Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

pretreatments Related Abstracts

5 Recent Advances of Isolated Microspore Culture Response in Durum Wheat

Authors: Zelikha Labbani

Abstract:

Many biotechnology methods have been used in plant breeding programs. The in vitro isolated microspore culture is the one of these methods. For durum wheat, the use of this technology has been limited for a long time due to the low number of embryos produced and also most regeneration plants are albina. The objective of this paper is to show that using isolated microspores culture on durum wheat is possible due to the development of the new methods using the new pretreatment of the microspores before their isolation and cultivation.

Keywords: isolated microspore culture, pretreatments, in vitro embryogenesis, plant breeding program

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4 Comparison the Effect of Different Pretreatments on Ethanol Production from Lemon Peel (Citrus × latifolia)

Authors: Zohreh Didar Yaser, Zanganeh Asadabadi

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to open up the structure of lemon peel (Citrus × latifolia) with mild pretreatments. The effects of autoclave, microwave and ultrasonic with or without acid addition were investigated on the amount of glucose, soluble and insoluble lignin, furfural, yeast viability and bioethanol. The finding showed that autoclave- acid impregnated sample, has the highest glucose release from lignocellulose materials (14.61 and 14.95 g/l for solvent exposed and untreated sample, respectively) whereas at control sample glucose content was at its minimal level. Pretreatments cause decrease on soluble and insoluble lignin and the highest decrease cause by autoclave following with microwave and ultrasonic pretreatments (p≤5%). Moderate increase on furfural was seen at pretreated samples than control ones. Also, the most yeast viability and bioethanol content was belong to autoclave samples especially acid- impregnated ones (40.33%). Comparison between solvent treated and untreated samples indicated that significant difference was between two tested groups (p≤1%) in terms of lignin, furfural, cell viability and ethanol content but glucose didn’t show significant difference. It imply that solvent extraction don’t influences on glucose release from lignocellulose material of lemon peel but cause enhancement of yeast viability and bioethanol production.

Keywords: Bioethanol, solvent extraction, pretreatments, Lemon peel

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3 Influence of High Hydrostatic Pressure Application (HHP) and Osmotic Dehydration (DO) as a Pretreatment to Hot –Air Drying of Abalone (Haliotis Rufescens) Cubes

Authors: Teresa Roco, Mario Perez Won, Roberto Lemus-Mondaca, Sebastian Pizarro

Abstract:

This research presents the simultaneous application of high hydrostatic pressure application (HHP) and osmotic dehydration (DO) as a pretreatment to hot –air drying of abalone cubes. The drying time was reduced to 6 hours at 60ºC as compared to the abalone drying by only a 15% NaCl osmotic pretreatment and at an atmospheric pressure that took 10 hours to dry at the same temperature. This was due to the salt and HHP saturation since osmotic pressure increases as water loss increases, thus needing a more reduced time in a convective drying, so water effective diffusion in drying plays an important role in this research. Different working conditions as pressure (350-550 MPa), pressure time ( 5-10 min), salt concentration, NaCl 15% and drying temperature (40-60ºC) will be optimized according to kinetic parameters of each mathematical model (Table 1). The models used for drying experimental curves were those corresponding to Weibull, Logarithmic and Midilli-Kucuk, but the latest one was the best fitted to the experimental data (Figure 1). The values for water effective diffusivity varied from 4.54 – to 9.95x10-9 m2/s for the 8 curves (DO+HHP) whereas the control samples (neither DO nor HHP) varied among 4.35 and 5.60x10-9 m2/s, for 40 and 60°C, respectively and as to drying by osmotic pretreatment at 15% NaCl from 3.804 to 4.36x10-9 m2/s at the same temperatures. Finally as to energy and efficiency consumption values for drying process (control and pretreated samples) it was found that they would be within a range of 777-1815 KJ/Kg and 8.22–19.20% respectively. Therefore, a knowledge concerning the drying kinetic as well as the consumption energy, in addition to knowledge about the quality of abalones subjected to an osmotic pretreatment (DO) and a high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) are extremely important to an industrial level so that the drying process can be successful at different pretreatment conditions and/or variable processes.

Keywords: abalone, diffusion coefficient, pretreatments, convective drying, high pressure hydrostatic

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2 Optimization of NaOH Thermo-Chemical Pretreatment to Enhance Solubilisation of Organic Food Waste by Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Hafizan Junoh, Kumaran Palanisamy, Yip Chan Heng, Pua Fei Ling

Abstract:

This study investigates the influence of low temperature thermo-chemical pretreatment of organic food waste on the performance of COD solubilisation. Both temperature and alkaline agent were reported to have an effect on solubilizing any possible biomass including organic food waste. The three independent variables considered in this pretreatment were temperature (50-90oC), pretreatment time (30-120 minutes) and alkaline concentration, sodium hydroxide, NaOH (0.7-15 g/L). The optimal condition obtained were 90oC, 15 g/L NaOH for 2 hours. Solubilisation has potential in enhancing methane production by providing a high amount of soluble components at an early stage during anaerobic digestion.

Keywords: Anaerobic Digestion, Food Waste, ANOVA, pretreatments, respond surface methodology

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1 Effect of Convective Dryness Combined with Osmotic Dehydration, Blanching, Microwave and Ultrasonic Treatment on Bioactive Compounds and Rehydration Capacity of Dried Plums

Authors: Elena Corina Popescu, Magda Gabriela Bratu

Abstract:

Increasing interest in keeping bioactive compounds (anthocyanins, vitamin C) and dried fruit quality has motivated the researchers to investigate new combined drying technologies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of convective dryness combined with osmotic dehydration, blanching, microwave treatment and ultrasonic treatment on the quality of dried plums. Osmotic dehydration was achieved by maintaining plums for 1 h in sucrose solution (300Brix). For microwave treatment, the plums were kept at 400 W for 80 sec. For ultrasonic treatment, plums were immersed in distilled water and sonicated for 30 minutes at 40 kHz and 200 W. The blanching consists of immersing plums in hot water at 90°C for 20 seconds and cooling them rapidly. Conventional drying was carried out at 70°C for 630 minutes. Drying curves, drying rate, anthocyanin and vitamin C stability, acidity variation (expressed as malic acid), reducing sugar content, and rehydration capacity of dried plums were analyzed. Blanching led to the largest amount of evaporated water. Blanched plums have had 13.36% less water than sonicated ones. The lowest anthocyanal loss of 34.5% was obtained in osmotically dehydrated plums, and 2.93% vitamin C is found in the plums sonicated. There were no significant differences in regards acidity and reducing sugar. The plums blanched before drying have had a high capacity of rehydration.

Keywords: vitamin C, pretreatments, anthocyanin, dried plums

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