Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Preparation Related Abstracts

10 Preparation of Tempeh Spores Powder

Authors: Jaruwan Chutrtong, Tanakwan Bussabun


Study production of tempeh inoculums powder by freeze-drying comparison with dry at 50°C and the sun bask for developing efficient tempeh inoculums for tempeh producing. Rhizopus oligosporus in PDA slant cultures was incubated at 30°C for 3-5 days until spores and mycelium. Preparation spores suspension with sterilized water and then count the number of started spores. Fill spores suspension in Rice flour and soy flour, mixed with water (in the ratio 10: 7), which is steamed and sterilized at 121°C 15min. Incubated at room temperature for 4 days, count number of spores. Then take the progressive infection and full spore dough to dry at 50°C, sun bask, and lyophilize. Grind to powder. Then pack in plastic bags, stored at 5°C. To investigate quality of inoculums which use different methods, tempeh was fermented every 4 weeks for 24 weeks of the experiment. The result found that rice flour is not suitable to use as raw material in the production of powdered spores. Fungi can growth rarely. Less number of spores and requires more time than soy flour. For drying method, lyophilization is the least possible time. Samples from this method are very hard and very dark and harder to grind than other methods. Drying at 50°C takes longer time than lyophilization but can also set time use for drying. Character of the dry samples is hard solid and brown color, but can be grinded easier. The sun drying takes the longest time, can’t determine the exact time. When the spore powder was used to fermented tempeh immediately, product has similar characters as which use spores that was fresh prepared. The tempeh has normal quality. When spore powder stored at low temperature, tempeh from storage spore in weeks 4, 8 and 12 is still normal. Time spending in production was close to the production of fresh spores. After storage spores for 16 and 20 weeks, tempeh is still normal but growth and sporulation were take longer time than usual (about 6 hours). At 24 week storage, fungal growth is not good, made tempeh looks inferior to normal color, also smell and texture.

Keywords: Preparation, freez drying, spores powder, tempeh

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9 Preparation and Quality Control of a New Radiolabelled Complex of Spion

Authors: H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, A. Bahrami-Samani, SJ. Ahmadi, S. Sajadi, M. Bagherzadeh


Nowadays, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as the multitask agents have showed advantageous characteristics. The aim of this study was the preparation and quality control of 153Sm-DTPA-DA-SPION complex. Samarium-153 was produced by neutron irradiation of the enriched 152Sm2O3 in a research reactor for 5 d. For radiolabeling purposes, 8 mg of the ligand was added to the vial containing 153SmCl3 and the mixture was sonicated 30 min, while pH was adjusted to 7-8. The radiochemical purity of the complex was checked by the ITLC method using NH4OH:MeOH:H2O (0.2:2:4) as the mobile phase. This new radiolabeled complex was prepared with a radiochemical purity of higher than 98% in 30 min at the optimized condition. The complex was kept at room temperature and in human serum at 37 °C for 48 h, showed no loss of 153Sm from the complex. Considering all of these features, this new radiolabeled complex can be considered as a good therapeutic agent; however, further studies on its biological behavior are still needed.

Keywords: Quality Control, Preparation, iron nanoparticles

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8 Invention of Novel Technique of Process Scale Up by Using Solid Dosage Form

Authors: Shashank Tiwari, S. P. Mahapatra


The aim of this technique is to reduce the steps of process scales up, save time & cost of the industries. This technique will minimise the steps of process scale up. The new steps are, Novel Lab Scale, Novel Lab Scale Trials, Novel Trial Batches, Novel Exhibit Batches, Novel Validation Batches. In these steps, it is not divided to validation batches in three parts but the data of trials batches, Exhibit Batches and Validation batches are use and compile for production and used for validation. It also increases the batch size of the trial, exhibit batches. The new size of trials batches is not less than fifty Thousand, the exhibit batches increase up to two lack and the validation batches up to five lack. After preparing the batches all their data & drugs use for stability & maintain the validation record and compile data for the technology transfer in production department for preparing the marketed size batches.

Keywords: Validation, Scale up, Technique, Preparation, batches

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7 The Impact of Two Factors on EFL Learners' Fluency

Authors: Alireza Behfar, Mohammad Mahdavi


Nowadays, in the light of progress in the world of science, technology and communications, mastery of learning international languages is a sure and needful matter. In learning any language as a second language, progress and achieving a desirable level in speaking is indeed important for approximately all learners. In this research, we find out how preparation can influence L2 learners' oral fluency with respect to individual differences in working memory capacity. The participants consisted of sixty-one advanced L2 learners including MA students of TEFL at Isfahan University as well as instructors teaching English at Sadr Institute in Isfahan. The data collection consisted of two phases: A working memory test (reading span test) and a picture description task, with a one-month interval between the two tasks. Speaking was elicited through speech generation task in which the individuals were asked to discuss four topics emerging in two pairs. The two pairs included one simple and one complex topic and was accompanied by planning time and without any planning time respectively. Each topic was accompanied by several relevant pictures. L2 fluency was assessed based on preparation. The data were then analyzed in terms of the number of syllables, the number of silent pauses, and the mean length of pauses produced per minute. The study offers implications for strategies to improve learners’ both fluency and working memory.

Keywords: Preparation, fluency, working memory capacity, two factors, L2 speech production reading span test picture description

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6 Some Observations on the Preparation of Zinc Hydroxide Nitrate Nanoparticles

Authors: Krasimir Ivanov, Elitsa Kolentsova, Violina Angelova, Nguyen Nguyen, Alexander Peltekov


The nanosized zinc hydroxide nitrate has been recently estimated as perspective foliar fertilizer, which has improved zinc solubility, but low phytotoxicity, in comparison with ZnO and other Zn containing compounds. The main problem is obtaining of stable particles with dimensions less than 100 nm. This work studies the effect of preparation conditions on the chemical compositions and particle size of the zinc hydroxide nitrates, prepared by precipitation. Zn(NO3)2.6H2O and NaOH with concentrations, ranged from 0.2 to 3.2M and the initial OH/Zn ratio from 0.5 to 1.6 were used at temperatures from 20 to 60 °C. All samples were characterized in detail by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, differential thermal analysis and ICP. Stability and distribution of the zinc hydroxide nitrate particles were estimated too.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Preparation, zinc hydroxide nitrate, foliar fertilizer

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5 Thermal Conductivity of Al2O3/Water-Based Nanofluids: Revisiting the Influences of pH and Surfactant

Authors: Sebastien Poncet, Nizar Bouguerra, Ahmed Khabou, Saïd Elkoun


The present work focuses on the preparation and the stabilization of Al2O3-water based nanofluids. Though they have been widely considered in the past, to the best of our knowledge, there is no clear consensus about a proper way to prepare and stabilize them by the appropriate surfactant. In this paper, a careful experimental investigation is performed to quantify the combined influence of pH and the surfactant on the stability of Al2O3-water based nanofluids. Two volume concentrations of nanoparticles and three nanoparticle sizes have been considered. The good preparation and stability of these nanofluids are evaluated through thermal conductivity measurements. The results show that the optimum value for the thermal conductivity is obtained mainly by controlling the pH of the mixture and surfactants are not necessary to stabilize the solution.

Keywords: Nanofluid, Stability, Dispersion, Thermal Conductivity, Preparation, surfactant, Al2O3, transient hot wire

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4 NiAl-Layered Double Hydroxide: Preparation, Characterization and Applications in Photo-Catalysis and Hydrogen Storage

Authors: Mohamed Khedr, Ahmed Farghali, Heba Amar


NiAl-Layered Double Hydroxide (NiAl-LDH), one of anionic functional layered materials, has been prepared by a simple co-precipitation process. X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the formation of the desired compounds of NiAl hydroxide single phase and the crystallite size was found to be about 4.6 nm. The morphology of the prepared samples was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and the layered structure was appeared under the transmission electron microscope. The thermal stability and the function groups of NiAl-LDH were investigated using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) respectively. NiAl-LDH was investigated as a photo-catalyst for the degradation of some toxic dyes such as toluidine blue and bromopyrogallol red. It shows good catalytic efficiency in visible light and even in dark. For the first time NiAl-LDH was used for hydrogen storage application. NiAl-LDH samples were exposed to 20 bar applied hydrogen pressure at room temperature, 100 and -193 oC. NiAl-LDH samples appear to have feasible hydrogen storage capacity. It was capable to adsorb 0.1wt% at room temperature, 0.15 wt% at 100oC and storage capacity reached 0.3 wt% at -193 oC.

Keywords: Characterization, Hydrogen Storage, Preparation, photo-catalysis, NiAl-LDH

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3 The Preparation of Titanate Nano-Materials Removing Efficiently Cs-137 from Waste Water in Nuclear Power Plants

Authors: Liu De-jun, Fu Jing, Zhang Rong, Luo Tian, Ma Ning


Cs-137, the radioactive fission products of uranium, can be easily dissolved in water during the accident of nuclear power plant, such as Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, Fukushima accidents. The concentration of Cs in the groundwater around the nuclear power plant exceeded the standard value almost 10,000 times after the Fukushima accident. The adsorption capacity of Titanate nano-materials for radioactive cation (Cs+) is very strong. Moreover, the radioactive ion can be tightly contained in the nanotubes or nanofibers without reversible adsorption, and it can safely be fixed. In addition, the nano-material has good chemical stability, thermal stability and mechanical stability to minimize the environmental impact of nuclear waste and waste volume. The preparation of titanate nanotubes or nanofibers was studied by hydrothermal methods, and chemical kinetics of removal of Cs by nano-materials was obtained. The adsorption time with maximum adsorption capacity and the effects of pH, coexisting ion concentration and the optimum adsorption conditions on the removal of Cs by titanate nano-materials were also obtained. The adsorption boundary curves, adsorption isotherm and the maximum adsorption capacity of Cs-137 as tracer on the nano-materials were studied in the research. The experimental results showed that the removal rate of Cs-137 in 0.01 tons of waste water with only 1 gram nano-materials could reach above 98%, according to the optimum adsorption conditions.

Keywords: Nuclear, Preparation, removal, Cs-137, titanate

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2 Preparing Undergraduate Nursing and Midwifery Students for Culturally Competent Health Care: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Olayide Ogunsiji, Glenda McDonald


Engendering cultural competence in nursing and midwifery students is germane to reducing disparities in contemporary health care settings, increasingly patronized by people from diverse background. Professional standards for registration in Australia require nurses and midwives to be culturally competent. Nursing and midwifery academics worldwide are responsible for preparing students for clinical practice, yet limited attention is paid to exploring how students are being prepared to care for a culturally diverse population. This paper provides insight into the perceptions of academics about how they are preparing undergraduate nursing and midwifery students for culturally competent health care. Academics were drawn from a tertiary educational institution in metropolitan Australia. They responded to a generic email indicating their interest in participating in the study. A total of nine academics who have taught undergraduate nursing and midwifery students in a unit that focused on health and illness perspectives for culturally diverse communities; and provided written consent to participate were included. These academics were engaged in a qualitative digitally-recorded semi-structured face-to-face or telephone interviews which lasted for about 45-60 minutes. Interview data were transcribed verbatim. Through constant comparison, three themes emerged: experiences of the teachers, strategies used for preparing students and challenges in preparing students. The participants spoke about their experiences of teaching in the unit and with the students. They faced challenges related to physical and relational space. They utilised a number of didactic approaches in teaching the unit and critiqued the adequacy of the content in preparing students for practice. This study demonstrated that didactic classroom approaches need to be supported with clinical practice and cultural immersion for a meaningful preparation of nursing and midwifery students to care for culturally diverse populations.

Keywords: Cultural Competence, Preparation, nursing students, undergraduate

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1 Athlete’s Preparation and Quality of Opponent as Determinants of Self-Efficacy among University Athletes in South-West Nigeria

Authors: Raimi Abiodun Moronfolu, Anthonia Olusola Moronfolu


The purpose of this study was to assess athlete’s preparation and quality of opponent as determinants of self-efficacy among university athletes in south-west Nigeria. The descriptive research method was employed in conducting the study. A total of 200 athletes, selected from 4 universities in South-West geopolitical zone of Nigeria through a stratified random sampling technique, were used in the study. The instrument used for data collection was a self-structured questionnaire named ‘Athletes Self-Efficacy Assessment Questionnaire (ASAQ)’. This was developed by the researchers and face validated by three experts in sports psychology. The test-retest method was used in establishing the reliability of the instrument (r=0.79). A total of 200 copies of the validated ASAQ were administered on selected respondents using the spot method. The data collected was used to develop a frequency distribution table for analysis. The descriptive statistics of percentage was used in presenting the data collected, while inferential statistics of linear regression was used in drawing inferences at a 0.05 level of significance. The findings indicated that athlete’s preparation and quality of opponent were significant determinants of self-efficacy among university athletes in South-West Nigeria.

Keywords: athletes, Self-efficacy, Preparation, opponent

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