Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

preschool children Related Abstracts

13 Food Intake Pattern and Nutritional Status of Preschool Children of Chakma Ethnic Community

Authors: Md Monoarul Haque

Abstract:

Nutritional status is a sensitive indicator of community health and nutrition among preschool children, especially the prevalence of undernutrition that affects all dimensions of human development and leads to growth faltering in early life. The present study is an attempt to assess the food intake pattern and nutritional status of pre-school Chakma tribe children. It was a cross-sectional community based study. The subjects were selected purposively. This study was conducted at Savar Upazilla of Rangamati. Rangamati is located in the Chittagong Division. Anthropometric data height and weight of the study subjects were collected by standard techniques. Nutritional status was measured using Z score according WHO classification. χ2 test, independent t-test, Pearson’s correlation, multiple regression and logistic regression was performed as P<0.05 level of significance. Statistical analyses were performed by appropriate univariate and multivariate techniques using SPSS windows 11.5. Moderate (-3SD to <-2SD) to severe underweight (<-3SD) were 23.8% and 76.2% study subjects had normal weight for their age. Moderate (-3SD to <-2SD) to severe (<-3SD) stunted children were only 25.6% and 74.4% children were normal and moderate to severe wasting were 14.7% whereas normal child was 85.3%. Significant association had been found between child nutritional status and monthly family income, mother education and occupation of father and mother. Age, sex and incomes of the family, education of mother and occupation of father were significantly associated with WAZ and HAZ of the study subjects (P=0.0001, P=0.025, P=0.001 and P=0.0001, P=0.003, P=0.031, P=0.092, P=0.008). Maximum study subjects took local small fish and some traditional tribal food like bashrool, jhijhipoka and pork very much popular food among tribal children. Energy, carbohydrate and fat intake was significantly associated with HAZ, WAZ, BAZ and MUACZ. This study demonstrates that malnutrition among tribal children in Bangladesh is much better than national scenario in Bangladesh. Significant association was found between child nutritional status and family monthly income, mother education and occupation of father and mother. Most of the study subjects took local small fish and some traditional tribal food. Significant association was also found between child nutritional status and dietary intake of energy, carbohydrate and fat.

Keywords: Nutritional status, food intake pattern, preschool children, Chakma ethnic community

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12 How Educational Settings Can Influence Development of Creativity through Play in Young Children

Authors: D. M. W. Munasinghe

Abstract:

This study focuses on how teachers view and use play to influence creativity in preschool children. Play is strongly featured in most of the discussions about creativity in young children. Hence, it was noted through direct observation that most preschool teachers are not concerned with promoting play to develop the child’s creativity. Therefore, this study attempts to investigate how the teachers use play, for the development of creativity in the preschool environment. The survey method was used as the research design and interviews, observations and document perusal were used as data collection methods. The sample consisted of 20 preschools from selected administrative divisions in the Colombo district. It was revealed that a majority of preschool teachers used folk games as a means of involving children in play. Teachers assume that this type of guided play will motivate the child learn new words, memorization and provide enjoyment. Eighty percent of the preschool teachers used the play equipment installed in the preschool premises to encourage children to get involved in activities calculated at promoting the physical development of the child. In 40% of the preschools visited it was noticed that when children were given their break they created their own forms of free play and enjoyed themselves thoroughly in the little time available to them. Also, about 20% of preschool teachers promoted imaginative play with their preschoolers. There was also the situation where the role of play was interpreted negatively by the teachers who assigned the children to copy letters and numerals during the time assigned for play. This has a negative impact on the child’s creativity. In conclusion, it was felt that the teachers do not make the best use of the opportunity available to use the child’s enthusiasm to stimulate creative actions his/her and that there is no suitable environment to develop creativity through play.

Keywords: Creativity, preschool children, preschool environment, play method

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11 Early Intervention for Preschool Children of Parents with Mental Illness: The Evaluation of a Resource for Service Providers

Authors: Stella Laletas, Andrea Reupert, Melinda Goodyear, Bradley Morgan

Abstract:

Background: Many people with a mental illness have young children. Research has shown that early childhood is a particularly vulnerable time for children whose parents have a mental illness. Moreover, repeated research has demonstrated the effectiveness of a multiagency approach to family focused practice for improving parental functioning and preventing adverse outcomes in children whose parents have a mental illness, particularly in the early years of a child’s life. However, there is a paucity of professional development resources for professionals who work with families where a parent has a mental illness and has young children. Significance of the study: This study will make a contribution to addressing knowledge gaps around resource development and workforce needs for early childhood and mental health professionals working with young children where a parent has a mental illness. Objective: This presentation describes a newly developed resource, 'Pathways of Care', specifically designed for early childhood educators and mental health workers, alongside pilot evaluation data regarding its effectiveness. ‘Pathways of Care’ aims to promote collaborative practice and present early identification and referral processes for workers in this sector. The resource was developed by the Children of Parents with a Mental Illness (COPMI) National Initiative which is funded by the Australian Government. Method: Using a mixed method design, the effectiveness of the training resource is also presented. Fifteen workers completed the Family Focus Mental Health Practice Questionnaire pre and post using the resource, to measure confidence and practice change; semi-structured interviews were also conducted with eight of these same workers to further explore the utility of the resource. Findings: The findings indicated the resource was effective in increasing knowledge and confidence, particularly for new and/or inexperienced staff. Examples of how the resource was used in practice by various professions emerged from the interview data. Conclusions: Collaborative practice, early identification and intervention in early childhood can potentially play a key role in altering the life trajectory of children who are at risk. This information has important implications for workforce development and staff training in both the early childhood and mental health sectors. Implications for policy and future research are discussed.

Keywords: Evaluation, Early Intervention, preschool children, parents with mental ilnesses

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10 Maternal Care Practices on Nutritional Status of Pre School Children in Dass Local Government Area of Bauchi State, Nigeria

Authors: Adebusoye Michael, Okunola Olayinka, Owolabi Abdulateef, Jacob Anayo

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Introduction: Child undernutrition remains one of Africa’s most fundamental challenges for improved human development because the time and capacities of caregivers are limited; far too many children are unable to access effectively amenities they need for a healthy life. Methods and procedures: This cross-sectional, descriptive study evaluated the maternal care practices on nutritional status of pre-school children, 150 mothers were selected by systematic random sampling in Dass L.G.A., Bauchi-State, Nigeria. Information on relevant parameters were collected by questionaire, analysed by various indices of descriptive statistics using SPSS version 16.0.Spearman’s rank correlation was used to test for associations between the variables. Results: Thirty-five (23.3%) of the respondents were aged 21-25 years. Thirty-three (28.0%) had secondary education, while forty-nine (32.7%) were full housewives. Majority 79(52.7) earned NI,000- N10,000 monthly versus 10(6.7%) who earned N11,000- N20,000.113(75.3%) married while 7(4.7%) of respondents were separated. Sixty-one (40.7%) practiced exclusive breastfeeding within six months. Only seventy-one (47.3%) initiated breastfeeding between 7 and 13 months. Five (3.3%) of children were mildly underweight while nine (6.0%) were severely stunted. Conclusion: The outcome suggested that working time of mothers is a major determinant on their child nutritional status. However, there is a significant relationship on the working time of mothers, income level and educational level of mothers to the nutritional status of their children (P<0.05). Recommendation: Good policy programmes should aim at eradicating poverty, better child care practices that would reduce malnutrition among under-five children.

Keywords: Nutritional status, preschool children, maternal care, Dass L.G.A

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9 Intervention of Threat and Surveillance on the Obedience of Preschool Children

Authors: Sarah Mhae Diaz, Erika Anna De Leon, Jacklin Alwil Cartagena, Geordan Caruncong, Micah Riezl Gonzales

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This study examined the intervention of threat and surveillance on the obedience of 100 preschool children through a task variable experiment replicated from the previous studies of Higbee (1979), and Chua, J., Chua, M., & Pico (1983). Nowadays, obedience among Filipino children to authority is disregarded since they are more outspoken and rebel due to social influences. With this, aside from corporal punishment, threat and surveillance became a mean of inducing obedience. Threat, according to the Dissonance Theory, can give attitudinal change. On the other hand, surveillance, according to the Theory of Social Facilitation, can either contribute to the completion or failure to do a task. Through a 2x2 factorial design, results show; (1) threat (F(1,96) = 12.487, p < 0.05) and (2) surveillance (F(1,96)=9.942, p<.05) had a significant main effect on obedience, suggesting that the Dissonance Theory and Theory of Social Facilitation is respectively true in the study. On the other hand, (3) no interaction (F(1,96)=1.303, p > .05) was seen since threat and surveillance both have a main effect that could be positive or negative, or could be because of their complementary property as supported by the post-hoc results. Also, (4) most effective commanding style is threat and surveillance setting (M = 30.04, SD = 7.971) due to the significant main effect of the two variables. With this, in the Filipino Setting, threat and surveillance has proven to be a very effective strategy to discipline and induce obedience from a child.

Keywords: Surveillance, Obedience, experimental study, preschool children, threat

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8 Examination of the Impact of Projects Based on Reggio Emilia Approach on the Creative Thinking Skills of Preschool Children: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Arzu Akar Gençer, Mübeccel Gönen

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The objective of the study is to investigate the impact of the projects based on Reggio Emilia Approach, on the creative thinking skills of preschool children. The study is carried out with eighteen 6 years old children in a class of a preschool, and entailed the development of projects based on Reggio Emilia approach with the children, for a period of 3 months. The study employs qualitative model. The children were analyzed with reference to the creative thinking aspects (rationality, originality, flexibility, and applicability) of the projects applied. As the projects based on Reggio Emilia approach arose out of the interests and curiosity of the children, and had their roots in the existing class culture, it is possible to conclude that they have an impact on the creativity of the children with reference to the aspects of creative thinking.

Keywords: Creativity, Project, preschool children, Reggio Emilia approach

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7 The Preparation and Effectiveness of Picture Book for Increasing Knowledge about Divorce

Authors: Denia Prameswari

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The impacts of divorce are not only felt by parents but also by children. Preschool children are the most distressed while facing parental divorce. The negative impacts of divorce on children can be minimized when children had pervious knowledge about the event. One of the method to give knowledge about divorce to children is through picture book. Unfortunately, in Indonesia, researchers have not found picture books for preschoolers about divorce. This study aims to test the effectiveness of picture book in increasing knowledge of preschool children about divorce. Formulation of picture books in this study is based on three sources of information: (1) the study of literature, (2) analysis of picture books, and (3) need assessment. This picture book that have been prepared, then used to test its effectiveness for increasing knowledge of preschool children about divorce. The test was conducted using pre and post test on 5 participants. The statistical method used in this study is paired sample t-test. The purposive sampling method was used to select the participants. The participants for this study are preschool children with parents that is undergoing divorce proceedings. The result shows that picture books in this study significantly increase preschool children's knowledge about divorce. As an additional result, parents find it easier to explain divorce to their children using the picture book from this study. For further study, researcher can make another picture book about divorce for children at different age or to face another challenging situation in life.

Keywords: divorce, Parent, preschool children, picture book

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6 Trainability of Executive Functions during Preschool Age Analysis of Inhibition of 5-Year-Old Children

Authors: Christian Andrä, Pauline Hähner, Sebastian Ludyga

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Introduction: In the recent past, discussions on the importance of physical activity for child development have contributed to a growing interest in executive functions, which refer to cognitive processes. By controlling, modulating and coordinating sub-processes, they make it possible to achieve superior goals. Major components include working memory, inhibition and cognitive flexibility. While executive functions can be trained easily in school children, there are still research deficits regarding the trainability during preschool age. Methodology: This quasi-experimental study with pre- and post-design analyzes 23 children [age: 5.0 (mean value) ± 0.7 (standard deviation)] from four different sports groups. The intervention group was made up of 13 children (IG: 4.9 ± 0.6), while the control group consisted of ten children (CG: 5.1 ± 0.9). Between pre-test and post-test, children from the intervention group participated special games that train executive functions (i.e., changing rules of the game, introduction of new stimuli in familiar games) for ten units of their weekly sports program. The sports program of the control group was not modified. A computer-based version of the Eriksen Flanker Task was employed in order to analyze the participants’ inhibition ability. In two rounds, the participants had to respond 50 times and as fast as possible to a certain target (direction of sight of a fish; the target was always placed in a central position between five fish). Congruent (all fish have the same direction of sight) and incongruent (central fish faces opposite direction) stimuli were used. Relevant parameters were response time and accuracy. The main objective was to investigate whether children from the intervention group show more improvement in the two parameters than the children from the control group. Major findings: The intervention group revealed significant improvements in congruent response time (pre: 1.34 s, post: 1.12 s, p<.01), while the control group did not show any statistically relevant difference (pre: 1.31 s, post: 1.24 s). Likewise, the comparison of incongruent response times indicates a comparable result (IG: pre: 1.44 s, post: 1.25 s, p<.05 vs. CG: pre: 1.38 s, post: 1.38 s). In terms of accuracy for congruent stimuli, the intervention group showed significant improvements (pre: 90.1 %, post: 95.9 %, p<.01). In contrast, no significant improvement was found for the control group (pre: 88.8 %, post: 92.9 %). Vice versa, the intervention group did not display any significant results for incongruent stimuli (pre: 74.9 %, post: 83.5 %), while the control group revealed a significant difference (pre: 68.9 %, post: 80.3 %, p<.01). The analysis of three out of four criteria demonstrates that children who took part in a special sports program improved more than children who did not. The contrary results for the last criterion could be caused by the control group’s low results from the pre-test. Conclusion: The findings illustrate that inhibition can be trained as early as in preschool age. The combination of familiar games with increased requirements for attention and control processes appears to be particularly suitable.

Keywords: Executive Functions, inhibition, preschool children, flanker task

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5 Parents' Attitudes towards a School-Based Family Program in Early Literacy in Qatari Preschool Settings

Authors: Fathi Ihmeideh

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The study aimed at investigating parents’ attitudes towards a school-based family program in developing kindergarten children’s literacy skills. The study surveyed 160 parents of preschool children, gathering information about their attitudes toward the development of children’s early literacy. Results indicated that parents hold positive attitudes towards the school-based family literacy program. The results also revealed statistically significant differences among parents due to a number of study variables. The study concludes with putting forward a number of practical and theoretical recommendations for the field of study. Acknowledgment: This paper was made possible by NPRP grant # (NPRP 8-921-5-122) from the Qatar national research fund (a member of Qatar foundation). The statements made herein are solely the responsibility of the authors.

Keywords: literacy development, Parents, preschool children, family involvement

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4 Evaluation of Food Safety and Security Practices in Midday Meal Programmes in Rural Areas of Beed District

Authors: Nuzhat Sultana M. B.

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Children are high-risk population in terms of food born illnesses. Food safety and security are the most important aspect of the success of midday meal programmes. Improper holding temperatures, cross-contamination and poor personal hygiene of food handlers are the main causes for the prevalence of pathogenic microbes in the food servicing areas. Two hundred and fifty preschool children in the age of 3 to 6 years from urban and rural anganwadies (pre school center) of Beed district were selected. Nutritional status of preschool children were assessed by anthropometrical and clinical measurement. The study assessed the food safety and security with the help of personal hygiene and other safety measures maintained by the food personnel working for midday meal programme, supplying mid meals to children in govt. anganwadies (pre school center). The hygiene level, sanitary condition and microbial quality of food and water, pathological health examination of food handlers were assessed with the help of checklist. A questionnaire was designed to evaluate knowledge, attitude, and practices of food handlers. Results of the study show that the nutritional and health status of rural and urban preschool children was very poor. Many of the food handlers were not aware of general knowledge and hygiene practices to be followed during food preparation areas. An intervention programme of education and importing training at workplaces has shown a positive impact on the outcome of safety and security practices and safe, hygienic practices of food handlers at workplace.

Keywords: Food, Security, Safety, Health, preschool children

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3 A Longitudinal Study of Social Engagement in Classroom in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Cecile Garry, Katia Rovira, Julie Brisson

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Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is defined by a qualitative and quantitative impairment of social interaction. Indeed early intervention programs, such as the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), aimed at encouraging the development of social skills. In classroom, the children need to be socially engaged to learn. Early intervention programs can thus be implemented in kindergarten schools. In these schools, ASD children have more opportunities to interact with their peers or adults than in elementary schools. However, the preschool children with ASD are less socially engaged than their typically developing peers in the classroom. They initiate, respond and maintain less the social interactions. In addition, they produce more responses than initiations. When they interact, the non verbal communication is more used than verbal or symbolic communication forms and they are more engaged with adults than with peers. Nevertheless, communicative patterns may vary according to the clinical profiles of ASD children. Indeed, the ASD children with better cognitive skills interact more with their peers and use more symbolic communication than the ASD children with a low cognitive level. ASD children with the less severe symptoms use more the verbal communication than ASD children with the more severe symptoms. Small groups and structured activities encourage coordinated joint engagement episodes in ASD children. Our goal is to evaluate ASD children’s social engagement development in class, with their peers or adults, during dyadic or group activities. Participants were 19 preschool children with ASD aged from 3 to 6 years old that benefited of an early intervention in special kindergarten schools. Severity of ASD symptoms was measured with the CARS at the beginning of the follow-up. Classroom situations of interaction were recorded during 10 minutes (5 minutes of dyadic interaction and 5 minutes of a group activity), every 2 months, during 10 months. Social engagement behaviors of children, including initiations, responses and imitation, directed to a peer or an adult, were then coded. The Observer software (Noldus) that allows to annotate behaviors was the coding system used. A double coding was conducted and revealed a good inter judges fidelity. Results show that ASD children were more often and longer socially engaged in dyadic than in groups situations. They were also more engaged with adults than with peers. Children with the less severe symptoms of ASD were more socially engaged in groups situations than children with the more severe symptoms of ASD. Then, ASD children with the less severe symptoms of ASD were more engaged with their peers than ASD children with the more severe symptoms of ASD. However, the engagement frequency increased during the 10 month of follow-up but only for ASD children with the more severe symptoms at the beginning. To conclude, these results highlighted the necessity of individualizing early intervention programs according to the clinical profile of the child.

Keywords: Developmental Psychology, Autism spectrum disorder, Social Interactions, preschool children, early interventions

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2 Translation and Adaptation of the Assessment Instrument “Kiddycat” for European Portuguese

Authors: Elsa Marta Soares, Ana Rita Valente, Cristiana Rodrigues, Filipa Gonçalves

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Background: The assessment of feelings and attitudes of preschool children in relation to stuttering is crucial. Negative experiences can lead to anxiety, worry or frustration. To avoid the worsening of attitudes and feelings related to stuttering, it is important the early detection in order to intervene as soon as possible through an individualized intervention plan. Then it is important to have Portuguese instruments that allow this assessment. Aims: The aim of the present study is to realize the translation and adaptation of the Communication Attitude Test for Children in Preschool Age and Kindergarten (KiddyCat) for EP. Methodology: For the translation and adaptation process, a methodological study was carried out with the following steps: translation, back translation, assessment by a committee of experts and pre-test. This abstract describes the results of the first two phases of this process. The translation was accomplished by two bilingual individuals without experience in health and any knowledge about the instrument. One of them was an English teacher and the other one a Translator. The back-translation was conducted by two Senior Class Teachers that live in United Kingdom without any knowledge in health and about the instrument. Results and Discussion: In translation there were differences in semantic equivalences of various expressions and concepts. A discussion between the two translators, mediated by the researchers, allowed to achieve the consensus version of the translated instrument. Taking into account the original version of KiddyCAT the results demonstrated that back-translation versions were similar to the original version of this assessment instrument. Although the back-translators used different words, they were synonymous, maintaining semantic and idiomatic equivalences of the instrument’s items. Conclusion: This project contributes with an important resource that can be used in the assessment of feelings and attitudes of preschool children who stutter. This was the first phase of the research; expert panel and pretest are being developed. Therefore, it is expected that this instrument contributes to an holistic therapeutic intervention, taking into account the individual characteristics of each child.

Keywords: Assessment, Stuttering, preschool children, feelings and attitudes

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1 Assessment of Psychomotor Development of Preschool Children: A Review of Eight Psychomotor Developmental Tools

Authors: Viola Hubačová Pirová

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The assessment of psychomotor development allows us to identify children with motor delays, helps us to monitor progress in time and prepare suitable intervention programs. The foundation of psychomotor development lies in pre-school age and is crucial for child´s further cognitive and social development. Many assessment tools of psychomotor development have been developed over the years. Some of them are easy screening tools; others are more complex and sophisticated. The purpose of this review is to describe the history of psychomotor assessment, specify preschool children´s psychomotor evaluation and review eight psychomotor development assessment tools for preschool children (Denver II., DEMOST-PRE, TGMD -2/3, BOT-2, MABC-2, PDMS-2, KTK, MOT 4-6). The selection of test depends on purpose and context in which is the assessment planned.

Keywords: preschool children, psychomotor development, assessment of psychomotor development, review of assessment tools

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