Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Precision Related Abstracts

5 Event Extraction, Analysis, and Event Linking

Authors: Anam Alam, Rahim Jamaluddin Kanji


With the rapid growth of event in everywhere, event extraction has now become an important matter to retrieve the information from the unstructured data. One of the challenging problems is to extract the event from it. An event is an observable occurrence of interaction among entities. The paper investigates the effectiveness of event extraction capabilities of three software tools that are Wandora, Nitro and SPSS. We performed standard text mining techniques of these tools on the data sets of (i) Afghan War Diaries (AWD collection), (ii) MUC4 and (iii) WebKB. Information retrieval measures such as precision and recall which are computed under extensive set of experiments for Event Extraction. The experimental study analyzes the difference between events extracted by the software and human. This approach helps to construct an algorithm that will be applied for different machine learning methods.

Keywords: Precision, Algorithm, Evaluation, dataset, SPSS, event extraction, Wandora, nitro, event analysis, extraction method, AFG, Afghan War Diaries, MUC4, recall

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4 Development of Visual Working Memory Precision: A Cross-Sectional Study of Simultaneously Delayed Responses Paradigm

Authors: Yao Fu, Xingli Zhang, Jiannong Shi


Visual working memory (VWM) capacity is the ability to maintain and manipulate short-term information which is not currently available. It is well known for its significance to form the basis of numerous cognitive abilities and its limitation in holding information. VWM span, the most popular measurable indicator, is found to reach the adult level (3-4 items) around 12-13 years’ old, while less is known about the precision development of the VWM capacity. By using simultaneously delayed responses paradigm, the present study investigates the development of VWM precision among 6-18-year-old children and young adults, besides its possible relationships with fluid intelligence and span. Results showed that precision and span both increased with age, and precision reached the maximum in 16-17 age-range. Moreover, when remembering 3 simultaneously presented items, the probability of remembering target item correlated with fluid intelligence and the probability of wrap errors (misbinding target and non-target items) correlated with age. When remembering more items, children had worse performance than adults due to their wrap errors. Compared to span, VWM precision was effective predictor of intelligence even after controlling for age. These results suggest that unlike VWM span, precision developed in a slow, yet longer fashion. Moreover, decreasing probability of wrap errors might be the main reason for the development of precision. Last, precision correlated more closely with intelligence than span in childhood and adolescence, which might be caused by the probability of remembering target item.

Keywords: Precision, fluid intelligence, visual working memory, wrap errors

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3 Electromagnetically-Vibrated Solid-Phase Microextraction for Organic Compounds

Authors: Soo Hyung Park, Seong Beom Kim, Wontae Lee, Jin Chul Joo, Jungmin Lee, Jongsoo Choi


A newly-developed electromagnetically vibrated solid-phase microextraction (SPME) device for extracting nonpolar organic compounds from aqueous matrices was evaluated in terms of sorption equilibrium time, precision, and detection level relative to three other more conventional extraction techniques involving SPME, viz., static, magnetic stirring, and fiber insertion/retraction. Electromagnetic vibration at 300~420 cycles/s was found to be the most efficient extraction technique in terms of reducing sorption equilibrium time and enhancing both precision and linearity. The increased efficiency for electromagnetic vibration was attributed to a greater reduction in the thickness of the stagnant-water layer that facilitated more rapid mass transport from the aqueous matrix to the SPME fiber. Electromagnetic vibration less than 500 cycles/s also did not detrimentally impact the sustainability of the extracting performance of the SPME fiber. Therefore, electromagnetically vibrated SPME may be a more powerful tool for rapid sampling and solvent-free sample preparation relative to other more conventional extraction techniques used with SPME.

Keywords: Precision, Organic Compounds, electromagnetic vibration, solid-phase microextraction (SPME), sorption equilibrium time

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2 Comparative Evaluation of Accuracy of Selected Machine Learning Classification Techniques for Diagnosis of Cancer: A Data Mining Approach

Authors: Rajvir Kaur, Jeewani Anupama Ginige


With recent trends in Big Data and advancements in Information and Communication Technologies, the healthcare industry is at the stage of its transition from clinician oriented to technology oriented. Many people around the world die of cancer because the diagnosis of disease was not done at an early stage. Nowadays, the computational methods in the form of Machine Learning (ML) are used to develop automated decision support systems that can diagnose cancer with high confidence in a timely manner. This paper aims to carry out the comparative evaluation of a selected set of ML classifiers on two existing datasets: breast cancer and cervical cancer. The ML classifiers compared in this study are Decision Tree (DT), Support Vector Machine (SVM), k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN), Logistic Regression, Ensemble (Bagged Tree) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The evaluation is carried out based on standard evaluation metrics Precision (P), Recall (R), F1-score and Accuracy. The experimental results based on the evaluation metrics show that ANN showed the highest-level accuracy (99.4%) when tested with breast cancer dataset. On the other hand, when these ML classifiers are tested with the cervical cancer dataset, Ensemble (Bagged Tree) technique gave better accuracy (93.1%) in comparison to other classifiers.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, Precision, Machine Learning, Breast Cancer, Cervical Cancer, classifiers, recall, F-score

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1 Accuracy/Precision Evaluation of Excalibur I: A Neurosurgery-Specific Haptic Hand Controller

Authors: Hamidreza Hoshyarmanesh, Benjamin Durante, Alex Irwin, Sanju Lama, Kourosh Zareinia, Garnette R. Sutherland


This study reports on a proposed method to evaluate the accuracy and precision of Excalibur I, a neurosurgery-specific haptic hand controller, designed and developed at Project neuroArm. Having an efficient and successful robot-assisted telesurgery is considerably contingent on how accurate and precise a haptic hand controller (master/local robot) would be able to interpret the kinematic indices of motion, i.e., position and orientation, from the surgeon’s upper limp to the slave/remote robot. A proposed test rig is designed and manufactured according to standard ASTM F2554-10 to determine the accuracy and precision range of Excalibur I at four different locations within its workspace: central workspace, extreme forward, far left and far right. The test rig is metrologically characterized by a coordinate measuring machine (accuracy and repeatability < ± 5 µm). Only the serial linkage of the haptic device is examined due to the use of the Structural Length Index (SLI). The results indicate that accuracy decreases by moving from the workspace central area towards the borders of the workspace. In a comparative study, Excalibur I performs on par with the PHANToM PremiumTM 3.0 and more accurate/precise than the PHANToM PremiumTM 1.5. The error in Cartesian coordinate system shows a dominant component in one direction (δx, δy or δz) for the movements on horizontal, vertical and inclined surfaces. The average error magnitude of three attempts is recorded, considering all three error components. This research is the first promising step to quantify the kinematic performance of Excalibur I.

Keywords: Precision, Advanced Metrology, Robot-Assisted Surgery, Accuracy, workspace, hand controller, tele-operation

Procedia PDF Downloads 212