Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Pre-treatment Related Abstracts

6 Device for Thermo-Magnetic Depolymerisation of Plant Biomass Prior to Methane Fermentation

Authors: Marcin Debowski, Marcin Zielinski, Mirosław Krzemieniewski

Abstract:

This publication presents a device for depolymerisation of plant substrates applicable to agricultural biogas plants and closed-chamber sewage treatment plants where sludge fermentation is bolstered with plant mass. The device consists of a tank with a cover equipped with a heating system, an inlet for the substrate, and an outlet for the depolymerised substrate. Within the tank, a magnet shaft encased in a spiral casing is attached, equipped on its upper end with an internal magnetic disc. A motoreducer is mounted on an external magnetic disc located on the centre of the cover. Depolymerisation of the plant substrate allows for substrate destruction at much lower power levels than by conventional means. The temperature within the reactor can be lowered by 40% in comparison to existing designs. During the depolymerisation process, free radicals are generated within the magnetic field, oxidizing the conditioned substrate and promoting biodegradation. Thus, the fermentation time in the fermenters is reduced by approximately 20%.

Keywords: biomass, Pre-treatment, Fermentation, depolymerisation

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5 Device for Thermal Depolymerisation of Organic Substrates Prior to Methane Fermentation

Authors: Marcin Debowski, Marcin Zielinski, Mirosław Krzemieniewski

Abstract:

This publication presents a device designed to depolymerise and structurally change organic substrate, for use in agricultural biogas plants or sewage treatment plants. The presented device consists of a heated tank equipped with an inlet valve for the crude substrate and an outlet valve for the treated substrate. The system also includes a gas conduit, which is at its tip equipped with a high-pressure solenoid valve and a vacuum relief solenoid valve. A conduit behind the high-pressure solenoid valve connects to the vacuum tank equipped with the outlet valve. The substrate introduced into the device is exposed to agents such as high temperature and cavitation produced by abrupt, short-term reduction of pressure within the heated tank. The combined effect of these processes is substrate destruction rate increase of about 20% when compared to using high temperature alone, and about 30% when compared to utilizing only cavitation. Energy consumption is greatly reduced, as the pressure increase is generated by heating the substrate. Thus, there is a 18% reduction of energy consumption when compared to a device designed to destroy substrate through high temperature alone, and a 35% reduction if compared to using cavitation as the only means of destruction.

Keywords: Biogas, Pre-treatment, thermal depolymerisation, organic substrate

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4 Sequential and Combinatorial Pre-Treatment Strategy of Lignocellulose for the Enhanced Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Spent Coffee Waste

Authors: Rajeev Ravindran, Amit K. Jaiswal

Abstract:

Waste from the food-processing industry is produced in large amount and contains high levels of lignocellulose. Due to continuous accumulation throughout the year in large quantities, it creates a major environmental problem worldwide. The chemical composition of these wastes (up to 75% of its composition is contributed by polysaccharide) makes it inexpensive raw material for the production of value-added products such as biofuel, bio-solvents, nanocrystalline cellulose and enzymes. In order to use lignocellulose as the raw material for the microbial fermentation, the substrate is subjected to enzymatic treatment, which leads to the release of reducing sugars such as glucose and xylose. However, the inherent properties of lignocellulose such as presence of lignin, pectin, acetyl groups and the presence of crystalline cellulose contribute to recalcitrance. This leads to poor sugar yields upon enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose. A pre-treatment method is generally applied before enzymatic treatment of lignocellulose that essentially removes recalcitrant components in biomass through structural breakdown. Present study is carried out to find out the best pre-treatment method for the maximum liberation of reducing sugars from spent coffee waste (SPW). SPW was subjected to a range of physical, chemical and physico-chemical pre-treatment followed by a sequential, combinatorial pre-treatment strategy is also applied on to attain maximum sugar yield by combining two or more pre-treatments. All the pre-treated samples were analysed for total reducing sugar followed by identification and quantification of individual sugar by HPLC coupled with RI detector. Besides, generation of any inhibitory compounds such furfural, hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) which can hinder microbial growth and enzyme activity is also monitored. Results showed that ultrasound treatment (31.06 mg/L) proved to be the best pre-treatment method based on total reducing content followed by dilute acid hydrolysis (10.03 mg/L) while galactose was found to be the major monosaccharide present in the pre-treated SPW. Finally, the results obtained from the study were used to design a sequential lignocellulose pre-treatment protocol to decrease the formation of enzyme inhibitors and increase sugar yield on enzymatic hydrolysis by employing cellulase-hemicellulase consortium. Sequential, combinatorial treatment was found better in terms of total reducing yield and low content of the inhibitory compounds formation, which could be due to the fact that this mode of pre-treatment combines several mild treatment methods rather than formulating a single one. It eliminates the need for a detoxification step and potential application in the valorisation of lignocellulosic food waste.

Keywords: Ultrasound, Pre-treatment, Enzymatic Hydrolysis, lignocellulose

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3 Thiosulfate Leaching of the Auriferous Ore from Castromil Deposit: A Case Study

Authors: Rui Sousa, Aurora Futuro, António Fiúza

Abstract:

The exploitation of gold ore deposits is highly dependent on efficient mineral processing methods, although actual perspectives based on life-cycle assessment introduce difficulties that were unforeseen in a very recent past. Cyanidation is the most applied gold processing method, but the potential environmental problems derived from the usage of cyanide as leaching reagent led to a demand for alternative methods. Ammoniacal thiosulfate leaching is one of the most important alternatives to cyanidation. In this article, some experimental studies carried out in order to assess the feasibility of thiosulfate as a leaching agent for the ore from the unexploited Portuguese gold mine of Castromil. It became clear that the process depends on the concentrations of ammonia, thiosulfate and copper. Based on this fact, a few leaching tests were performed in order to assess the best reagent prescription, and also the effects of different combination of these concentrations. Higher thiosulfate concentrations cause the decrease of gold dissolution. Lower concentrations of ammonia require higher thiosulfate concentrations, and higher ammonia concentrations require lower thiosulfate concentrations. The addition of copper increases the gold dissolution ratio. Subsequently, some alternative operatory conditions were tested such as variations in temperature and in the solid/liquid ratio as well as the application of a pre-treatment before the leaching stage. Finally, thiosulfate leaching was compared to cyanidation. Thiosulfate leaching showed to be an important alternative, although a pre-treatment is required to increase the yield of the gold dissolution.

Keywords: Leaching, Pre-treatment, Gold, thiosulfate

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2 Biogas Production from Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) Processing Waste

Authors: İ. Çelik, Goksel Demirer

Abstract:

Turkey is the third largest producer of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) after Iran and United States. Harvested pistachio nuts are covered with organic hull which is removed by de-hulling process. Most of the pistachio by-products which are produced during de-hulling process are considered as agricultural waste and often mixed with soil, to a lesser extent are used as feedstuff by local livestock farmers and a small portion is used as herbal medicine. Due to its high organic and phenolic content as well as high solids concentration, pistachio processing wastes create significant waste management problems unless they are properly managed. However, there is not a well-established waste management method compensating the waste generated during the processing of pistachios. This study investigated the anaerobic treatability and biogas generation potential of pistachio hull waste. The effect of pre-treatment on biogas generation potential was investigated. For this purpose, Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) Assays were conducted for two Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) concentrations of 22 and 33 g tCOD l-1 at the absence and presence of chemical and thermal pre-treatment methods. The results revealed anaerobic digestion of the pistachio de-hulling wastes and subsequent biogas production as a renewable energy source are possible. The observed percent COD removal and methane yield values of the pre-treated pistachio de-hulling waste samples were significantly higher than the raw pistachio de-hulling waste. The highest methane yield was observed as 213.4 ml CH4/g COD.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Biogas, Pre-treatment, pistachio de-hulling waste

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1 Efficiency of Pre-Treatment Methods for Biodiesel Production from Mixed Culture of Microalgae

Authors: Malith Premarathne, Shehan Bandara, Kaushalya G. Batawala, Thilini U. Ariyadasa

Abstract:

The rapid depletion of fossil fuel supplies and the emission of carbon dioxide by their continued combustion have paved the way for increased production of carbon-neutral biodiesel from naturally occurring oil sources. The high biomass growth rate and lipid production of microalgae make it a viable source for biodiesel production compared to conventional feedstock. In Sri Lanka, the production of biodiesel by employing indigenous microalgae species is at its emerging stage. This work was an attempt to compare the various pre-treatment methods before extracting lipids such as autoclaving, microwaving and sonication. A mixed culture of microalgae predominantly consisting of Chlorella sp. was obtained from Beire Lake which is an algae rich, organically polluted water body located in Colombo, Sri Lanka. After each pre-treatment method, a standard solvent extraction using Bligh and Dyer’s method was used to compare the total lipid content in percentage dry weight (% dwt). The fatty acid profiles of the oils extracted with each pretreatment method were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The properties of the biodiesels were predicted by Biodiesel Analyzer© Version 1.1, in order to compare with ASTM 6751-08 biodiesel standard.

Keywords: Biodiesel, Pre-treatment, Microalgae, lipid extraction

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