Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

pozzolan Related Abstracts

6 An Evaluation of the Influence of Corn Cob Ash on the Strength Parameters of Lateritic SoiLs

Authors: O. A. Apampa, Y. A. Jimoh


The paper reports the investigation of Corn Cob Ash as a chemical stabilizing agent for laterite soils. Corn cob feedstock was obtained from Maya, a rural community in the derived savannah agro-ecological zone of South-Western Nigeria and burnt to ashes of pozzolanic quality. Reddish brown silty clayey sand material characterized as AASHTO A-2-6(3) lateritic material was obtained from a borrow pit in Abeokuta and subjected to strength characterization tests according to BS 1377: 2000. The soil was subsequently mixed with CCA in varying percentages of 0-7.5% at 1.5% intervals. The influence of CCA stabilized soil was determined for the Atterberg limits, compaction characteristics, CBR and the unconfined compression strength. The tests were repeated on laterite cement-soil mixture in order to establish a basis for comparison. The result shows a similarity in the compaction characteristics of soil-cement and soil-CCA. With increasing addition of binder from 1.5% to 7.5%, Maximum Dry Density progressively declined while the OMC steadily increased. For the CBR, the maximum positive impact was observed at 1.5% CCA addition at a value of 85% compared to the control value of 65% for the cement stabilization, but declined steadily thereafter with increasing addition of CCA, while that of soil-cement continued to increase with increasing addition of cement beyond 1.5% though at a relatively slow rate. Similar behavior was observed in the UCS values for the soil-CCA mix, increasing from a control value of 0.4 MN/m2 to 1.0 MN/m2 at 1.5% CCA and declining thereafter, while that for soil-cement continued to increase with increasing cement addition, but at a slower rate. This paper demonstrates that CCA is effective for chemical stabilization of a typical Nigerian AASHTO A-2-6 lateritic soil at maximum stabilizer content limit of 1.5% and therefore recommends its use as a way of finding further application for agricultural waste products and achievement of environmental sustainability in line with the ideals of the millennium development goals because of the economic and technical feasibility of the processing of the cobs from corn.

Keywords: cement, corn cob ash, pozzolan, laterite, stabilizing agent, cation exchange capacity

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5 Mechanical Properties and Shrinkage and Expansion Assessment of Rice Husk Ash Concrete and Its Comparison with the Control Concrete

Authors: Hamed Ahmadi Moghadam, Omolbanin Arasteh Khoshbin


The possibility of using of rice husk ash (RHA) of Guilan (a province located in the north of Iran) (RHA) in concrete was studied by performing experiments. Mechanical properties and shrinkage and expansion of concrete containing different percentage of RHA and the control concrete consisting of cement type II were investigated. For studying, a number of cube and prism concrete specimens containing of 5 to 30% of RHA with constant water to binder ratio of 0.4 were casted and the compressive strength, tensile strength, shrinkage and expansion for water curing conditions up to 360 days were measured. The tests results show that the cement replacement of rice husk ash (RHA) caused both the quality and mechanical properties alterations. It is shown that the compressive strength, tensile strength increase also shrinkage and expansion of specimens were increased that should be controlled in mass concrete structures.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, pozzolan, rice husk ash, shrinkage and expansion

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4 The Effect of Pozzolan Addition on the Physico-Chemical and Mechanical Properties of Mortars Based on Cement Resistant to Sulfate (CRS)

Authors: L. Belagraa, A. Belguendouz, Y. Rouabah, A. Bouzid, A. Noui, O. Kessal


The use of cements CRS in aggressive environments showed a lot of benefits as like good mechanical responses and therefore better durability, however, their manufacturing consume a lot of clinker, which leads to the random hazardous deposits, the shortage of natural resources and the gas and the dust emissions mainly; (CO2) with its ecological negative impact on the environment. Technical, economic and environmental benefits by the use of blended cements have been reported and being considered as a research area of great interest. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of the substitution of natural pozzolan on the physico-chemical properties of the new formulated binder and the mechanical behavior of mortar containing this binary cement. Hence, the pozzolan replacement is composed with different proportions (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%). The physico-chemical properties of cement resistant to sulfate (CRS) alternative composition were investigated. Further, the behavior of the mortars based on this binder is studied. These characteristics includes chemical composition, density and fineness, consistency, setting time, shrinkage, absorption and the mechanical response. The results obtained showed that the substitution of pozzolan at the optimal ratio of 5% has a positive effect on the resulting cement, greater specific surface area, reduced water demand, accelerating the process of hydration, a better mechanical responses and decreased absorption. Therefore, economic and ecological cement based on mineral addition like pozzolan could be possible as well as advantageous to the formulation of environmental mortars.

Keywords: pozzolan, Cement Resistant to Sulfate (CRS), environmental mortars mechanical response, physico-chemical properties

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3 Combination of Standard Secondary Raw Materials and New Production Waste Materials in Green Concrete Technology

Authors: M. Tazky, R. Hela, P. Novosad, L. Osuska


This paper deals with the possibility of safe incorporation fluidised bed combustion fly ash (waste material) into cement matrix together with next commonly used secondary raw material, which is high-temperature fly ash. Both of these materials have a very high pozzolanic ability, and the right combination could bring important improvements in both the physico-mechanical properties and the better durability of a cement composite. This paper tries to determine the correct methodology for designing green concrete by using modern methods measuring rheology of fresh concrete and following hydration processes. The use of fluidised bed combustion fly ash in cement composite production as an admixture is not currently common, but there are some real possibilities for its potential. The most striking negative aspect is its chemical composition which supports the development of new product formation, influencing the durability of the composite. Another disadvantage is the morphology of grains, which have a negative effect on consistency. This raises the question of how this waste can be used in concrete production to emphasize its positive properties and eliminate negatives. The focal point of the experiment carried out on cement pastes was particularly on the progress of hydration processes, aiming for the possible acceleration of pozzolanic reactions of both types of fly ash.

Keywords: Rheology, pozzolan, high temperature fly ash, fluidized bed combustion fly ash, CaO (calcium oxide)

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2 The Influence of Partial Replacement of Hydrated Lime by Pozzolans on Properties of Lime Mortars

Authors: Przemyslaw Brzyski, Stanislaw Fic


Hydrated lime, because of the life cycle (return to its natural form as a result of the setting and hardening) has a positive environmental impact. The lime binder is used in mortars. Lime is a slow setting binder with low mechanical properties. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of improving the properties of the lime binder by using different pozzolanic materials as partial replacement of hydrated lime binder. Pozzolan materials are the natural or industrial waste, so do not affect the environmental impact of the lime binder. The following laboratory tests were performed: the analysis of the physical characteristics of the tested samples of lime mortars (bulk density, porosity), flexural and compressive strength, water absorption and the capillary rise of samples and consistency of fresh mortars. As a partial replacement of hydrated lime (in the amount of 10%, 20%, 30% by weight of lime) a metakaolin, silica fume, and zeolite were used. The shortest setting and hardening time showed mortars with the addition of metakaolin. All additives noticeably improved strength characteristic of lime mortars. With the increase in the amount of additive, the increase in strength was also observed. The highest flexural strength was obtained by using the addition of metakaolin in an amount of 20% by weight of lime (2.08 MPa). The highest compressive strength was obtained by using also the addition of metakaolin but in an amount of 30% by weight of lime (9.43 MPa). The addition of pozzolan caused an increase in the mortar tightness which contributed to the limitation of absorbability. Due to the different surface area, pozzolanic additives affected the consistency of fresh mortars. Initial consistency was assumed as plastic. Only the addition of silica fume an amount of 20 and 30% by weight of lime changed the consistency to the thick-plastic. The conducted study demonstrated the possibility of applying lime mortar with satisfactory properties. The features of lime mortars do not differ significantly from cement-based mortar properties and show a lower environmental impact due to CO₂ absorption during lime hardening. Taking into consideration the setting time, strength and consistency, the best results can be obtained with metakaolin addition to the lime mortar.

Keywords: Properties, lime, pozzolan, mortar, binder

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1 Potential of Rice Husk Ash as a Partial Cement Replacement in Concrete for Highways Application

Authors: Ash Ahmed, Fraser Hyndman, Heni Fitriani, John Kamau


The highway pavement is the biggest structural asset a government can construct and maintain. Concrete rigid pavements are used to carry traffic in large volumes across countries safely and efficiently. Pavement quality concrete mixes have high levels of cement which contribute to up to 10% of global CO₂ emissions. Currently the UK specifies (ground granulated blastfurnace slag) GGBS and (pulverised fuel ash) PFA to reduce the quantity of cement used in pavement construction. GGBS and PFA come from heavy industry that should not be relied upon to improve the sustainability of construction materials. This report shows that cement in pavement quality concrete can be replaced with rice husk ash (RHA) without causing adverse effects to the mechanical properties required for highways. RHA comes from the food production industry and is vital for the growing global population. It is thus a socially responsible objective to use a pozzolan in highway pavement construction that is sourced from an environmentally friendly industry. The report investigates the properties of RHA mixes and compares them to existing pavement quality mixes already used and specified. The report found that sieving RHA and not grinding it gives the best performance. Due to the low density of RHA the investigation found that replacing cement by volume rather than weight provided the best results. Findings showed that CEM II mixed with 20% RHA meets the required specification for pavement quality concrete and mitigates using the comparative CEM I. The investigation also notes that RHA is observed to be more reactive with CEM II rather than CEM I and suits early strength gains required for pavement construction. The report concludes that RHA is a sustainable material that reduces the embodied CO₂ of pavement quality concrete, which is well suited for UK highway specifications and has the potential to improve the lives of people living in the developing countries.

Keywords: Sustainable Concrete, Pavement, pozzolan, rice husk ash

Procedia PDF Downloads 42