Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

preference Related Abstracts

10 A Descriptive Preference Analysis on Waterfront Parks Neighboring Lake Shihwa

Authors: J. H. Ahn, J. W. Moon, H. K. Kim, S. J. Noh

Abstract:

Nowadays, as the ecology of Lake Shihwa has been restored significantly, the urban development is in progress around Lake Shihwa areas. Each development project includes a plan on utilizing waterfront areas, but there exist a difference on waterfront design criteria between experts and users. Therefore, it is significant to analyze preferences in design elements of existing waterfront parks around Lake Shihwa (Ansan Waterfront Park, Shihwa Reed Wetland Park, and T-Light Park) based on users’ perspectives and to reflect the result on upcoming waterfront developments. This study derives design elements on waterfront parks from literature reviews. The survey questionnaires are created based on these classified elements and the surveys are conducted to experts and users with in-depth interviews. For all three parks, several park facilities appear to be not recognized by users. Therefore, the circulation path should be introduced in guide maps and information activities and furthermore in disposition of park facilities.

Keywords: Design Elements, lake Shihwa, preference, waterfront park

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9 Characterization of New Sources of Maize (Zea mays L.) Resistance to Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Infestation in Stored Maize

Authors: L. C. Nwosu, C. O. Adedire, M. O. Ashamo, E. O. Ogunwolu

Abstract:

The maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky is a notorious pest of stored maize (Zea mays L.). The development of resistant maize varieties to manage weevils is a major breeding objective. The study investigated the parameters and mechanisms that confer resistance on a maize variety to S. zeamais infestation using twenty elite maize varieties. Detailed morphological, physical and chemical studies were conducted on whole-maize grain and the grain pericarp. Resistance was assessed at 33, 56, and 90 days post infestation using weevil mortality rate, weevil survival rate, percent grain damage, percent grain weight loss, weight of grain powder, oviposition rate and index of susceptibility as indices rated on a scale developed by the present study and on Dobie’s modified scale. Linear regression models that can predict maize grain damage in relation to the duration of storage were developed and applied. The resistant varieties identified particularly 2000 SYNEE-WSTR and TZBRELD3C5 with very high degree of resistance should be used singly or best in an integrated pest management system for the control of S. zeamais infestation in stored maize. Though increases in the physical properties of grain hardness, weight, length, and width increased varietal resistance, it was found that the bases of resistance were increased chemical attributes of phenolic acid, trypsin inhibitor and crude fibre while the bases of susceptibility were increased protein, starch, magnesium, calcium, sodium, phosphorus, manganese, iron, cobalt and zinc, the role of potassium requiring further investigation. Characters that conferred resistance on the test varieties were found distributed in the pericarp and the endosperm of the grains. Increases in grain phenolic acid, crude fibre, and trypsin inhibitor adversely and significantly affected the bionomics of the weevil on further assessment. The flat side of a maize grain at the point of penetration was significantly preferred by the weevil. Why the south area of the flattened side of a maize grain was significantly preferred by the weevil is clearly unknown, even though grain-face-type seemed to be a contributor in the study. The preference shown to the south area of the grain flat side has implications for seed viability. The study identified antibiosis, preference, antixenosis, and host evasion as the mechanisms of maize post harvest resistance to Sitophilus zeamais infestation.

Keywords: Mechanisms, parameters, preference, maize weevil, resistant

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8 The Relations of Volatile Compounds, Some Parameters and Consumer Preference of Commercial Fermented Milks in Thailand

Authors: Rawichar Chaipojjana, Suttipong Phosuksirikul, Arunsri Leejeerajumnean

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The aim of research was to define the relations between volatile compounds, some parameters (pH, titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solid (TSS), lactic acid bacteria count) and consumer preference of commercial fermented milks. These relations tend to be used for controlling and developing new fermented milk product. Three leading commercial brands of fermented milks in Thailand were evaluated by consumers (n=71) using hedonic scale for four attributes (sweetness, sourness, flavour, and overall liking), volatile compounds using headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) GC-MS, pH, TA, TSS and LAB count. Then the relations were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA data showed that all of four attributes liking scores were related to each other. They were also related to TA, TSS and volatile compounds. The related volatile compounds were mainly on fermented produced compounds including acetic acid, furanmethanol, furfural, octanoic acid and the volatiles known as artificial fruit flavour (beta pinene, limonene, vanillin, and ethyl vanillin). These compounds were provided the information about flavour addition in commercial fermented milk in Thailand.

Keywords: PCA, preference, fermented milk, volatile compounds

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7 SSRUIC Students’ Attitude and Preference toward Error Corrections

Authors: Papitchaya Papangkorn

Abstract:

Matching the expectations of teachers and learners is significant for successful language learning. Moreover, teachers should discover what their learners think and feel about what and how they want to learn. Therefore, this study investigates International College, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University students’ preferences toward error corrections in order to help SSRUIC teachers match their expectations and their learners because it is important for successful language learning. This study examined the learners’ attitude and preference toward error correction through 50 first year SSRUIC students both male (25) and female (25) in Bangkok, Thailand. The data were collected from a questionnaire and interviews to investigate the necessity and frequency, timing, type of errors, method of corrective feedback, and person who gives error correction in order to answer the overall research question and sub-questions. The findings indicate five suggestions regarding the overall research question. Firstly, errors should be treated, and always be treated. Secondly, treating errors after finish speaking is the most appropriate time. Thirdly, “errors that may cause problems in an understanding of listener” and “frequent spoken errors” should be treated. Fourthly, repetition and explicit feedback were the most popular types of feedback among males, whereas metalinguistic feedback was the most favoured types amongst females. Finally, teachers were the most preferred person to deliver corrective feedback for the learners. Although the results of the study are difficult to generalize to a larger population, which are Thai EFL learners because of the small sample, the findings provide useful information that may contribute to understanding of SSRUIC learners’ preferences toward error corrections and it might reduce the gap between what teachers employ and what students expect when receiving corrective feedback. The reduction of this gap may be useful for the learning process and could enhance the efforts of both teachers and learners in a Thai context.

Keywords: attitude, preference, corrective feedback, error

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6 Hedonic Price Analysis of Consumer Preference for Musa spp in Northern Nigeria

Authors: Yakubu Suleiman, S. A. Musa

Abstract:

The research was conducted to determine the physical characteristics of banana fruits that influenced consumer preferences for the fruit in Northern Nigeria. Socio-economic characteristics of the respondents were also identified. Simple descriptive statistics and Hedonic prices model were used to analyze the data collected for socio-economic and consumer preference respectively with the aid of 1000 structured questionnaires. The result revealed the value of R2 to be 0.633, meaning that, 63.3% of the variation in the banana price was brought about by the explanatory variables included in the model and the variables are: colour, size, degree of ripeness, softness, surface blemish, cleanliness of the fruits, weight, length, and cluster size of fruits. However, the remaining 36.7% could be attributed to the error term or random disturbance in the model. It could also be seen from the calculated result that the intercept was 1886.5 and was statistically significant (P < 0.01), meaning that about N1886.5 worth of banana fruits could be bought by consumers without considering the variables of banana included in the model. Moreover, consumers showed that they have significant preference for colours, size, degree of ripeness, softness, weight, length and cluster size of banana fruits and they were tested to be significant at either P < 0.01, P < 0.05, and P < 0.1 . Moreover, the result also shows that consumers did not show significance preferences to surface blemish, cleanliness and variety of the banana fruit as all of them showed non-significance level with negative signs. Based on the findings of the research, it is hereby recommended that plant breeders and research institutes should concentrate on the production of banana fruits that have those physical characteristics that were found to be statistically significance like cluster size, degree of ripeness,’ softness, length, size, and skin colour.

Keywords: Analysis, Consumers, Variables, preference

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5 Social Media Marketing Efforts to Influence Brand Equity and Consumer Behavior: The Case of Luxury Fashion Brands in Pakistan

Authors: Syed Rashid Hussain Shah, Sumera Syed, Nida Mushtaq

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Social media is not only acting as a medium of communication; rather it has provided a platform where customers can actually live with the brands they so dearly envy and interact with others with same interest. Organizations are making social media marketing efforts (SMME) to convert this opportunity into a meaningful experience. It may be resembled or considered as an act of branding where the notion is not only to understand the consumer behavior but also developing a strong link with them. Ultimately the quest is to influence and bend it into a mutual benefit of the stakeholders. This study investigates SMME of brands with the help of five dimensions (i.e., entertainment, interaction, trendiness, customization and word of mouth). The study has found that there is no significant impact of SMME as a construct on brand equity and consumer behavior. However, few of the dimensions (i.e. customization and word of mouth), have been found to have influence on brand equity (brand association, brand image) and consumer response (brand preferences).

Keywords: International, Brand Equity, preference, luxury brands, social media marketing efforts (SMME), loyalty price premium

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4 Quantification and Preference of Facial Asymmetry of the Sub-Saharan Africans' 3D Facial Models

Authors: Anas Ibrahim Yahaya, Christophe Soligo

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A substantial body of literature has reported on facial symmetry and asymmetry and their role in human mate choice. However, major gaps persist, with nearly all data originating from the WEIRD (Western, Educated, Industrialised, Rich and Developed) populations, and results remaining largely equivocal when compared across studies. This study is aimed at quantifying facial asymmetry from the 3D faces of the Hausa of northern Nigeria and also aimed at determining their (Hausa) perceptions and judgements of standardised facial images with different levels of asymmetry using questionnaires. Data were analysed using R-studio software and results indicated that individuals with lower levels of facial asymmetry (near facial symmetry) were perceived as more attractive, more suitable as marriage partners and more caring, whereas individuals with higher levels of facial asymmetry were perceived as more aggressive. The study conclusively asserts that all faces are asymmetric including the most beautiful ones, and the preference of less asymmetric faces was not just dependent on single facial trait, but rather on multiple facial traits; thus the study supports that physical attractiveness is not just an arbitrary social construct, but at least in part a cue to general health and possibly related to environmental context.

Keywords: Symmetry‎, Face, preference, Hausa, asymmetry

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3 Behavioral Responses of Coccinella septempunctata and Diaeretiella rapae toward Semiochemicals and Plant Extract

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Muhammad Tariq, Bushra Siddique, Asim Gulzar

Abstract:

The chemical ecology of natural enemies can play a pivotal role in any Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program. Different chemical cues help to correspond in the diversity of associations between prey and host plant species. Coccinellaseptempunctata and Diaeretiellarapae have the abilities to explore several chemical cues released by plants under herbivore attack that may enhance their efficiency of foraging. In this study, the behavioral responses of Coccinellaseptempunctata and Diaeretiellarapae were examined under the application of two semiochemicals and a plant extract and their combinations using four-arm olfactometer. The bioassay was consists of a pairwise treatment comparison. Data pertaining to the preference of C. septempunctata and D. rapae after treatment application were recorded and analyzed statistically. The mean number of entries and time spent of Coccinellaseptempunctata and D. rapaewere greater in arms treated with E-β-Farnesene. However, the efficacy of E-β-Farnesene was enhanced when combined with β-pinene. Thus, the mean number of entries and time spent of C. septempunctata and D. rapaewere highest in arms treated with the combination of E-β-Farnesene x β-pinene as compared with other treatments. The current work has demonstrated that the insect-derived semiochemicals may enhance the efficacy of natural enemies when applied in combination.

Keywords: Predator, preference, olfectometer, parasitoid

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2 Preferred Leadership Behaviour of Coaches by Athletes in Individual and Team Sports in Nigeria

Authors: Ali Isa Danlami

Abstract:

This study examined the coaching leadership behaviours preferred by athletes in individual and team sports in Nigeria that may lead to increased satisfaction and performance. Six leadership behaviours were identified; these are democratic, training and instruction, situational consideration, autocratic, social support and positive feedback. The six leadership behaviours relate to the preference of coaches by athletes that leads to increased performance were the focus of this study. The population of this study is comprised of male and female athletes of states sports councils in Nigeria. An ex-post facto research design was employed for this study. Stratified and purposive sampling techniques were used to select the sampled states according to the six geo-political zones of the country. Two states (North Central (FCT, Nasarawa), North East (Bauchi, Gombe), North West (Kaduna, Sokoto), South East (Anambra, Imo), South west (Ogun, Ondo), South South (Delta, and Rivers) were selected from each stratum. A modified questionnaire was used to collect data for this study, and the data collected were subjected to a reliability test using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) to analyse the data. A two sample Z-test procedure was used to test the significant differences because of the large number of subjects involved in the different groups. All hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha value. The findings of the study concluded that: Athletes in team and individual sports generally preferred coaches who were more disposed towards training and instructions, social support, positive feedback, situational consideration and democratic behaviours. It was also found that athletes in team sports have higher preference for coaches with democratic behaviour. The result revealed that athletes in team and individual sports did not have a preference for coaches disposed towards autocratic behaviour. Based on this, the following recommendations were made: Democratic behaviour by coaches should be encouraged in team and individual sports. Coaches should not be engaged in autocratic behaviours when coaching. These behaviours should be adopted by coaches to increase athletes’ satisfaction and enhancement in performance.

Keywords: Individual, athletes, preference, team, leadership behaviour, coaches’

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1 Assessment of Physico-Chemical Properties and Acceptability of Avocado Pear (Persea americana) Skin Inclusion in Ruminant Diets

Authors: Gladys Abiemwense Ibhaze, Anthony Henry Ekeocha, Adebowale Noah Fajemisin, Tope Oke, Caroline Tosin Alade

Abstract:

The study was conducted to evaluate the silage quality and acceptability of ensiled avocado pear skin (APS) with cassava peel (CSP) and brewers’ grain (BG) using eighteen (18) West African Dwarf goats with an average weight of 7.0±1.5 kg. The experimental diets; 1) 50% cassava peel+ 50% brewers’ grain, 2) 50% brewers’ grain+ 50% avocado pear skin, 3) 50% cassava peel +25% brewers’ grain+ 25% avocado pear skin were ensiled for 21 days. The experimental design was a completely randomized design (CRD). The chemical composition of the diets was investigated. The acceptability of the diets was evaluated for twelve (12) days. Results obtained showed that the crude protein content ranged from 12.18 – 12.47%, crude fiber (15.99-22.67%). Results obtained showed that diet 1 had the least pH value (4.0), followed by diet 3 (4.5) and diet 2 (5.2). All diets were firm in texture and maintained their initial color. The temperature ranged from 27-29 ⁰C with diet 2 having the highest temperature of 29 ⁰C. Acceptability of experimental diets varied (p < 0.05) significantly. Dry matter intake ranged from (426.22-686.73g/day) with animals on a diet one recording the highest dry matter intake. The coefficient of preference and percentage preference, also differed (p <0.05) significantly among the diets. Diet 1 had a coefficient of preference greater than unity. However, this was not significantly (p>0.05) different from diet two but differed from diet 3. Conclusively, APS could be included in goats’ diets in the absence of CSP during feed scarcity provided a rich source of protein is available.

Keywords: preference, Cassava peel, avocado pear skin, Brewers' grain

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