Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Practices Related Abstracts

27 Adaptation of Requirement Engineering Practices in Pakistan

Authors: Waqas Ali, Nadeem Majeed

Abstract:

Requirement engineering is an essence of software development life cycle. The more time we spend on requirement engineering, higher the probability of success. Effective requirement engineering ensures and predicts successful software product. This paper presents the adaptation of requirement engineering practices in small and medium size companies of Pakistan. The study is conducted by questionnaires to show how much of requirement engineering models and practices are followed in Pakistan.

Keywords: Practices, Organizations, Models, Pakistan, requirement engineering

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26 The Role of Gender and Socio-Demographics Variables on Food Safety Perceptions of Lebanese University Students

Authors: Lara Hanna-Wakim, Carine El Sokhn

Abstract:

The perception of the consumer in food safety plays an important role in reducing the incidence of foodborne diseases. Studies show that young adults aged between 18 and 25 years are more prone to foodborne illnesses than adults because of their lack of food safety knowledge. The aim of this study was to measure the degree of university students' awareness in food safety, as well as to explore whether there is a relationship or not between the demographic characteristics of university students and their knowledge and practices. A valid questionnaire divided into three parts was distributed to 938 university students, aged between 18-25 years, living alone or with their parents, from different majors and years of study. The data collected was analyzed using the SPSS program. The total scores of the students surveyed were 47.95% on their food safety knowledge and 56.45% on their practices in the matter. The final score of the food safety perception of university students in both genders was 52.2%. Female students scored higher (63.14%) than male students (39.69%), and students majoring in health related fields (67.45%) scored higher than those majoring in areas not related to public health (49.21%). These results showed an overall low level of food safety perception of university students. Educational interventions are needed to improve their food safety knowledge and practices as they will be responsible for their own family one day.

Keywords: Food Safety, Gender, Perception, Knowledge, Practices, lebanese university students

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25 Appraisal of Maintenance Practices in Selected Tourist Attraction in Bauchi State, Nigeria

Authors: Eldah Ephraim Buba, Amina Bata Zoaka, Aishatu Ibrahim

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This study appraised maintenance practices in selected tourist attractions in Bauchi state, Nigeria. Four tourist attractions were used for the research. Checklists were used to assess operations and repairs maintenance practices in the different attractions. The study carried out personal assessment thrice in six months without prior knowledge of the staff in charge for operational maintenance. Records of repairs maintenance from the attractions maintenance unit for a period of ten years were assessed using the checklists. The findings of the study show that operations maintenance was not adequately carried out in the four tourists attractions. Repairs maintenance was carried out in Yankari game reserve and safari, but repairs maintenance was poor in the other three attractions. The study therefore, recommends that adequate maintenance should be practiced in tourist attractions to expand the lifespan of the facilities and also encourage tourist patronage.

Keywords: Maintenance, Practices, Tourist Attraction, appraisal

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24 Socioeconomic Factors Associated with the Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Oil Palm Smallholders toward Ganoderma Disease

Authors: K. Assis, B. Bonaventure, A. Abdul Rahim, H. Affendy, A. Mohammad Amizi

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Oil palm smallholders are considered as a very important producer of oil palm in Malaysia. They are categorized into two, which are organized smallholder and independent smallholder. In this study, there were 1000 oil palms smallholders have been interviewed by using a structured questionnaire. The main objective of the survey is to identify the relationship between socioeconomic characteristics of smallholders with their knowledge, attitude, and practices toward Ganoderma disease. The locations of study include Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah. There were three important aspects studied, namely knowledge of Ganoderma disease, attitude towards the disease as well as the practices in managing the disease. Cluster analysis, factor analysis, and binary logistic regression were used to analyze the data collected. The findings of the study should provide a baseline data which can be used by the relevant agencies to conduct programs or to formulate a suitable development plan to improve the knowledge, attitude and practices of oil palm smallholders in managing Ganoderma disease.

Keywords: Knowledge, Practices, attitude, smallholders, oil palm, Ganoderma

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23 Teachers' Assessment Practices in Lower Secondary Schools in Tanzania: The Potential and Opportunities for Formative Assessment Practice Implementation

Authors: Joyce Joas Kahembe

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The implementation of education assessment reforms in developing countries has been claimed to be problematic and difficult. The socio-economic teaching and learning environment has pointed to constraints in the education reform process. Nevertheless, there are existing assessment practices that if enhanced, can have potential to foster formative assessment practices in those contexts. The present study used the sociocultural perspective to explore teachers’ assessment practices and factors influencing them in Tanzania. Specifically, the sociocultural perspective helped to trace social, economic and political histories imparted to teachers’ assessment practices. The ethnographic oriented methods like interviews, observations and document reviews was used in this exploration. Teachers used assessment practices, such as questioning and answering, tests, assignments and examinations, for evaluating, monitoring and diagnosing students’ understanding, achievement and performance and standards and quality of instruction practices. The obtained assessment information functioned as feedback for improving students’ understanding, performance, and the standard and quality of teaching instruction and materials. For example, teachers acknowledged, praised, approved, disapproved, denied, graded, or marked students’ responses to give students feedback and aid learning. Moreover, teachers clarified and corrected or repeated students’ responses with worded/added words to improve students’ mastery of the subject content. Teachers’ assessment practices were influenced by the high demands of passing marks in the high stakes examinations and the contexts of the social economic teaching environment. There is a need to ally education assessment reforms with existing socio-economic teaching environments and society and institutional demands of assessment to make assessment reforms meaningful and sustainable. This presentation ought to contribute on ongoing strategies for contextualizing assessment practices for formative uses.

Keywords: Practices, Assessment, Feedback, Formative Assessment

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22 Practice of Supply Chain Management in Local SMEs

Authors: Oualid Kherbach, Marian Liviu Mocan, Amine Ghoumrassi, Cristian Dumitrache

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The Globalization system and the development of economy, e-business, and introduction of new technologies formation create new challenges to all organizations particularly for small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Many studies on supply chain management (SCM) focus on large companies with universal operations employing high-stage information technology. These make a gap in the knowing of how SMEs use and practice supply chain management. In this screenplay, successful practices of supply chain management (SCM) can give SMEs an edge over their competitors. However, SMEs in Romania and Balkan countries face problems in SCM implementation and practices due to lack of resources and direction. The objectives of this research highlight the supply chain management practices of the small and medium enterprise strip in Romania and understand how SMEs manage and use SCM. This study Checks the potential existence of systematic differences between small businesses and medium-sized businesses with regard to supply chain management practices and the application of supply management has contributed to the improvement performance and increase the profitability of companies such as increasing the market share and improving the level of clients.

Keywords: Supply Chain Management, Practices, Globalization, Small and medium enterprises

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21 Effect of Recruitment and Selection on Employee Performance in Hospitality Industries

Authors: Yusuf A. Bako, Olubunmi O. Kolawole

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This study sought to establish the effect of recruitment and selection on the employee performance in hospitality industries. The success of any organization in this modern business environment depends on the caliber of the manpower that steer the affairs of the organization. History has shown that recruitment and selection as a function of human resources management practices have a pivotal role in determining the level of employee performance in an organization. The hospitality industries have been faced with challenges of performance due to unconventional selection and placement practices in terms of poor policy in selecting candidate, inconsistency in selection process, sidetracking employment test and interview, godfatherism and regional selection process etc. The overall objective of the study was to determine how recruitment and selection affect employee performance in hospitality industry in Ogun State, Nigeria. This study adopts descriptive and inferential research design while population was drawn from leading hotels in Ogun State, Nigeria. The samples size was 100 employees and questionnaire was used to collect data while Cronbach alpha was used to test the instrument. The result of the study reveals that correlation between employee performance and recruitment and selection were highly significant.

Keywords: Practices, Human Resources Management, Selection, recruitment, employee performance

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20 Assessment of the Effect of Maintenance Practices on Tourist’s Patronage in Yankari Resort and Safari Nigeria

Authors: Eldah Ephraim Buba

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The study is aimed at assessing the effect of maintenance practices on tourist patronage. Yankari resort and Safari had a patronage of twenty thousand, three hundred and two international and national tourists in two thousand and ten, fourteen thousand nine hundred and sixty two, in two thousand and eleven and ten thousand six hundred and one, in two thousand and twelve. The number of tourists keeps falling as the resort has been witnessing low patronage. Personal observation has shown that the state of facilities in the resort is bad. This study aims to appraise maintenance practices in the resort and how it affects tourist patronage. Standard checklist was used for the appraisal of facilities, while questionnaires were administered to tourists to examine whether maintenance practices in the resort do affect their patronage. Findings show that Operational maintenance was poorly carried out while repairs maintenance was fairly done. The study also discovered that there is significant relationship between maintenance practices and tourist patronage. It is recommended that adequate repairs and operational maintenance practices should be carried out in the resort to encourage tourist patronage.

Keywords: Maintenance, Practices, tourist, patronage

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19 An Appraisal of Maintenance Management Practices in Federal University Dutse and Jigawa State Polytechnic Dutse, Nigeria

Authors: Aminu Mubarak Sadis

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This study appraised the maintenance management practice in Federal University Dutse and Jigawa State Polytechnic Dutse, in Nigeria. The Physical Planning, Works and Maintenance Departments of the two Higher Institutions (Federal University Dutse and Jigawa State Polytechnic) are responsible for production and maintenance management of their physical assets. Over–enrollment problem has been a common feature in the higher institutions in Nigeria, Data were collected by the administered questionnaires and subsequent oral interview to authenticate the completed questionnaires. Random sampling techniques was used in selecting 150 respondents across the various institutions (Federal University Dutse and Jigawa State Polytechnic Dutse). Data collected was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) and t-test statistical techniques The conclusion was that maintenance management activities are yet to be given their appropriate attention on functions of the university and polytechnic which are crucial to improving teaching, learning and research. The unit responsible for maintenance and managing facilities should focus on their stated functions and effect changes were possible.

Keywords: Practices, Maintenance Management, University, appraisal, polytechnic

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18 Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices regarding Anthrax among Community Members, Health and Veterinary Workers in Maragua, Kenya

Authors: Isaiah Chacha, Samuel Arimi, Andrew Thaiya

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Background: This study was conducted to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding anthrax in Maragua, Kenya to provide baseline information to design interventions. Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted among head of households, health and veterinary workers in Maragua Sub-county in August and September 2014. Administered questionnaires were used to collect data from household members and a key informant interview held with health and veterinary workers. Multi stage sampling was used to obtain participants’ knowledge, attitudes and practices. Questions were scored and descriptively analyzed using Excel spreadsheet then exported to GenStat Discovery Edition 4. Results: A total of 293 community members were recruited in this study. The overall level of knowledge was 77.9% of all community members regarding cause, transmission, symptoms and prevention of the disease in both humans and animals. Majority of the participants (96.3%) had heard about anthrax. A total of 99 (33.8%) correspondents had seen a person with anthrax and 75.1% think that anthrax is a very serious disease in the area. Of the interviewed correspondents, 14.3% of them have had their animals (mostly cattle) suffer from anthrax while 15.7% had either suffered from anthrax or have had their family member who suffered from anthrax. Conclusion: The study findings indicate above average knowledge on cause, symptoms, transmission and prevention of anthrax among community members in humans and animals. Practices in this study were still risk among community members. Veterinary and Medical health planners should design anthrax awareness interventions as a team targeting to reach these communities and the public through barazas, radio, CHW and other communication channel on a regular basis.

Keywords: Knowledge, Practices, attitudes, Kenya, anthrax, Maragua

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17 Infant Care Practice in Hadiya Culture: Case Study of Harche Auyaya

Authors: Dawit Thomas

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Feeding and weaning practices vary from culture to culture and depend on different child-rearing values. The socio-cultural dimensions that influence the acceptable infant feeding practices are varied and complex. Understanding cultural differences in beliefs and practices relating to infant feeding is important to enhance designing programs for delivering successful psychological, social, physiological and economic well-being of mothers and infants. The main purpose of this study was exploring mothers infant feeding practices in the context of Hadiyya culture. After purposively selecting Harche Huyaya Uyaya Kebele eight infant feeding mothers were selected using snowball sampling technique. The study employed interviews and focus group discussion. The study found out early initiation and prolonged breastfeeding and early complementary feeding in some instances immediately after birth. In addition, infants were not forced to wean unless the mothers encounter pressing issues like pregnancy and health related problems. Furthermore, the main weaning techniques were putting unpleasant materials on the tip of nipples and sending infants to grandparents home. The study also found out gender difference in weaning, i.e., early initiation of weaning for girls. This can be indicative of gender-based bias on weaning practice. Finally, health extension workers, office of women and children affairs and Hadiyya Zone Tourism office should organize awareness raising programs to preserve vital infant feeding practices like prolonged breastfeeding and length of weaning. In addition, the offices should raise awareness among communities on negative side effects of sending infant to grandparents home that may weaken infant-mothers attachment and create favorable ground for the development of phobia.

Keywords: Practices, Feeding, infant, weaning

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16 Parenting Practices, Challenges and Prospectus of Working Mothers in Arsi University: Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia

Authors: Endalew Fufa Kufi

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Every married person aspires to be a parent regardless of the situation in which s/he lives. Such aspiration meets with reality when the destined parent is able to give adequate supports and services to his/her children, whether the latter are got by birth or through adoption. The adequacy of services parents provide their children is both enriched and tempted by the work on which they involve. On the one hand, parents need to work and earn a living in order to support their family. On the other hand, they must spend most of their time outside home to do the work, which shortens the time and might they spare to care for their children. Where the sufficiency of services parents owe their children could be ascertained by in terms of life skills, physical care and related provisions, the role of working fathers and mothers in providing such supports could be diverse across cultures and work traditions. Hence, this research deals with the investigation of working mothers’ parental practices, challenges they face in providing parental services and the implication for the future progress of the parents and their children. Target of the study will be Arsi University in Oromia Regional State of Ethiopia. Descriptive survey design in holding the research, and data for the research will be collected in the form of experiential self-report from 150 working mothers selected from the entire working women population of Colleges of Agriculture and Environmental Studies and College of Health Sciences through stratified random-sampling. Instruments of data collection will be closed and open-ended questionnaire. Complementary data will also be collected from purposively selected samples through semi-structured interview. Data for the research will be collected through questionnaire first and then through interview. Data analysis will also follow the same procedure. The collected data will systematically be organized and statistically and thematically analyzed in order to come up with indicative findings. The overarching thesis is that, working mothers in the study area bear a lot of responsibilities both at home and at work place which leave them very little time for parenting services. Unless due attention is given to the way they can spare time for their children, they are more likely to be tense between work-life and family care services, which tempt them in different directions.

Keywords: Challenges, Practices, Mothers, University, working

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15 Exploring Family and Preschool Early Interactive Literacy Practices in Jordan

Authors: Rana Alkhamra

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Background: Child's earliest experiences with books and stories during the first years of his life are strongly linked with the development of his early language and literacy skills. Interacting in routine learning activities, such as shared book reading, storytelling, and teaching about the letters of the alphabet make a critical foundation for early learning, language growth and emergent literacy. Aim: The current study explores family and preschool early interactive literacy practices in families and preschools (nursery and kindergarten) in Jordan. It highlights the importance of early interactive literacy activities on child language and literacy growth and development. Methods: This is a cross sectional study that surveyed 243 Jordanian families. The survey investigated literacy routine practices, largely shared books reading, at home and at preschool; child speech and language development; and family demographics. Results: Around 92.5% of the families read books and stories to their children, as frequently as 1-2 times weekly or monthly (75%). Only 19.6% read books on daily basis. Many families reported preferring story-telling (97%). Despite that families acknowledged the importance of early literacy activities, on language, reading and writing, cognitive, and academic development, 45% asked for education and training pertaining to specific ways and ideas to help their young children develop language and literacy skills. About 69% of the families reported reading books and stories to their children for 15 minutes a day, while 71.2% indicated having their children watch television for 3 to > 6 hours a day. At preschool, only 52.8% of the teachers were reported to read books and stories. Factors like parent education, monthly income, living inside (33.6%) or outside (66.4%) the capital city of Amman significantly (p < 0.05) affected child early literacy interactive activities whether at home or at preschool. Conclusion: Early language and literacy skills depend largely on the opportunities and experiences provided to children in the home and in preschool environment. Family literacy programs can play an important role in bridging the gap in early literacy experiences for families that need help. Also, speech therapists can work in collaboration with families and educators to ensure that young children have high quality and sufficient opportunities to participate in early literacy activities both at home and in preschool environments.

Keywords: Language, Practices, Literacy, Family, jordan, preschool, interactive activities

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14 Engineering Practice in Nigerian University: A Microcosm of Engineering Development and Practice in Developing Countries

Authors: Sunday Olufemi Adesogan

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There is a strong link between engineering and development. Engineering as a profession is a call to service by the society. Perhaps next to soldiers, engineers are the most patriotic professionals. However, unlike soldiers, they remain servants of society at all times and in all circumstances. Despite their role to the society, engineering profession seems not to be enjoying the respect due to it probably because of failures associated with some engineering projects. This paper focuses on the need to improve on engineering practices for developments in developing countries using Engineering practice in Nigerian Universities as a tool for argument. Purposeful Survey, interview and focus group discussion were carried out among one hundred and twenty (120) reputable firms in Nigeria. The topic was approached through a few projects that the firms have been involved in from the planning stage, some to completion and beyond into the stage of maintenance and monitoring. It is revealed that some factors which are not determined by the engineers themselves impeded progress and full success of engineering practice in developing countries. The key culprit is corruption whose eradication will put the nation on the solid path of effective engineering development and poverty alleviation.

Keywords: Development, Engineering, Sustainable, Practices

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13 Labour Productivity Measurement and Control Standards for Hotels

Authors: Kristine Joy Simpao

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Improving labour productivity is one of the most enthralling and challenging aspects of managing hotels and restaurant business. The demand to secure countless productivity became an increasingly pivotal role of managers to survive and sustain the business. Besides making business profitable, they are in the doom to make every resource to become productive and effective towards achieving company goal while maximizing the value of organization. This paper examines what productivity means to the services industry, in particular, to the hotel industry. This is underpinned by an investigation of the extent of practice of respondent hotels to the labour productivity aspect in the areas of materials management, human resource management and leadership management and in a way, computing the labour productivity ratios using the hotel simple ratios of productivity in order to find a suitable measurement and control standards for hotels with SBMA, Olongapo City as the locale of the study. The finding shows that hotels labour productivity ratings are not perfect with some practices that are far below particularly on strategic and operational decisions in improving performance and productivity of its human resources. It further proves of the no significant difference ratings among the respondent’s type in all areas which indicated that they are having similar perception of the weak implementation of some of the indicators in the labour productivity practices. Furthermore, the results in the computation of labour productivity efficiency ratios resulted relationship of employees versus labour productivity practices are inversely proportional. This study provides a potential measurement and control standards for the enhancement of hotels labour productivity. These standards should also contain labour productivity customized for standard hotels in Subic Bay Freeport Zone to assist hotel owners in increasing the labour productivity while meeting company goals and objectives effectively.

Keywords: Standards, Hotel, Practices, Measurement and Control, labour productivity, efficiency ratios

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12 Study on the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) of Patients with Hypertension in Aseer Hospital, Asir Region, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ayesha Siddiqua

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Background: Hypertension is a silent killer disease and a common risk factor for considerable morbidity and mortality. Its effects can be seen on the organs like Heart; Brain; Kidneys. In Saudi Arabia, hypertension affects a sizeable enough proportion of the population, with a prevalence of 27.9% in urban and 22.4 in rural population. Despite these features, the magnitude and epidemiological characteristics of this disease have been rarely studied in Saudi Arabia. To fill this gap, we conducted a survey in Abha to study the KAP of hypertension. KAP study shows what people know about certain things, their feelings and behavior towards the disease management. An improvement in the Knowledge and Attitudes towards disease management can reform the kinds of practices which are followed. Objectives: To assess the level of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of patients who suffer from Hypertension. To improve the Quality of life of patients. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional survey was conducted on a sample size of 130 Hypertensive patients of both the genders enrolled by simple random sampling technique admitted in the Aseer Central Hospital of Abha during the period from October 2016 to December 2016. Results: Altogether 130 hypertensive patients were enrolled in this study with equal no. of Males and Females. Most of the respondents were aged between 18-40 years (45%). On assessing the KAP of the patients, we found that the Knowledge and Attitude score was good but the Practice scores were moderate in both the genders. Conclusion: Our study concludes that a significant proportion of hypertensive patients show less Practice towards the disease management which can lead to severe complications in time being and also result in damage of other vital organs. So there is a need of intense educational intervention for the patients which can be done by Patient counselling by the clinical pharmacist. Strategies to modify lifestyle which help in control of hypertension can include providing leaflets as well as direct educational programs.

Keywords: Knowledge, Practices, Hypertension, attitude

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11 The Impact of an Educational Program on Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Healthcare Professionals towards Family Presence during Resuscitation in an Emergency Department at a Tertiary Care Setting, in Karachi, Pakistan

Authors: Rozina Karmaliani, Shaista Meghani, Khairulnissa Ajani, Shireen Shahzad, Nadeem Ullah Khan

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Background: The concept of Family Presence During Resuscitation (FPDR) is gradually gaining recognition in western countries, however, it is rarely considered in South Asian countries including Pakistan. Over time, patients’ and families’ rights have gained recognition and healthcare has progressed to become more patient-family centered. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of an educational program on the Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices (KAP) of healthcare professionals (HCPs) towards FPDR in Emergency Department (ED), at a tertiary care setting, in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: This was a Pre-test and Post-test study design. A convenient universal sampling was done, and all ED nurses and physicians with more than one year of experience were eligible. The intervention included one-hour training sessions for physicians (three sessions) and nurses (eight sessions), The KAP of nurses and physicians were assessed immediately after (post-test I), and two weeks(post-test II) after the intervention using a pretested questionnaire. Results: The findings of the study revealed that the mean scores of knowledge and attitude of HCPs at both time points were statistically significant (p-value=<0.001), however, an insignificant difference was found on practice of FPDR (p-value=>0.05). Conclusion: The study findings recommend that the educational program on FPDR for HCPs needs to be offered on an ongoing basis. Moreover, training modules need to be developed for the staff, and formal guidelines need to be proposed for FPDR, through a multidisciplinary team approach.

Keywords: Education, Practices, attitude, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, family presence, health care professionals

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10 Household Energy Usage and Practices in the Rural Areas of Northern Part of Mindanao Island, Philippines

Authors: Odinah Cuartero-Enteria, Aive Pecasales, Jhadly Philip Buniel, Christian Joy Vega, Shiela Estubo

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In the Philippines, Mindanao Island has the cheapest electricity because of the hydroelectric plants. Due to the rapid increase of the electricity consumption which the sources of electricity cannot support, it causes rotating brownout during summer season. This study investigated the household energy usage and practices in the rural areas of northern part of the Mindanao Island, Philippines. The questionnaire that includes the respondents’ profile and their common practices in energy consumptions was used as a tool in gathering the data. Several households were subjected to the survey. Results show energy consumption is not dependent on the profile of the respondents. It was observed that most of the families prefer to use energy saving methods of reducing electricity consumption. The main energy saving methods are unplugging unused home appliances, using of compact fluorescent bulb and energy-efficient gadgets, and using high electricity consumption appliances by schedule. Based on the results, the households in the rural areas know the practices of reducing electricity consumption. However, it is highly recommended that concern agencies should initiate information dissemination and strict implementation of well-formulated energy conservation practices all over the areas in Mindanao.

Keywords: Practices, rural areas, households, Philippines, Mindanao Island, energy usages

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9 Salon-Associated Infections: Customer’s Knowledge and Practice Measures

Authors: Esraa Elaraby, Dania Abu Zahra, Ghidaa Maswadah, Osama Amira, Mohamed Alshoura, Nihar Dash

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Background: Human being uses salon for a variety of purposes, from trimming of hair and shaving to a range of beauty treatments such as manicure and pedicure. Salon activities involve use of several instruments including scissors, scalpels and razors, materials such as soaps, solutions, creams and gels on human skin and body. Besides, salon customers also use chair, bed and many other common shared utensils and appliances. These salons related activities create a suitable environment for the transmission of several diseases and pathogens including hepatitis B and C, scabies, tuberculosis, staphylococcus and MRSA etc. The transmission of these pathogens can be prevented by maintenance of adequate hygiene and standard preventive measures. Aim: To assess the customer’s level of knowledge about salon-acquired infections and practices taken to prevent their transmission. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 500 participants across the Emirates. Moreover, self-administered questionnaires (in English and Arabic) were distributed through convenience sampling methods between February and April 2017. Results: The study included 500 participants of which 250 were females. The mean age of the study population was 33 years (SD=4.77). The participants were from several nationalities including 325 Arabs (Non-GCC) (66.2%), 108 Non-Arabs (22%), and 59 Arabs (GCC) (11.8%). The majority of the participants 421 (84.4%) had required knowledge about salon-associated infections with a mean knowledge score of 6/10 (60%). However, when it comes down to preventive practices, only 73 of the 500 participants (14.6%) did carry their own equipment. Thus, there was insufficient correlation between the level of knowledge and preventive practices (p=0.139) of salon-associated infections. Conclusion: People’s knowledge about the salon-associated infections among UAE residents was good, but only a small number practically took the required preventative measures towards this issue. Therefore, a public awareness program is recommended to enhance the deficiencies in knowledge and practices to prevent salon-acquired infections among the users. Up to our knowledge, this is the first study of this kind in the UAE targeting the salon customers about this important issue.

Keywords: Knowledge, Practices, awareness, salon-associated infections

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8 Non-Communicable Diseases: Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Risk Factors among Secondary School Students in Sharjah, UAE

Authors: A. Al-Ali, A. Al-Wandi, R. Dali, Y. Al-Karaghouli

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Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have become an alarming health problem across the globe. The risk of developing those diseases begins in childhood and develops gradually under the influence of risk factors including obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cigarette smoking and decreased physical activity. Therefore, this study aims to determine the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the risk factors of lifestyle induced chronic diseases (non-communicable diseases) among secondary school students in Sharjah city. Methods: Five hundred and ninety-one school children, from grades 10 to 12, formed the study sample, using the multistage stratified cluster sampling method. Four governmental schools were chosen, for each gender. Data was collected through a pretested, close-ended questionnaire consisting of five sections; demographics, physical activity, diet, smoking and sleeping patterns. Frequencies and descriptive statistics were used to analyze data through SPSS 23. Results: The data showed 64.6% of students had low knowledge of risk factors of non-communicable diseases. Concerning physical activity, 58.2 % were physically inactive and females being less active than males. More than 2/3 of students didn’t fulfill the recommended daily intake of fruits and vegetables (75.9%). 8% reported to be smokers with cigarettes being the most encountered tobacco product. Conclusion: Our study has demonstrated a low level of knowledge and practices yet, positive attitudes towards risk factors of chronic diseases. We recommend implementation of thorough awareness campaigns through public health education about the risk factors of non-communicable diseases.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Knowledge, diet, Practices, attitudes, Non-communicable diseases, Smoking

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7 Educational Policies Vis-à-Vis Implementation and Challenges in the Case of Physically Disabled Children in Balochistan, Pakistan

Authors: Mumtaz Ali Baloch

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This article aims at to review the policies and gaps including the socioeconomic and institutional factors that affected the enrollment of disabled children and caused drop-outs. It provides insights to scrutinize the gaps in policies, socioeconomic, and institutional factors with the specific concern in enrollment and drop out of disabled children in Pakistan, and Balochistan in particular. The findings of this study revealed that the old-age centralized policies and a number of socio-economic and institutional factors seemed to have significantly affected the enrollment and quality education in the case of physically disabled children. There were only a few schools functional in entire Balochistan. For example, an entire province (Balochistan) there are only two schools for disabled children, established in Quetta city. In the other 31 districts, an estimated population of 300,000 people of each district there were no schools for the disabled children. The findings of this study revealed that there is a great distinction between the policy and practice in the case of physically disabled children in Quetta, Balochistan. Consequently, such children seemed to have been out of schools. Dropout after the class eighth grade is almost 100%, as there are no high schools available for physically/disabled children, in Balochistan. The concerned organizations and authorities need to develop and ratify specific policies, provide required) facilities to the schools including sufficient budget, streamline the academic planning, and an effective monitoring and evaluation system. Only awareness and motivation could not help in improving the enrollment rate and decreasing the dropout in the case of physically disabled children. There is an urgent need to provide the required facilities to the schools. Almost all students needed assistive equipment, effective physical therapy as well as regular medical facilities. Such measures can improve the enrolment and rehabilitation of children.

Keywords: Challenges, Practices, Education Policy, Pakistan, Balochistan, physically disabled children

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6 Registered Nurse's Attitudes and Practices towards Physical Examination in the Clinical Settings

Authors: Besher Gharaibeh

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This article addressed the issue of using physical exam in nursing. Nurses hold different attitudes toward using physical exam in the clinical settings. These attitudes determine to embrace physical examination in practice. So, the aim of the study was to examine registered nurses’ attitudes and practices, identify perceived barriers, and to identify the factors which influence the performance and the attitudes towards physical examinations. Results showed that even though nurses reported performing physical exam often, they had negative attitudes toward it. Stress and performing physical examinations on someone of the opposite gender (n=236; 87.4%) were the main barriers. Nurse's level of education influenced the attitude (t=-4.3; p < .01). These results indicated that RNs recognize the necessity of physical examinations, but they face many barriers and challenges which hinder the performance of the examination. Cultural factors and experience were the most influential barriers which deter performance of the physical examination.

Keywords: Nursing, Practices, attitudes, barriers, physical exam

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5 Teachers’ and Parents’ Perceptions of School and Family Partnership Practices of Schools in Mogadishu

Authors: Mohamed Abdullahi Gure, Farhia Ali Abdi

Abstract:

There is almost a complete certainty among educators that parental involvement is the remedy for many of the problems facing schools. It is also widely acknowledged that school administrators and teachers have important roles in promoting parental involvement in children’s education. This work aims at examining the views of parents and teachers on school-partnership practices for promoting parental involvement in education in selected primary schools in Mogadishu-Somalia. The method, which has been employed in this study, is a mixed-method approach; data were collected from parents as well as from teachers of the selected schools using survey questionnaires and interviews. A sample size of 377 parents and 214 teachers participated in this study. This study used an instrument that has been developed by Epstein and Salinas (1993) to assess the perceptions of parents and teachers about parental involvement. Furthermore, data was collected qualitatively through interviews with parents and teachers of the selected schools. The findings of this study show that parents and teachers had similar positive perceptions towards school practices for parental involvement. This study is significant for several reasons. It contributes to the limited information on parental involvement in Somalia and therefore, filling a gap in the existing empirical literature. It offers information to educators as well as to parents, which will help them understand the issues that relate to parental involvement in education. It is hoped that information from this study will facilitate parents and teachers to understand each other’s ideas on parental involvement and develop positive working relations to support children to become successful in their education.

Keywords: Practices, Teachers, Parents, Mogadishu, school-partnership

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4 The Enquiry of Food Culture Products, Practices and Perspectives: An Action Research on Teaching and Learning Food Culture from International Food Documentary Films

Authors: Tsuiping Chen

Abstract:

It has always been an international consensus that food forms a big part of any culture since the old times. However, this idea has not been globally concretized until the announcement of including food or cuisine as intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO in 2010. This announcement strengthens the value of food culture, which is getting more and more notice by every country. Although Taiwan is not one of the members of the United Nations, we cannot detach ourselves from this important global trend, especially when we have a lot of culinary students expected to join the world culinary job market. These students should have been well educated with the knowledge of world food culture to make them have the sensibility and perspectives for the occurring global food issues before joining the culinary jobs. Under the premise of the above concern, the researcher and also the instructor took on action research with one class of students in the 'Food Culture' course watching, discussing, and analyzing 12 culinary documentary films selected from one decade’s (2007-2016) of Berlin Culinary Cinema in one semester of class hours. In addition, after class, the students separated themselves into six groups and joined 12 times of one-hour-long focus group discussion on the 12 films conducted by the researcher. Furthermore, during the semester, the students submitted their reflection reports on each film to the university e-portfolio system. All the focus discussions and reflection reports were recorded and collected for further analysis by the researcher and one invited film researcher. Glaser and Strauss’ Grounded Theory (1967) constant comparison method was employed to analyze the collected data. Finally, the findings' results were audited by all participants of the research. All the participants and the researchers created 200 items of food culture products, 74 items of food culture practices, and 50 items of food culture perspectives from the action research journey through watching culinary documentaries. The journey did broaden students’ points of view on world food culture and enhance their capability on perspective construction for food culture. Four aspects of significant findings were demonstrated. First, learning food culture through watching Berlin culinary films helps students link themselves to the happening global food issues such as food security, food poverty, and food sovereignty, which direct them to rethink how people should grow, share and consume food. Second, watching different categories of documentary food films enhances students’ strong sense of responsibility for ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all people in every corner of the world. Third, watching these documentary films encourages students to think if the culinary education they have accepted in this island is inclusive and the importance of quality education, which can promote lifelong learning. Last but not least, the journey of the culinary documentary film watching in the 'Food Culture' course inspires students to take pride in their profession. It is hoped the model of teaching food culture with culinary documentary films will inspire more food culture educators, researchers, and the culinary curriculum designers.

Keywords: Practices, Food culture, Perspectives, action research, culinary documentary films, food culture products

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3 Survey on Awareness, Knowledge and Practices: Managing Osteoporosis among Practitioners in a Tertiary Hospital, Malaysia

Authors: Tee P.H., Zamri S.M., M.Kasim K., Tiew S.K.

Abstract:

This study evaluates the management of osteoporosis in a tertiary care government hospital in Malaysia. As the number of admitted patients having osteoporotic fractures is on the rise, osteoporotic medications are an increasing financial burden to government hospitals because they account for half of the orthopedic budget and expenditure. Comprehensive knowledge among practitioners is important to detect early and avoid this preventable disease and its serious complications. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the awareness, knowledge, and practices in managing osteoporosis among practitioners in Hospital Tengku Ampuan Rahimah (HTAR), Klang. A questionnaire from an overseas study in managing osteoporosis among primary care physicians adapted to Malaysia’s Clinical Practice Guideline of Osteoporosis 2012 (revised 2015) and international guidelines were distributed to all orthopedic practitioners in HTAR Klang (including surgeons, orthopedic medical officers), endocrinologists, rheumatologists and geriatricians. The participants were evaluated on their expertise in the diagnosis, prevention, treatment decision and medications for osteoporosis. Collected data were analyzed for all descriptive and statistical analyses as appropriate. All 45 participants responded to the questionnaire. Participants scored highest on expertise in prevention, followed by diagnosis, treatment decision and lastly, medication. Most practitioners stated that own-initiated continuing professional education from articles and books was the most effective way to update their knowledge, followed by attendance in conferences on osteoporosis. This study confirms the importance of comprehensive training and education regarding osteoporosis among tertiary care physicians and surgeons, predominantly in pharmacotherapy, to deliver wholesome care for osteoporotic patients.

Keywords: Osteoporosis, Knowledge, Practices, awareness

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2 A Qualitative Study of Health-Related Beliefs and Practices among Vegetarians

Authors: Lorena Antonovici, Maria Nicoleta Turliuc

Abstract:

The process of becoming a vegetarian involves changes in several life aspects, including health. Despite its relevance, however, little research has been carried out to analyze vegetarians' self-perceived health, and even less empirical attention has received in the Romanian population. This study aimed to assess health-related beliefs and practices among vegetarian adults in a Romanian sample. We have undertaken 20 semi-structured interviews (10 males, 10 females) based on a snowball sample with a mean age of 31 years. The interview guide was divided into three sections: causes of adopting the diet, general aspects (beliefs, practices, tensions, and conflicts) and consequences of adopting the diet (significant changes, positive aspects, and difficulties, physical and mental health). Additional anamnestic data were reported by means of a questionnaire. Data analyses were performed using Tropes text analysis software (v. 8.2) and SPSS software (v. 24.0.) Findings showed that most of the participants considered a vegetarian diet as a natural and healthy choice as opposed to meat-eating, which is not healthy, and its consumption should be moderated among omnivores. A higher proportion of participants (65%) had an average body mass index (BMI), and several women even assumed having certain affections that no longer occur after following a vegetarian diet. Moreover, participants admitted having better moods and mental health status, given their self-contentment with the dietary choice. Relatives were perceived as more skeptical about their practices than others, and especially women had this view. This study provides a valuable insight into health-related beliefs and practices and how a vegetarian diet might interact.

Keywords: Health, Practices, beliefs, vegetarians

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1 Mother's Knowledge, Attitude and Practices towards Childhood Immunization in District Nankana Sahib

Authors: Farina Maqbool

Abstract:

Background: It is well said that children are considered the future masons of the country and a healthy brain is found in a healthy body. Therefore, a healthy generation can be produced by giving knowledge of immunization to mothers. Immunization is the most lucrative public health intrusion that has placed the greatest effect on the health of the people. The main objective of the present study was to find out the mother’s knowledge, attitude, and practices towards childhood immunization. Methods: Multistage sampling technique was used. One hundred and sixty mothers were selected conveniently who have at least one child up to two years. Data were collected through the face to face interview. The chi-square test was used to test the significance of the association between independent and dependent variables. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science. Results: A higher percentage of mothers (85.0%) knew vaccine-preventable diseases. Major proportion (82.5%) of the mothers had thought that immunization is important for their child’s health. A majority (66.3%) of the respondents’ children were fully immunized, whereas 26.3 percent of them were replied negatively. Remaining 7.5 percent of the respondents’ child un-immunized Chi-square value (39.14) shows a highly significant association between the education of the respondents and receiving of all recommended vaccines for children. Gamma value shows a strong positive relationship between the variables.

Keywords: Knowledge, Practices, Immunization, Childhood, attitude

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