Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Practice Related Abstracts

27 Engineering Management and Practice in Nigeria

Authors: Harold Jideofor


The application of Project Management (PM) tools and techniques in the public sector is gradually becoming an important issue in developing economies, especially in a country like Nigeria where projects of different size and structures are undertaken. The paper examined the application of the project management practice in the public sector in Nigeria. The PM lifecycles, tools, and techniques were presented. The study was carried out in Lagos because of its metropolitan nature and rapidly growing economy. Twenty-three copies of questionnaire were administered to 23 public institutions in Lagos to generate primary data. The descriptive analysis techniques using percentages and table presentations coupled with the coefficient of correlation were used for data analysis. The study revealed that application of PM tools and techniques is an essential management approach that tends to achieve specified objectives within specific time and budget limits through the optimum use of resources. Furthermore, the study noted that there is a lack of in-depth knowledge of PM tools and techniques in public sector institutions sampled, also a high cost of the application was also observed by the respondents. The study recommended among others that PM tools and techniques should be applied gradually especially in old government institutions where resistance to change is perceived to be high.

Keywords: Project Management, Public Sector, Practice, Nigeria

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26 Knowledge, Awareness and Practices Concerning of Breast Cancer among Nursing Students in Sri Lanka

Authors: Vimarshi Sandamali Godigamuwa


Background: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in women worldwide. Its incidence is increasing and young women affected more than ever. Nursing students are the future nurses who will have the opportunity to encourage and influence women to be aware of breast cancers. Objectives: To determine the level of knowledge, awareness and practices concerning of breast cancer among Sri Lankan student nurses. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted on 150 nursing students who are in their 2nd and 3rd year studies by distributing a standard self-administered questionnaire. The completed questionnaire were retrieved, graded and scored. Results: Mean age of the respondents was 24.27; (SD=1.66) years and ranged from 20-30 years. Most of the students were female which was 85%. 32% of nursing students scored below 55% for the questionnaire and only 7.3% had good overall knowledge and awareness of breast cancer. Out of 128 female students 89.9% were answered that they know how to perform Breast Self Examination (BSE), out of which 37% of them performed BSE regularly. Only 33% were aware of recommended age for BSE and 10% were knew the recommended age for mammography. 9.3% were aware of frequency for Clinical Breast Examination on 20-39 years of age group. Of the female participants, 11.7% reported positive family history of breast cancer. Conclusion: Nursing students should explore to health educational programs on regular basis on breast cancer and its screening methods. Further studies are needed to identify reasons for not practicing BSE.

Keywords: Knowledge, Breast Cancer, Practice, awareness, student nurses, BSE

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25 Music Responsiveness and Cultural Practice: Tarok Ethnic Group of Plateau State in Focus

Authors: Johnson-Egemba Helen Amaka


Music is emotional in the sense that it controls people’s feelings. The way and manner people react to music at a point in time depend on the type of music that is playing. Music can make someone to march or dance, to cry or laugh, to be happy or sad, to fight or make peace and so on. It therefore makes someone o exhibit some kind of behaviours, either positive or negative. Even dangerous animals have been found to be controlled by music. In the psychiatric homes, mad people are always found to be dancing to music. During funeral ceremony, music singing and dancing are sources of comfort to the bereaved. As a background to the study, Tarok ethnic group in Plateau State was used. The Tarok comprise of Langtang North and South Local Government Areas. The ethnic group of Tarok integrates music in almost all the activities of their lives. A total of six (6) types of folk songs were identified. These songs range from marriages, funeral, royalty, togetherness, war, rituals, festivals, and farming. This paper points out the significance of basic responsiveness of the Tarok people towards the folk songs, their reaction generally whether positive or negative. The methods of data collection employed in this work include oral interview approach, recording of various types of Tarok folk songs, consulting of journals, magazines and textbooks. The researcher used oral interview as her primary source of information which is found to be the most effective procedure in carrying out this task. The songs were textually analyzed with a view to unveiling their meanings, thought processes, and conveying their direction and functions within the context of their rendition. The major findings of the study are that music in Tarok culture covers the physical, mental, emotional and social experiences. The physical aspect is the motor skills, which include dancing and demonstration of the songs. The mental experiences are intellectual levels which include construction and manufacturing of musical instruments, composing songs, teaching and learning etc. Furthermore, this research provided in addition to musical activities, the literature, history and culture of the Tarok communities.

Keywords: Music, Cultural, Practice, responsiveness

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24 Assessment of Knowledge and Practices of Diabetic Patients Regarding Diabetic Foot Care, in Makkah, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Reda Goweda, Mokhtar Shatla, Arawa Alzaidi, Arij Alzaidi, Bashair Aldhawani, Hibah Alharbi, Noran Sultan, Daniah Alnemari, Badr Rawa


Background: 20.5% of Saudis between 20 and 79 years are diabetics. Diabetic foot is a chronic complication of diabetes. The incidence of non traumatic lower extremity amputations is at least 15 times greater in those with diabetes than non diabetics. Patient education is important to reduce lower extremity complications. Objective: To assess the knowledge and practices of the diabetic patients regarding foot care and diabetic foot complications. Methods: In Makkah hospitals, 350 diabetic patients who met the inclusion criteria were involved in this cross sectional study. Interviewing questionnaire and patients’ charts review were used to collect the data. Results: Mean age of patients was 53.0083±13.1 years, and mean duration of diabetes was 11.24±8.7 years. 35.1% had history of foot ulcer while 25.7% had ulcer on the time of interview. 11.7 % had history of amputation and 83.1% had numbness. 77.1 % examine their feet while 49.1% received foot care education and 34% read handouts on foot care. 34% walk around in bare feet. There is a significant statistical association between foot education, foot care practices, and diabetic foot ulcer (p-value < 0.022). Conclusion: Patient knowledge and practices regarding diabetic foot care is significantly associated with the reduction of diabetic foot ulcer.

Keywords: Diabetes, Knowledge, Practice, Care, Foot, attitude

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23 Nurses' Knowledge and Practice Regarding Care of Patients Connected to Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump at Cairo University Hospitals

Authors: Tharwat Ibrahim Rushdy, Warda Youssef Mohammed Morsy, Hanaa Ali Ahmed Elfeky


Background: Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) is the first and the most commonly used mechanical circulatory support for patients with acute coronary syndromes and cardiogenic shock. Therefore, critical care nurses not only have to know how to monitor and operate the IABP, but also to provide interventions for preventing possible complications. Aim of the study: To assess nurses' knowledge and practices regarding care of patients connected to IABP at the ICUs of Cairo University Hospitals. Research design: A descriptive exploratory design was utilized. Sample: Convenience samples of 40 nurses were included in the current study. Setting: This study was carried out at the Intensive Care Units of Cairo University Hospitals. Tools of data collection: Three tools were developed, tested for clarity, and feasibility: a- Nurses' personal background sheet, b- IABP nurses' knowledge self-administered questionnaire, and c- IABP Nurses' practice observational checklist. Results: The majority of the studied sample had unsatisfactory knowledge and practice level (88% & 95%) respectively with a mean of 9.45+2.94 and 30.5+8.7, respectively. Unsatisfactory knowledge was found regarding description and physiological effects, nursing care, indications, contraindications, complications, weaning, and removal of IABP in percentage of 95%, 90%, 72.5%, and 57.5%, respectively, with a mean total knowledge score of 9.45 +2.94. In addition, unsatisfactory practice was found regarding about preparation and initiation of IABP therapy, nursing practice during therapy, weaning, and removal of IABP in percentages of (97.5%, 97.5%, and 90%), respectively. Finally, knowledge level was found to differ significantly in relation to gender (t = 2.46 at P ≤ 0.018). However, gender didn't play a role in relation to practice (t = 0.086 at P≤ 0.932). Conclusion: In spite of having vital role in assessment and management of critically ill patients, critical care nurses in the current study had in general unsatisfactory knowledge and practice regarding care of patients connected to IABP. Recommendation: updating knowledge and practice of ICU nurses through carrying out continuing educational programs about IABP; strict observation of nurses' practice when caring for patients connected to IABP and provision of guidance to correct of poor practices and replication of this study on larger probability sample selected from different geographical locations.

Keywords: Knowledge, Practice, Introduction, intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP), ICU nurses, intensive care unit (ICU)

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22 Pattern of Refractive Error, Knowledge, Attitude and Practice about Eye Health among the Primary School Children in Bangladesh

Authors: Husain Rajib, D. G. Jewel, K. S. Kishor


Background: Uncorrected refractive error is a common cause of preventable visual impairment in pediatric age group which can be lead to blindness but early detection of visual impairment can reduce the problem that will have good effective in education and more involve in social activities. Glasses are the cheapest and commonest form of correction of refractive errors. To achieve this, patient must exhibit good compliance to spectacle wear. Patient’s attitude and perception of glasses and eye health could affect compliance. Material and method: A Prospective community based cross sectional study was designed in order to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices about refractive errors and eye health amongst the primary school going children. Result: Among 140 respondents, 72 were males and 68 were females. We found 50 children were myopic and out of them 26 were male and 24 were female, 27 children were hyperopic and out of them 14 were male and 13 were female. About 63 children were astigmatic and out of them 32 were male and 31 were female. The level of knowledge, attitude was satisfactory. The attitude of the students, teachers and parents was cooperative which helps to do cycloplegic refraction. Practice was not satisfactory due to social stigma and information gap. Conclusion: Knowledge of refractive error and acceptance of glasses for the correction of uncorrected refractive error. Public awareness program such as vision screening program, eye camp, and teachers training program are more beneficial for wearing and prescribing spectacle.

Keywords: Knowledge, Practice, attitude, stigma, refractive error

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21 Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Female Students regarding Emergency Contraception at Midlands State University, Zimbabwe

Authors: P. Mambanga, T. G. Tshitangano, H. Akinsola


Background: Unintended pregnancies constitute a most serious public health challenge to women to an extent that they sometimes end in illegal abortions resulting in adverse consequences. However, the introduction of emergency contraception has served as the last chance for women to avoid unintended pregnancies, though, in countries like Zimbabwe the cause for underutilisation of emergency contraception has been hardly investigated. Purpose: The main purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of female students regarding emergency contraception among in preventing unintended pregnancy. Methodology: A quantitative approach using descriptive cross-sectional survey design was conducted among 319 stratified random sampled female university students of Midland State University, Zimbabwe. Self-administered close-ended questionnaire was used to collect the data. To ensure validity, the development of the instrument was guided by a wide range of literature and the inputs of experts. The instrument was retested for reliability and the responses will be comparing using Cronbach’s alpha which yielded high reliability alpha (α) value of 0.84. Data was coded and entered into a computer using Microsoft Excel 2010 and analysed using Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) version 22.0. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse data in the form of cross tabulation and the results were presented in table, graphs and pie charts. Results: The results indicated that apart from all sources of information about EC, mass media has shown to be the most famous. Although female students knows about EC, the knowledge about effective level and correct use of EC poor. The attitudes of female students at MSU are unfavourable for EC as they gave reasons like EC promotes promiscuity and it can pose risk. The practice of EC at MSU is low with only 47% of respondents said they have once use EC. Conclusion and recommendation: The study concluded the lack of actual knowledge about EC which has directly influenced attitudes and practices. The study concluded that there MSU female students has fair knowledge about EC which has resulted in negative and attitudes towards EC with few EC practices. The study, therefore, recommends the adoption and use of Health Belief Model approach in promoting the young to use EC to prevent unwanted pregnancies.

Keywords: Knowledge, Practice, attitude, female students, emergency contraception

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20 Educational Practices and Brain Based Language Learning

Authors: Dur-E- Shahwar


Much attention has been given to ‘bridging the gap’ between neuroscience and educational practice. In order to gain a better understanding of the nature of this gap and of possibilities to enable the linking process, we have taken a boundary perspective on these two fields and the brain-based learning approach, focusing on boundary-spanning actors, boundary objects, and boundary work. In 26 semi-structured interviews, neuroscientists and education professionals were asked about their perceptions in regard to the gap between science and practice and the role they play in creating, managing, and disrupting this boundary. Neuroscientists and education professionals often hold conflicting views and expectations of both brain-based learning and of each other. This leads us to argue that there are increased prospects for a neuro-scientifically informed learning practice if science and practice work together as equal stakeholders in developing and implementing neuroscience research.

Keywords: Language Learning, Practice, educational practices, explore, mentalist

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19 Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Contraception among the Married Women of Reproductive Age Group in Selected Wards of Dharan Sub-Metropolitan City

Authors: Pratima Thapa


Background: It is very critical to understand that awareness of family planning and proper utilization of contraceptives is an important indicator for reducing maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. It also plays an important role in promoting reproductive health of the women in an underdeveloped country like ours. Objective: To assess knowledge, attitude and practices of contraception among married women of reproductive age group in selected wards of Dharan Sub-Metropolitan City. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 209 married women of reproductive age. Simple random sampling was used to select the wards, population proportionate sampling for selecting the sample numbers from each wards and purposive sampling for selecting each sample. Semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to interpret the data considering p-value 0.05. Results: The mean ± SD age of the respondents was 30.01 ± 8.12 years. Majority 92.3% had ever heard of contraception. Popular known method was Inj. Depo (92.7%). Mass media (85.8%) was the major source of information. Mean percentage score of knowledge was 45.23%.less than half (45%) had adequate knowledge. Majority 90.4% had positive attitude. Only 64.6% were using contraceptives currently. Misbeliefs and fear of side effects were the main reason for not using contraceptives. Education, occupation, and total income of the family was associated with knowledge regarding contraceptives. Results for Binary Logistic Regression showed significant correlates of attitude with distance to the nearest health facility (OR=7.97, p<0.01), education (OR=0.24, p<0.05) and age group (0.03, p<0.01). Regarding practice, likelihood of being current user of contraceptives increased significantly by being literate (OR=5.97, p<0.01), having nuclear family (OR=4.96, p<0.01), living in less than 30 minute walk distance from nearest health facility (OR=3.34, p<0.05), women’s participation in decision making regarding household and fertility choices (OR=5.23, p<0.01) and husband’s support on using contraceptives (OR=9.05, p<0.01). Significant and positive correlation between knowledge-attitude, knowledge-practice and attitude-practice were observed. Conclusion: Results of the study indicates that there is need to increase awareness programs in order to intensify the knowledge and practices of contraception. The positive correlation indorses that better knowledge can lead to positive attitude and hence good practice. Further, projects aiming to increase better counselling about contraceptives, its side effects and the positive effects that outweighs the negative aspects should be enrolled appropriately.

Keywords: Knowledge, Practice, contraceptives, attitude

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18 Developing Academic English through Interaction

Authors: John Bankier


Development of academic English occurs not only in communities of practice but also within wider social networks, referred to by Zappa-Hollman and Duff as individual networks of practice. Such networks may exist whether students are developing academic English in English-dominant contexts or in contexts in which English is not a majority language. As yet, little research has examined how newcomers to universities interact with a variety of social ties in such networks to receive academic and emotional support as they develop the academic English necessary to succeed in local and global academia. The one-year ethnographic study described in this presentation followed five Japanese university students enrolled on an academic English program in their home country. We graphically represent participants’ individual networks of practice related to academic English and display the role of interaction in these networks to socialization. Specific examples of academic practices will be linked to specific instances of social interaction. Interaction supportive of the development of academic practices often occurred during unplanned interactions outside the classroom and among small groups of close friends who were connected to each other in more than one way, such as those taking multiple classes together. These interactions occurred in study spaces, in hallways between class periods, at lunchtimes, and online. However, constraints such as differing accommodation arrangements, class scheduling and the hierarchical levelling of English classes by test scores discouraged some participants both from forming strong ties related to English and from interacting with existing ties. The presentation will briefly describe ways in which teachers in all contexts can maximise interaction outside the classroom.

Keywords: Network, Academic, English, Practice

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17 The Significance of ‘Practice’ in Art Research: Indian and Western Perspective

Authors: Mukta Avachat-Shirke


The process of manifestation in art has been studied deeply by various Indian and Western philosophers through times. In the art of painting, ‘Practice’ is always considered as techniques or making and ‘Theory’ is related to intelligence or the ‘conceptual.' The question about the significance of ‘Practice’ in artistic research has been a topic of debate. The aim of this qualitative study is to find the relevance of practice and theory while creating artworks. This study analyzes the thoughts and philosophy of Abhinavgupta, Hegel, and Croce to find a new perspective for looking at practice and theory within artistic research. With the method of grounded theory, the study attempts to establish the importance of both in artistic research. It discusses the issues like stages of creating art, role of tacit knowledge and importance of the decision-making the ability of the artist. This comparative analysis of these three philosophers along with the present systems can be used as a point of reference for further developments in the pedagogy of art research and artists, to understand the psychology and to follow the process of creativity effectively.

Keywords: Practice, Western philosophy, Indian philosophy, artistic research

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16 Examining the Links between Established Principles, Iranian Teachers' Perceptions of Reading Comprehension, and Their Actual Practice in English for Specific Purposes Courses

Authors: Zahra Alimorad


There is a strong belief that language teachers' actual practices in the classroom context are largely determined by the underlying perceptions they hold about the nature of language and language learning. That being so, it can be envisaged that teaching procedures of ESP (English for Specific Purposes) teachers teaching reading comprehension will mainly be driven by their perceptions about the nature of reading. To examine this issue, four Iranian university professors holding Ph.D. in either TEFL (Teaching English as a Foreign Language) or English Literature who were teaching English to Engineering and Sciences students were recruited to participate in this study. To collect the necessary data, classroom observations and follow-up semi-structured interviews were used. Furthermore, the materials utilized by the teachers such as textbooks, syllabuses, and tests were also examined. Although it can be argued that their perceptions were partially compatible with the established principles, results of the study pointed to a lack of congruence between these teachers' perceptions and their practices, on the one hand, and between the established principles and the practices, on the other. While the literature mostly supports a metacognitive-strategy approach to reading comprehension, the teachers were mainly adopting a skills-based approach to the teaching of reading. That is, they primarily focused on translation as the core activity in the classroom followed by reading aloud, defining words, and explaining grammatical structures. This divergence was partly attributed to the contextual constraints and partly to students' lack of motivation by the teachers.

Keywords: Principles, Practice, perceptions, reading comprehension, English teachers

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15 Linking Theory to Practice: An Analysis of Papers Submitted by Participants in a Teacher Mentoring Course

Authors: Varda Gil, Ella Shoval, Tussia Mira


Teacher mentoring is a complex practical profession whose unique characteristic is the teacher-mentors' commitment to helping teachers link theory with teaching practice in the process of decision-making and in their reflections on teaching. The aim of this research is to examine the way practicing teacher-mentors participating in a teacher mentoring course made the connection between theory and practice. The researchers analyzed 20 final papers submitted by participants in a course to train teacher mentors. The participants were all veteran high-school teachers. The course comprised 112 in-class hours in addition to mentoring novices in the field. The course covered the following topics: The teacher-mentors' perception of their role; formative and summative evaluation of the novices; tutoring strategies and tools; types of learners; and ways of communicating and dealing with novice teachers' resistance to counseling. The course participants were required to write a 4-5 page reflective summary of their field mentoring practice. In addition, they were required to link theories explicitly learned in the course to their practice in the field. A qualitative analysis of the papers led to the creation of the taxonomy of the link between theory and practice relating to four topics: The kinds of links made between theory and practice, the quality of these links, the links made between private teaching theories and official teaching theory, and the qualities of these links. This taxonomy may prove to be a useful tool in the teacher-mentor training processes.

Keywords: Theory, Practice, taxonomy, teacher-mentors, teacher-mentor training

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14 Knowledge, Attitude and Practice on Swimming Pool Hygiene and Assessment of Microbial Contamination in Educational Institution in Selangor

Authors: Nurul Azmawati Mohamed, Zarini Ismail, Mas Ayu Arina Mohd Anuwar, Ling Chai Ying, Tengku Zetty Maztura Tengku Jamaluddin, Nadeeya Ayn Umaisara Mohamad Nor


The transmission of infectious diseases can occur anywhere, including in the swimming pools. A large number of swimmers turnover and poor hygienic behaviours will increase the occurrence of direct and indirect water contamination. A wide variety of infections such as the gastrointestinal illnesses, skin rash, eye infections, ear infections and respiratory illnesses had been reported following the exposure to the contaminated water. Understanding the importance of pool hygiene with a healthy practice will reduce the risk of infection. The aims of the study are to investigate the knowledge, attitude and practices on pool hygiene among swimming pool users and to determine the microbial contaminants in swimming pools. A cross-sectional study was conducted using self-administered questionnaires to 600 swimming pool users from four swimming pools belong to the three educational institutions in Selangor. Data was analyzed using SPSS Statistics version 22.0 for Windows. The knowledge, attitude and practice of the study participants were analyzed using the sum score based on Bloom’s cut-off point (80%). Having a score above the cut-off point was classified as having high levels of knowledge, positive attitude and good practice. The association between socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge and attitude with practice on pool hygiene was determined by Chi-Square test. The physicochemical parameters and the microbial contamination were determined using a standard method for examination of waste and wastewater. Of the 600 respondents, 465 (77.5%) were females with the mean age of 21 years old. Most of the respondents are the students (98.8%) which belong to the three educational institutions in Selangor. Overall, the majority of the respondents (89.2%) had low knowledge on pool hygiene, but had positive attitudes (91.3%). Whereas only half of the respondents (50%) practice good hygiene while using the swimming pools. There was a significant association between practice level on pool hygiene with knowledge (p < 0.001) and also the attitude (p < 0.001). The measurements of the physicochemical parameters showed that all 4 swimming pools had low levels of pH and two had low levels of free chlorine. However, all the water samples tested were negative for Escherichia coli. The findings of this study suggested that high knowledge and positive attitude towards pool hygiene ensure a good practice among swimming pool users. Thus, it is recommended that educational interventions should be given to the swimming pool users to increase their knowledge regarding the pool hygiene and this will prevent the unnecessary outbreak of infectious diseases related to swimming pool.

Keywords: Knowledge, Practice, attitude, pool hygiene

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13 Supply Chain Management Practices in Thailand Palm Oil Industry

Authors: Athirat Intajorn


According to the ASEAN free trade areas (AFTA), Thailand has applied the AFTA agreement for reducing tariffs and reflecting changes in business processes. The reflection of changes in agribusiness processes, in particular, has accumulated as production costs for producers. Palm Oil industry has become an important industry to Thailand economic. Thailand currently ranks the 3rd in the world for Crude Palm Oil CPO. Therefore, the scope of this paper presents a research framework to investigate the supply chain management practices in Thailand palm oil industry. This research is limit to literature review. And the proposed framework identifies the criteria of supply chain management for Thailand palm oil industry in order for linkage among entities within logistics management involving plantation, mill, collection port, refinery and cookie from the data utilization. The Supply Chain Management Practices in Thailand Palm Oil Industry framework has a somewhat different view due to the high complexity of agribusiness logistics management.

Keywords: Supply Chain Management, Practice, palm oil industry, Thailand palm oil industry

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12 Resilient Environments vs. Resilient Architects: Creativity, Practice and Education

Authors: Y. Perera, M. Pathiraja


Within the paradigm of 'Resilient Built-environments,' in order for architecture to be resilient, 'Resilience' should be identified as an essential component of the architect’s notion of creativity. In much simpler terms, 'Resilient Built-Environment' should necessarily be a by-product of the 'Resilient Architect.' The inherent influence of individualistic notions of creativity upon the practice had intensified the dichotomy between theory and practice unless the notion of 'Resilience' is identified as an integral component of the architect’s notion of creativity. Analysing the architectural position is an ideal way of understanding the architect’s notion of creativity, therefore, in exploring the notion of 'Resilience' and the 'Resilient Architect' within the Sri Lankan platform, the architectural positions of two renowned architects; Geoffrey Bawa and Valentine Gunasekara were explored and analysed. The architectural positions of both the architects asserted specific rules and methodologies adopted within the process of problem solving that had subsequently led to a traceable language / pattern within their architecture. The dominance of such rules within the practice could be detrimental to adaptation of theories / notions, such as 'Resilience' and the formation of the 'Resilient Architect', unless methodologies itself are flexible, robust, despite rigidity, or else the notion of 'Resilience' exist in the form of a methodological rule.

Keywords: Education, Theory, Creativity, Resilience, Practice, architectural position

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11 Safety Conditions Analysis of Scaffolding on Construction Sites

Authors: M. Pieńko, A. Robak, E. Błazik-Borowa, J. Szer


This paper presents the results of analysis of 100 full-scale scaffolding structures in terms of compliance with legal acts and safety of use. In 2016 and 2017, authors examined scaffolds in Poland located at buildings which were at construction or renovation stage. The basic elements affecting the safety of scaffolding use such as anchors, supports, platforms, guardrails and toe-boards have been taken into account. All of these elements were checked in each of considered scaffolding. Based on the analyzed scaffoldings, the most common errors concerning assembly process and use of scaffolding were collected. Legal acts on the scaffoldings are not always clear, and this causes many issues. In practice, people realize how dangerous the use of incomplete scaffolds is only when the accident occurs. Despite the fact that the scaffolding should ensure the safety of its users, most accidents on construction sites are caused by fall from a height.

Keywords: Practice, load capacity, façade scaffolds, safety of people

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10 Exploring the Current Practice of Integrating Sustainability into the Social Studies and Citizenship Education Curriculum in the Saudi Educational Context

Authors: Aiydh Aljeddani, Fran Martin


The study mainly aims at exploring and understanding the current practice of social studies and citizenship education curriculum contribution to sustainability literacy and competency of the ninth and tenth grade students in the Saudi general education context. This study stems from a need for conducting research in general education contexts in order to prepare future graduate students who possess fundamental elements of education for sustainable development. To the best of our knowledge, the literature on education for sustainable development reveals that little research has been conducted so far on general education contexts and this study will add new knowledge in the literature. The study is interpretive in nature and employs a qualitative case study approach, and ethnography methodologies to understand deeply this complex educational phenomenon. 167 participants took part in this study, they were from six general education schools and made up of 25 teachers, and 142 students. Document analysis, semi-structured interviews, nominal group technique, and passive participant observation were used in order to gather the data for this study. The outcomes of the study showed the keenness of the Saudi government on promoting and raising awareness education for sustainable development among its younger generation via a sustainable development promoting curriculum. However, applying this vision in a real school setting, particularly via the social studies and citizenship education curriculum in grades nine and ten, has been challenging for different reasons as revealed by this study. First, incorporating sustainability in the social studies and citizenship education curriculum in the Saudi grade ninth and tenth grade, is based on the vision of the Saudi government but the ministry of education’s rules and regulations do not support it. Moreover, the circulars issued by the ministry are also not supportive of teachers and students efforts to implement a sustainable development education curriculum. Second, teachers, as members of this community who play a significant role in achieving the objectives of incorporating sustainability, are often seen as technicians and not as professional human beings. They are confined to the curriculum, the classroom and stripped of their will power by the school management and the educational administration. The subjects, who are students here, are also not prepared nor guided to achieve the objects. In addition, the tools mediated between subjects and objects are not convenient. There were some major challenges regarding the contradictions in incorporating sustainability processes such as demanding creativity from a teacher who is overloaded with tasks irrelevant to teaching and teachers’ training programs not meeting the teachers’ training needs.

Keywords: Practice, Curriculum, integrating sustainability, educational context

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9 Children's Literature As Pedagogy: Lessons For Literacy Practice

Authors: Alicia Curtin, Kathy Hall


This paper explores research and practice shared on a masters University module entitled Children's Literature as Pedagogy. Issues explored include the meaning of childhood and literature; the definition of what counts as text, textual and literacy practice for children and adolescents. A sociocultural framework is used to define literacy practice from this perspective and student voice and experience remains central. Lessons from classroom experience and the use of innovative, multi modal and non traditional texts and pedagogical approaches are offered as examples of innovative and inclusive pedagogy in the field of literacy practice.

Keywords: pedagogy, Practice, Sociocultural, non traditional

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8 Gender, Sexual Diversity and Professional Practice Learning: Promoting the Equality of University Students

Authors: Caroline Bradbury-Jones, Maria Clark, Eleanor Molloy, Nicki Ward


Background: Significant developments in the protection of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer (LGBTQ) rights culminated in their inclusion in the Equality Act 2010. This provides legal protection against discrimination including the Public Sector Equality Duty requiring public bodies to consider all individuals when carrying out their day-to-day work. In the UK, whilst the Higher Education sector has made some commitment to eliminating discrimination and addressing LGBTQ inclusivity, there are two particular problems specifically affecting students on professional programmes: -All students will come into contact with LGBTQ patients/clients/students and need to be equipped to respond appropriately to their diverse needs but evidence suggests that this is not always the case. -Many LGBTQ students have specific concerns on professional placements; often ‘going back in the closet’ or feeling uncertain how to respond to questions about their personal lives and being reticent to challenge discrimination against LGBTQ patients/clients/students for fear of reprisal. Study aim: To investigate how best to prepare all students to deal with the issue of gender and sexual diversity and to support LGBTQ students in negotiating (non) disclosure in practice placements. Methods: This multi-method study was conducted in 2017 in the UK. It comprised a student survey, focus group interview with students and a national benchmarking exercise. Findings: Preliminary findings are that there is considerable variation across professional programmes regarding the preparation of students to respond to LGBTQ issues. Similarly, there is considerable difference between the level of preparedness experienced by students irrespective of whether they identify as LGBTQ. Discussion: Nationally there are a number of ‘best practice’ examples that we share in this presentation. These contain important details and guidance about how to better prepare university students for professional practice, and to contribute to eliminating discrimination and addressing LGBTQ inclusivity. Conclusions: The presentation will appeal to delegates who are interested in the equality agenda regarding LGBTQ people. The study findings will be discussed and debated to explore their impact on higher education and learning and to identify ways to integrate best practice into professional curricula across the UK and beyond.

Keywords: Diversity, Equality, Sexuality, Practice, students, University

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7 The Prevailing Practice of Night Hunting in Central Bhutan: Traditional Practice of Courtship as a Sexual Coercion to Women

Authors: Ugyen Phuntsho


A popular and entrenched custom as a form of courtship has been practicing in Bhutan from long time back. This custom is widely being practiced in the villages of eastern and central Bhutan. This long-practiced custom is known by different terms in Bhutan, but it is popularly known to the foreigners as ‘night hunting’. This unique form of courtship custom involves the boy visiting the girl’s house stealthily under the cover of darkness without any pre-appointment. It is still perceived as a serving norms of courtship in the villages in central Bhutan. For many years this practice of night hunting has been in the spotlight of debate as a harmless culture but as sexual violence against women. However, this study examined the changing perception on the night hunting as a form of courtship custom or sexual coercion to women by employing the in-depth interview with 42 participants (21 females and 9 males from 3 different villages, 5 females and 7 males from urban areas) in central Bhutan. Moreover, the study investigated the gender inequality linked with the practice of night hunting in the rural areas of central Bhutan. The study revealed the changing perception on night hunting as more of sexual coercion taking place during night hunting than merely tolerating it as traditional form of practice of courtship. The finding of this study revealed unlike the past; this practice serves minimal social purpose in the society as the social changes with the development of socioeconomic of the people. However, the practice of night hunting is still prevalent at the villages, and it is known that the social power, single and widow women, valuing of village endogamy practices and the popular notion of pride of promiscuous amongst the men have attributed in sexual coercion and in ultimate victimization of the women. Furthermore, the study revealed the gender inequality linked with night hunting thus significantly increasing the vulnerability of rural women to other forms of violence in the society.

Keywords: Women, Violence, Practice, Custom, men, courtship, night hunting, sexual coercion

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6 Prevalence of Tobacco Use and Practice among Patients Attending Dental Institution: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Vinay Gupta, Seema Malhotra


Background: Patients who usually consume tobacco are unaware of its ill effects completely therefore it becomes necessary to educate and counselling them after obtaining their knowledge about tobacco. Aim: To measure prevalence of tobacco use among dental outpatients and to evaluation of tobacco user attending dental outpatients (OPD) prepared to quit. Methods: A cross-sectional survey, which was carried out on patients attending Outside Patient Department (OPD) of dental college of King Georges Medical University, Lucknow, India. All the patients who consumed tobacco attending the Dental College were asked to participate in the study. The questionnaire was written in English/ Hindi (local language). Participation in this study was voluntary and the questionnaire was anonymous and self-administered. The proposal of this survey had been approved by the ethical committee of institution. Informed consent was obtained from all the participants. Results: Prevalence of tobacco user attending the Dental OPD was 46.4%. Male tobacco user represented 85.9%. Smokeless tobacco (57%) user were more than smoking (1.4%) and 18.9% were using both smokeless and smoking tobacco. 40.7% start using tobacco since less than 5 years. 55.3% uses tobacco after get up in the morning. 87.1% tobacco user knows that it cause cancer. 54.8% respond that warning sign on packet/pouch effect on mind but due to addiction, it would not work out. 54.8% attempted for quitting but not successful. 90.0% willing to quit in future if facility provide. Conclusion: Higher prevalence of tobacco usage among study population and will to quit in future shows need of cessation clinic in every dental institution in India.

Keywords: Knowledge, Tobacco, Counselling, Practice

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5 Indigenous Companies in Nigeria's Oil Sector: Stages, Opportunities, and Obstacles regarding Corporate Social Responsibility

Authors: L. U. Dumuje, R. Leite


There is an ongoing debate in terms of corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiative in Niger Delta, Nigeria, that originates from existing gap between stated objective of organizations in the Nigerian oil sector and their main activities that threaten the society. CSR in developing countries is becoming popular, and to contribute to scientific knowledge, we need to research on CSR practices and discourse in indigenous Nigeria that is scarce. Despite governments mandate in terms of unofficial blazing, methane gas is released into the air around refinery area which contributes to global warming. There is a need to understand if this practice applies to indigenous oil companies in Nigeria. To get a better understanding of CSR among indigenous oil companies in Nigeria, our study focuses on discourse and rhetoric regarding CSR. This current paper contributions is twofold: on the one hand, it aims to better understand practitioner’s rationale and fundamentals of CSR in Nigerian oil companies. On the other hand, it intends to identify the stages of CSR initiatives, advantages and difficulties of CSR implementation in indigenous Nigeria oil sector. This current paper uses the qualitative research as a methodological strategy. Instrument for data collection is semi-structured interview. Besides 28 interviews, we conduct five focus group discussions with stakeholders. Participant for this study consist of: employees, managers and executives of indigenous oil companies in Nigeria. It is relevant to mention, key informants as government institution, environmental organization and community leader/member are part of our sample. It is important that despite significant findings in some studies, there are still some gaps. To help filling this existing gaps, we have formulated some research questions, as follows: ‘What are the stages, opportunities and obstacles of having corporate social responsibility practice in indigenous oil companies in Nigeria’. This ongoing research sub-questions as follows: What are the CSR discourses and practices among indigenous companies in the Nigerian oil sector; what is the actual status regarding CSR development; what are the main perceptions of opportunities and obstacles with regard to CSR in indigenous Nigerian oil companies; who are the main stakeholders of indigenous Nigerian oil companies and their different meanings and understandings of CSR practices. Regarding the above questions, the following objectives have been determined: first, we conduct a literature review with the aim of understanding and identifying importance of CSR practises in western and developing countries. Second, this current paper identify specific characteristics of the national context in terms of CSR engagement in Nigeria, so we perform empirical research with relevant stakeholder in indigenous Nigerian, as well as key informants, in order to identify development of CSR and different perception of this praised initiative, CSR.

Keywords: Practice, Corporate Social Responsibility, Indigenous, Nigeria, oil organizations

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4 Attrition of Igbo Indigenous Wives' Given Pet Names: Implications for the Igbo Language Endangerment

Authors: Ogbonna Anyanwu


Language attrition describes the non-pathological decrease in language that had previously been acquired by an individual. It can affect some aspects of a language use or all aspects of a language use. The Igbo language, (despite its status as one of the major Nigerian languages) based on recent studies is fast losing its population of first generation speakers and therefore, increasingly becoming endangered and may be heading to extinction as warned by UNESCO if there are no conscious efforts to reverse the situation. The present paper, which contributes to the Igbo endangerment studies, examines the attrition of an aspect of the Igbo language use and practice: the indigenous Igbo wives’ pet names. It surveys the level of attrition of indigenous Igbo wives’ pet names; names which Igbo married men christen their wives upon marriage. The wives’ pet names under investigation here are specifically those which a husband traditionally christens his wife to reflect the intimate marital bond between them and also to extol his wife as an integral part of him. These pet names morphologically, are always suffixed with the compound morpheme diya which is translated as 'her husband' as in enyidiya 'her husband’s friend', obidiya 'her husband’s heart', ahudiya 'her husband’s body', ugwudiya 'her husband’s honour’, etc. The data for the study were collected through questionnaire, and oral interview from 300 male and 100 female respondents of different age groups who are married, indigenous Igbo speakers and are resident in the study areas (two Local Government Areas from two different Senatorial Zones in Abia and Imo States, south-eastern, Nigeria). Findings from the study show almost a total attrition of the Igbo indigenous wives’ pet names under study across the different age groups. For the respondents within the age group of 25-54 years, there is no more christening and bearing of the indigenous Igbo wives’ pet names by men and women respectively. This age group gives and bears pet names which the group members feel are contemporary and in line with modernity. This is a piece of evidence that the Igbo indigenous pet names’ use and practice are no longer part of the lifestyle of this group of respondents and therefore, they cannot transmit such names to their own children. For the respondents within the age group of 55-74 years, the indigenous Igbo wives’ pet names are also fading fast with less than 20% retention within the age group of 65-74 years with very few traces within the group of 55-64 years. These findings are further evidence that this aspect of Igbo language use and culture is severely threatened and may be on the verge of being lost. The loss of this aspect of the Igbo language or any aspect of the language has huge implications for the gradual and steady endangerment of the language as predicted by UNESCO.

Keywords: Practice, attrition, Igbo, endangerment

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3 Knowledge, Attitude and Practice: An Investigation into the Challenges to Effective Parenting among Malay-Muslim Fathers in Singapore

Authors: Mohamad Shamsuri Juhari


Fathers who positively involve themselves in their children’s lives will have had a constructive influence on the latter’s social, behavioural, and psychological development. This paper will share the preliminary findings of an ongoing research project which investigates Singaporean fathers from the nation’s minority Malay-Muslim community who commit the reverse, that is, it intends to study the reasons behind these fathers’ non-involvement during the period of their children’s developing years be it through absence, disinterest or ignorance. For instance, children from homes with absentee fathers are more likely to develop deficiencies in attitude and conduct. A father’s negative show of parental skills can also cause setbacks in the child’s education, economic instability in the latter’s future family life, as well as the likelihood of an ensuing intergenerational transmission of criminal behaviour. In the context of the minority Singaporean Malay-Muslim community, the need to investigate the challenges faced by fathers from the ethnic group in carrying out their parental roles arose due to the perceptible rise in statistics reflecting delinquency among its youths. This has resulted in other associated issues such as teenage pregnancies (and the subsequent cyclical patterns of divorce and single motherhood), over-representation in the data for drug offences, and under-representation in statistics reflecting academic achievement. While other factors are known to be involved, these negative outcomes have also been attributed to the lack of fatherly guidance in the affected Malay families. This still-ongoing research project is being carried out in two phases: The first by means of secondary research as well as exploratory data collection via roundtable and focus group discussions with fathers from diverse socio-economic backgrounds. This sets the way for the second phase in which a survey will be undertaken, followed by a series of in-depth face-to-face interviews. The research findings will then be translated into intervention initiatives to overcome the identified challenges. Based on the results collated from Phase 1 of the research, this paper will share a ‘first look’ on the challenges to effective parenting faced by Malay-Muslim fathers in Singapore specifically those relating to the socio-cultural domains of attitude, knowledge, and practice.

Keywords: Knowledge, Practice, attitude, Malay fathers, socio-cultural domains

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2 Developing and Testing a Questionnaire of Music Memorization and Practice

Authors: Tania Lisboa, Diana Santiago, Sophie Lee, Alexander P. Demos, Monica C. S. Vasconcelos


Memorization has long been recognized as an arduous and anxiety-evoking task for musicians, and yet, it is an essential aspect of performance. Research shows that musicians are often not taught how to memorize. While memorization and practice strategies of professionals have been studied, little research has been done to examine how student musicians learn to practice and memorize music in different cultural settings. We present the process of developing and testing a questionnaire of music memorization and musical practice for student musicians in the UK and Brazil. A survey was developed for a cross-cultural research project aiming at examining how young orchestral musicians (aged 7–18 years) in different learning environments and cultures engage in instrumental practice and memorization. The questionnaire development included members of a UK/US/Brazil research team of music educators and performance science researchers. A pool of items was developed for each aspect of practice and memorization identified, based on literature, personal experiences, and adapted from existing questionnaires. Item development took the varying levels of cognitive and social development of the target populations into consideration. It also considered the diverse target learning environments. Items were initially grouped in accordance with a single underlying construct/behavior. The questionnaire comprised three sections: a demographics section, a section on practice (containing 29 items), and a section on memorization (containing 40 items). Next, the response process was considered and a 5-point Likert scale ranging from ‘always’ to ‘never’ with a verbal label and an image assigned to each response option was selected, following effective questionnaire design for children and youths. Finally, a pilot study was conducted with young orchestral musicians from diverse learning environments in Brazil and the United Kingdom. Data collection took place in either one-to-one or group settings to facilitate the participants. Cognitive interviews were utilized to establish response process validity by confirming the readability and accurate comprehension of the questionnaire items or highlighting the need for item revision. Internal reliability was investigated by measuring the consistency of the item groups using the statistical test Cronbach’s alpha. The pilot study successfully relied on the questionnaire to generate data about the engagement of young musicians of different levels and instruments, across different learning and cultural environments, in instrumental practice and memorization. Interaction analysis of the cognitive interviews undertaken with these participants, however, exposed the fact that certain items, and the response scale, could be interpreted in multiple ways. The questionnaire text was, therefore, revised accordingly. The low Cronbach’s Alpha scores of many item groups indicated another issue with the original questionnaire: its low level of internal reliability. Several reasons for each poor reliability can be suggested, including the issues with item interpretation revealed through interaction analysis of the cognitive interviews, the small number of participants (34), and the elusive nature of the construct in question. The revised questionnaire measures 78 specific behaviors or opinions. It can be seen to provide an efficient means of gathering information about the engagement of young musicians in practice and memorization on a large scale.

Keywords: Practice, Cross-cultural, questionnaire, memorization, young musicians

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1 Knowledge and Practice of Family Planning among Rural Women in Ogun State, South West Nigeria

Authors: Tope Olubodun


Background: Family planning practices help individuals and couples avoid unwanted pregnancies, regulate intervals between pregnancies, and determine the number of children in the family. Family planning is an effective intervention for promoting maternal health, but its acceptability and utilization are impeded by many factors in Southwest Nigeria. Aim: This study was conducted to assess women’s knowledge and practice of family planning in two rural communities in Ogun State, Southwest Nigeria, and to determine factors associated with the utilization of family planning among these women. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 561 women of reproductive age selected by multistage sampling. The data collection was done using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Data obtained were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 20. Frequencies were generated, and chi-square test was used to explore associations. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Result: The majority of the respondents were aware of family planning 410 (73.1%). The method most commonly known was male condom 348 (62.0%), then pills 276 (49.2%) and injectables 231(41.3%). The commonest sources of information on family planning were health workers 158 (26.8%), outreaches 162 (27.5%) and TV/radio 136 (23.1%). Respondents that had used family planning, however, only constituted forty–five percent. The methods commonly used were injectables 104 (39.2%) and pills 85 (32.1%). Reasons for choosing not to use family planning include the desire for more children 78 (26.3%), because spouse does not support family planning 56 (18.9%), fear of unbearable side effects 44 (14.9%), and poor knowledge of the methods of family planning as well as where the services can be obtained 39 (13.2%). There is a statistically significant association between age, ethnicity, education, occupation, average monthly income, and use of family planning. Conclusion: Campaigns that promote male involvement in family planning, use of family planning for child spacing, and dispelling of fears is recommended to improve the practice of family planning among such a group of women.

Keywords: Knowledge, Rural, Practice, Family planning

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