, management and finally determine associated factors of hepatitis B surface antigen adjusting important confounders using multivariable logistic regression analysis at 5% level of significance. Result: The overall prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen among pregnant women was 33 (8.1%). The socio-demographic characteristic of the study population showed that there is high positivity among secondary school 189 (46.6%). In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, history of a contact with individuals who had history of hepatitis B infection or jaundice and lifetime number of multiple sexual partners were found to be significantly associated with HBsAg positivity at AOR = 3.73 95%C.I (1.373-10.182) and AOR = 2.57 95%C.I (1.173-5.654), respectively. Moreover, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and HBV confection rate was found 3.6%. Conclusion: This study has shown that HBV prevalence in pregnant women is highly prevalent (8.1%) in the study area. Contact with individuals who had a history of hepatitis or have jaundice and report of multiple lifetime sexual partnership were associated with hepatitis B infection. Education about HBV transmission and prevention as well as screening all pregnant mothers shall be sought to reduce the serious public health crisis of HBV.

Keywords: Hepatitis B, Pregnant Women, Prevalence, HBsAg

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47 Prevalence of Gastro-Intestinal Helminthes of Farm Animals by Coprological Examination

Authors: Mohammad Saleh Al-Aboody

Abstract:

In the present study 442 fecal samples from cattle, buffaloes, and sheep for contamination with helminthes. Samples were examined from 171 cattle, 128 buffaloes, and 143 sheep. The testing, during the period from May 2014 to April 2015, showed that 81 out of 171cattle were positive for helminthes infection (47.3%), with the rate of infection higher in females (55%) than in males (40%). In buffaloes, 41 of 128 tested were positive, a 32% rate of infection. Again, the infection rate was higher in females (47%) than in males (22%). In sheep, the rate of infection was highest of all three species. The results showed that, the infection rate among cattle were 50.3 % and Trichostrongyle species were the predominant parasites among both cattle and buffaloes. The prevalence rate was much higher in females than males. Regarding seasonal dynamics the highest infection rates with helminthes reported was in spring season.

Keywords: Prevalence, Ruminants, helminthes, trichostrongyle

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46 Association of Phytomineral Supplementation with the Seasonal Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Parasites of Grazing Sheep in the Scenario of Climate Change

Authors: Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad Saqib, Muhammad Sohail Sajid, Hafiz Muhammad Rizwan, Ashfaq Ahmad Chatta

Abstract:

Changes in the climate are posing threats to the livestock community throughout the globe. Agro-grazing animals and natural vegetation as their forages are the most important components of animal production. Climate and local conditions not only determine the nature and kind of plants, their distribution, composition and nutritive value in different cropping belts and grazing sites but also influence number and kinds of grazing animals. Phytomineral supplementation can act as an indirect tool to boost-up immunological profile of animals leading to the development of resilience against parasitic infections. The present study correlates the trace element (Cu, Co, Mn, Zn) profile of grazing sheep, feedstuffs, respective soils and their GI helminths in a selected district of Sialkot, Punjab, Pakistan. Ten species of GI helminths were found during the survey. A significant (P < 0.05) variation in the concentrations (conc.) of Zn, Cu, Mn and Co was recorded in a total of 16 collected forages. During autumn, mean conc. of Cu, Zn and Co in sera were inversely proportional to the GI helminth burden; while, during spring, only Zn was inversely proportional to the GI helminth burden in grazing sheep. During autumn the highest conc. of Zn, Cu, Mn and Co were recorded in Echinochloa colona, Amaranthus viridis, Cannabis sativa, and Brachiaria ramose and during spring in Cichorium intybus, Cynodon dactylon, Parthenium hysterophorus and Coronopus didymus respectively. The trace element-rich forages, preferably Zn, found effective against helminth infection are advisable supplemental remedies to improve the trace element profile in grazing sheep. This mitigation strategy may ultimately improve the resilience against GI helminth infections especially in the resource poor countries like Pakistan.

Keywords: Pakistan, Sheep, Trace Elements, Prevalence, coprological examination, Gastro-intestinal parasites, Sialkot

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45 Rising Prevalence of Diabetes among Elderly People in Kerala: Evidence from NSS Data

Authors: NARENDRA KUMAR

Abstract:

In developing countries, the majority of people with diabetes are in the age range of 45-64 years and more women than men. As in many areas of the India, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus has become major problems. Now it is spreading among the middle class and poor at an alarming stage in India and Kerala is turning to be the world capital of diabetes. This study uses two round NSS data from the ‘National Sample Survey Organization, India’ to investigate the predictors of diabetes in Kerala. The overall estimates for diabetes prevalence among elderly show that higher in men than women, but there are more women with diabetes than men. Education of respondent has been found a significant characteristics, further respondent working status, caste/tribe have substantial impact on diabetes in Kerala. The disease is more common for people who are mostly physically inactive. This whole picture is very much prominent in the urban areas compared with the rural ones. Not working elderly have significantly higher with diabetes than for those working in elderly. Socioeconomic status was inversely associated with diabetes prevalence. For men and women, the prevalence of diabetes and hypertension were significantly higher in the urban population while smoking, smokeless tobacco consumption was more prevalent in the rural population. High alcohol intake increases diabetes risk among elderly. Finally these findings specified that an increase improve health care services and changing life style of elderly which should in turn raise diabetes patient survival and should decrease comorbidities due to diabetes in Kerala.

Keywords: Diabetes, Elderly, Prevalence, Kerala

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44 Low Back Pain-Related Absenteeism among Healthcare Workers in Kibuli Muslim Hospital, Kampala Uganda

Authors: Aremu Abdulmujeeb Babatunde

Abstract:

Background: Low back pain was not only considered to be the most common reason for functional disability worldwide, but also estimated to have affected 90% of the universal population. This study aimed at determining the prevalence, consequences and socio-demographic factors associated with low back pain. Methods; A cross-sectional survey was employed and a total number of 150 self-structured questionnaire was distributed among healthcare workers and this was used to determine the prevalence of low back pain and work related absenteeism. Data was entered using Epi info soft-ware and analyzed using SPSS. Results; An overall response rate of 84% (n = 140) was achieved. The study established that majority (37%) of the respondents were in the age bracket of 20-39 years, 57% female (n=59) and 64% of them were married. the pint prevalence was 84%, 31% of the respondents took leave from work as a result of low back pain. There was high prevalence of sick leave among nursing staff 45.2%, Chi-square test shows that there was a statistically significant association between the respondents occupations and daily time spent during their work (P value 0.011 and 0.042) respectively. Socio-demographic factors like age, marital status and gender were not statistically significant at P<0.05. Conclusions; The medical and socio-professional consequences of low back pain among healthcare workers was as a result of their occupation designations and the daily time spent in carry out this occupations.

Keywords: low back pain, Prevalence, healthcare workers, sick leave

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43 Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Estuarine Fish from Dhaka City Markets

Authors: Fahmida Khalique Nitu

Abstract:

Little is known on the biosafety level of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in estuarine fish in Bangladesh. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and concentration of V. parahaemolyticus in estuarine fishes using the Polymerase Chain Reaction( PCR) method . The study was conducted on 37 fishes of different species from different types of estuarine fish commonly sold at city markets. Sampling was done on the intestinal tract and gills of each fish. The prevalence of V. parahaemolyticus was found to be 29.72% with higher percentages detected in samples from the gills (89.28%) followed by the intestinal tract (10.71%). The density of Vibrio spp. in the gill of estuarine fishes with an average was 4.4 x103CFU/g and in the intestine samples was 1.5x103 CFU/g. The outcome of the biosafety assessment V. parahaemolyticus in estuarine fish indicates another potential source of food safety issues to consumers.

Keywords: Biosafety, Estuarine, Prevalence, Vibrios

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42 Prevalence of Selected Cardiovascular Risk Factors Obesity among University of Venda Staff

Authors: Avhasei Dorothy Rasifudi, Josephine Mandizha

Abstract:

Cardiovascular risk factors continue to be the leading cause of death in the majority of developed and developing countries. In 2011, the World Health Organization reported that every year an estimated 17 million people globally die of CVD, representing 30% of all global deaths, particularly caused by heart attacks and strokes. The purpose of the study was to determine and describe the prevalence of selected cardiovascular risk factors among university of Venda staff. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 staff aged 20-65 years. The anthropometric measurements were conducted in accordance to and with standardized procedures advocated by the International Society for the Advanced Kinanthropometry. Weight, Height, waist circumference and hip circumference were measured for calculation of body mass index and waist-hip ratio. Blood pressure was measured using a Heine cuff and sphygmomanometer. Questionnaire was administered to gather demographic details and cardiovascular risk factors of hypertension and obesity. Data were analyzed using mean and standard deviation. The parameter t-test was applied to test significance level at p ≤ 0.05 between sexes. The statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. The prevalence of hypertension was 23% with the highest prevalence amongst those aged 40 years and above. Factors found to be to be significantly associated with hypertension were gender, age, physical inactivity and family history. Prevalence of obesity was 43%, with the highest prevalence among those aged 40 years. The factors associated with obesity were diet, age and physical activity. The prevalence of hypertension and obesity in the study were high.

Keywords: Cardiovascular, Risk Factors, Prevalence, staff

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41 Epidemiology of Gestational Choriocarcinoma: A Systematic Review

Authors: Farah Amalina Mohamed Affandi, Redhwan Ahmad Al-Naggar, Seok Mui Wang, Thanikasalam Kathiresan

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Gestational choriocarcinoma is a condition in which there is an abnormal growth or a tumor inside the women’s uterus after conception. It is a type of gestational trophoblastic disease which is relatively rare and malignant. The current epidemiological data of this disease are inadequate. The purposes of this study are to examine the epidemiology of choriocarcinoma and their risk factors based on all available population-based and hospital-based data of the disease. In this study, we searched The MEDLINE and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases using the keywords ‘choriocarcinoma’, ‘gestational’, ‘gestational choriocarcinoma’ and ‘epidemiology’. We included only human studies published in English between 1995 and 2015 to ensure up to date evidence. Case studies, case reports, animal studies, letters to the editor, news, and review articles were excluded. Retrieved articles were screened in three phases. In the first phase, any articles that did not match the inclusion criteria based solely on titles were excluded. In the second phase, the abstracts of remaining articles were screened thoroughly; any articles that did not meet our inclusion criteria were excluded. In the final phase, full texts of the remaining articles were read and assessed to exclude articles that did not meet the inclusion criteria or any articles that fulfilled the exclusion criteria. Duplicates articles were also removed. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis were excluded. Extracted data were summarized in table and figures descriptively. The reference lists of included studies were thoroughly reviewed in search for other relevant studies. A total of ten studies met all the selection criteria. Nine were retrospective studies and one was cohort study. Total numbers of 4563 cases of choriocarcinoma were reviewed from several countries which are Korea, Japan, South Africa, USA, New Mexico, Finland, Turkey, China, Brazil and The Netherlands. Different studies included different range of age with their mean age of 28.5 to 30.0 years. All studies investigated on the disease’s incidence rate, only two studies examined on the risk factors or associations of the disease. Approximately 20% of the studies showed a reduction in the incidence of choriocarcinoma while the other 80% showed inconsistencies in rate. Associations of age, fertility age, occupations and socio-demographic with the status remains unclear. There is limited information on the epidemiological aspects of gestational choriocarcinoma. The observed results indicated there was a decrease in the incidence rate of gestational choriocarcinoma globally. These could be due to the reduction in the incidence of molar pregnancy and the efficacy of the treatment, mainly by chemotherapy.

Keywords: Epidemiology, Prevalence, incidence, risk factor, gestational choriocarcinoma

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40 Prevalence of Cerebral Microbleeds in Apparently Healthy, Elderly Population: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Vidishaa Jali, Amit Sinha, Kameshwar Prasad

Abstract:

Background and Objective: Cerebral microbleeds are frequently found in healthy elderly individuals. We performed a meta- analysis to determine the prevalence of cerebral microbleeds in apparently healthy, elderly population and to determine the effect of age, smoking and hypertension on the occurrence of cerebral microbleeds. Methods: Relevant literature was searched using electronic databases such as MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane database, Google scholar to identify studies on the prevalence of cerebral microbleeds in general elderly population till March 2016. STATA version 13 software was used for analysis. Fixed effect model was used if heterogeneity was less than 50%. Otherwise, random effect model was used. Meta- regression analysis was performed to check any effect of important variables such as age, smoking, hypertension. Selection Criteria: We included cross-sectional studies performed in apparently healthy elderly population, who had age more than 50 years. Results: The pooled proportion of cerebral microbleeds in healthy population is 12% (95% CI, 0.11 to 0.13). No significant effect of age was found on the prevalence of cerebral microbleeds (p= 0.99). A linear relationship between increase in hypertension and the prevalence of cerebral microbleeds was found, however, this linear relationship was not statistically significant (p=0.16). Similarly, A linear relationship between increase in smoking and the prevalence of cerebral microbleeds was found, however, this linear relationship was also not statistically significant (p=0.21). Conclusion: Presence of cerebral microbleeds is evident in apparently healthy, elderly population, in more than 10% of individuals.

Keywords: Elderly, Prevalence, apparently healthy, cerebral microbleeds

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39 Survey on Prevalence of Endo and Ecto-Parasites of Rattus rattus in Mazandaran Province, North of Iran

Authors: Fatemeh Rezaei, Ahmad Daryani, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Afsaneh Amouei, Iman Bakouei, Mahdi Sharif, Mohammad Taghi Rahimi

Abstract:

Background: Rodents act as reservoir host and important potential source for many zoonotic pathogens which pose a public health risk to humans. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal and ectoparasites among rodents. Materials and Methods: 118 Rattus rattus were captured using snap live traps. Each rat was combed with a fine tooth comb to dislodge ectoparasite and studied. Various samples were collected from feces, examined wet smear, formalin-ether method and stained with modified acid-fast staining and trichrome. Result: The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of examined rats was 75.4%. Cryptosporidium 30.5%, was the most prevalent protozoan which was followed by Giardia 20.3% and Entamoeba muris 13.5%, Trichomonas muris 10.1% and Spironucleus muris 3.3%. The prevalence of helminth egg was as following Syphacia obvelata 24.5%, Hymenolepis diminuta 10.1% and Trichuris muris 9.3%. 86.4% rodents were found to be infested with ectoparasites including mite 35.6%, flea 28.4%, and lice 42.7%. A significant statistical difference was observed between prevalence and gender of infected individuals. Conclusions: The prevalence of gastrointestinal and ectoparasites of collected rats in studied area is remarkably high. In addition, Rattus rattus can be considered as potential risk for human health.

Keywords: Prevalence, intestinal parasites, rodent, ecto-parasites, zoonose

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38 Clinical and Laboratory Diagnosis of Malaria in Surat Thani, Southern Thailand

Authors: Manas Kotepui, Chatree Ratcha, Kwuntida Uthaisar

Abstract:

Malaria infection is still to be considered a major public health problem in Thailand. This study, a retrospective data of patients in Surat Thani Province, Southern Thailand during 2012-2015 was retrieved and analyzed. These data include demographic data, clinical characteristics and laboratory diagnosis. Statistical analyses were performed to demonstrate the frequency, proportion, data tendency, and group comparisons. Total of 395 malaria patients were found. Most of patients were male (253 cases, 64.1%). Most of patients (262 cases, 66.3%) were admitted at 6 am-11.59 am of the day. Three hundred and fifty-five patients (97.5%) were positive with P. falciparum. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and MCHC between P. falciparum and P. vivax were significant different (P value<0.05).During 2012-2015, prevalence of malaria was highest in 2013. Neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes were significantly changed among patients with fever ≤ 3 days compared with patients with fever >3 days. This information will guide to understanding pathogenesis and characteristic of malaria infection in Sothern Thailand.

Keywords: Malaria, Thailand, Prevalence, Surat Thani

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