Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Poverty Alleviation Related Abstracts

13 Analyzing the Empirical Link between Islamic Finance and Growth of Real Output: A Time Series Application to Pakistan

Authors: Nazima Ellahi, Danish Ramzan


There is a growing trend among development economists regarding the importance of financial sector for economic development and growth activities. The development thus introduced, helps to promote welfare effects and poverty alleviation. This study is an attempt to find the nature of link between Islamic banking financing and development of output growth for Pakistan. Time series data set has been utilized for a time period ranging from 1990 to 2010. Following the Phillip Perron (PP) and Augmented Dicky Fuller (ADF) test of unit root this study applied Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) method of estimation and found encouraging results in favor of promoting the Islamic banking practices in Pakistan.

Keywords: Commerce, Finance, Islamic Finance, Economic growth, Poverty Alleviation

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12 Strengthening Regulation and Supervision of Microfinance Sector for Development in Ethiopia

Authors: Megersa Dugasa Fite


This paper analyses regulatory and supervisory issues in the Ethiopian micro finance sector, which caters to the needs of those who have been excluded from the formal financial sector. Micro-finance has received increased importance in development because of its grand goal to give credits to the poor to raise their economic and social well-being and improve the quality of lives. The micro-finance at present has been moving towards a credit-plus period through covering savings and insurance functions. It thus helps in reducing the rate of financial exclusion and social segregation, alleviating poverty and, consequently, stimulating development. The Ethiopian micro finance policy has been generally positive and developmental but major regulatory and supervisory limitations such as the absolute prohibition of NGOs to participate in micro credit functions, higher risks for depositors of micro-finance institutions, lack of credit information services with research and development, the unmet demand, and risks of market failures due to over-regulation are disappointing. Therefore, to remove the limited reach and high degree of problems typical in the informal means of financial intermediation plus to deal with the failure of formal banks to provide basic financial services to a significant portion of the country’s population, more needs to be done on micro finance. Certain key regulatory and supervisory revisions hence need to be taken to strengthen the Ethiopian micro finance sector so that it can practically provide majority poor access to a range of high quality financial services that help them work their way out of poverty and the incapacity it imposes.

Keywords: Development, Micro-finance, Poverty Alleviation, Ethiopia, micro-finance regulation and supervision, micro-finance institutions, financial access, social segregation

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11 Effectiveness of Coping Strategies Adopted by the Small Holder Farmers for Poverty Alleviation in Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: Noimot A. Bakare, Rotimi S. Olaleye, Bolaji O. Adeniji


The study examined the effectiveness of selected coping strategies for poverty alleviation among smallholder farmers in Niger State, Nigeria. Data were collected with the aid of interview schedule. A multistage random sampling technique was used to select 225 respondents from 3 geographical zones in the State. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results showed that majority (83.1%) of the respondents were within the age of 21-50 years, mostly male (76.0%) and married (77.8%). The highest educational level attained was quranic education. Findings showed that coping strategies commonly adopted by the farmers were; use of food stuff (94.2%), money savings(76.6%), reduction in expenditure(74.2%) and food consumption (65.2%). Also, there was high awareness of primary healthcare and fadama development poverty alleviation programmes by Government and non-governmental organizations. Regression model indicated a significant and positive relationship between the educational level of farmers, farm size, contact with extension and effectiveness of poverty coping strategies. Pearson correlation coefficient shows a correlation between coping strategies adopted and their effectiveness(r = 0.599, P < 0.01). However, t- test shows a significant difference between coping strategies adopted by the male and female farmers (t= -2.63, P < 0.01). It is recommended that awareness on poverty alleviation programmes aimed at improving the productivity of farming activities should be intensified while farmers should be involved in the planning and implementation of these programmes.

Keywords: Effectiveness, Poverty Alleviation, coping strategies, farmers

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10 Social Entrepreneurship and Inclusive Growth

Authors: Sudheer Gupta


Approximately 4 billion citizens of the world live on the equivalent of less than $8 a day. This segment constitutes a $5 trillion global market that remains under-served. Multinational corporations have historically tended to focus their innovation efforts on the upper segments of the economic pyramid. The academic literature has also been dominated by theories and frameworks of innovation that are valid when applied to the developed markets and consumer segments, but fail to adequately account for the challenges and realities of new product and service creation for the poor. Theories of entrepreneurship developed in the context of developed markets similarly ignore the challenges and realities of operating in developing economies that can be characterized by missing institutions, missing markets, information and infrastructural challenges, and resource constraints. Social entrepreneurs working in such contexts develop solutions differently. In this talk, we summarize lessons learnt from a long-term research project that involves data collection from a broad range of social entrepreneurs in developing countries working towards solutions to alleviate poverty, and grounded theory-building efforts. We aim to develop a better understanding of consumers, producers, and other stakeholder involvement, thus laying the foundation to build a robust theory of innovation and entrepreneurship for the poor.

Keywords: Development, Social innovation, Social Enterprise, Poverty Alleviation

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9 ESGP-PA’s First-Generation College Student: Challenges to Succeed

Authors: Bernadette F. De La Cruz, Susan Marie R. Dela Cruz, Georgia D. Demavibas


The Expanded Student Grant-in-Aid Program for Poverty Alleviation (ESGP-PA) is a government program that aims to contribute to the National Government’s thrusts in effectively addressing poverty alleviation by increasing the number of graduates in higher education among indigent households and to get these graduates employed in in-demand occupations in order to lift their families out of poverty. Higher education continues to see an influx of these students from poor families that have never previously sent anyone to college. There are many challenges that face college students at all levels, but these are special challenges for first-generation students. Challenges that face these students can include lack of interest in attending school, low aptitude, being not single anymore, factors such as unfamiliarity with college expectations, lack of preparations while in secondary school, and limited support from family members. This research looks at some of the challenges first-generation college students face and examines the impact of these challenges on student’s aspirations for the attainment of a college degree and ultimately a high-paying career.

Keywords: Poverty Alleviation, ESGP-PA, first-generation college students, low aptitude

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8 Quality Education as a Tool for Global Poverty Alleviation

Authors: Ibrahim Auwalu


The main thrust of this paper is the examination of Quality Education as opposed to low level knowledge acquisition in the promotion of quality of life, health, individual and national growth and development. The paper reviews the role education plays in developed, developing and third world economies. It further explores the real meaning of poverty in the context it exists. That is poverty in terms of its dimensions– shortened lives, illiteracy, social exclusion and lack of material means to improve family circumstances. The paper concludes that education not only helps individuals escape poverty by developing the skills needed to improve their livelihoods, but also generates productivity gains that fuel economic growth.

Keywords: Education, Quality, Global, Poverty Alleviation

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7 Implementing Pro-Poor Policies for Poverty Alleviation: The Case of the White Paper on Families in South Africa

Authors: P. Mbecke


The role of the government to tangibly alleviate poverty, improve and sustain the quality of people’s lives remains a “work in progress” twenty-two years after the dawn of democracy in South Africa despite a host of socio-economic programs and pro-poor policies and legislations. This paper assesses the development process and the implementation of the White Paper on Families in South Africa as one of the pro-poor policies intended to curb poverty and redress the imbalances of the apartheid regime. The paper is the result of a qualitative implementation research theory facilitated through in-depth interviews with social work managers complemented by literature and policy review techniques. It investigates the level of basic knowledge and understanding as well as the implementation challenges of the White Paper on Families as causes of its failure. The paper emphasizes the importance of the family-centered approach in the implementation of pro-poor policies. To facilitate the understanding of the White Paper on Families by its users, the Department of Social Development needs take stock of the identified challenges of its implementation so as to facilitate its success in fostering positive family well-being that will directly contributes to the overall socio-economic development of South Africa.

Keywords: Social Development, Social welfare, Poverty Alleviation, South Africa, pro-poor policy

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6 Developmental Social Work: A Derailed Post-Apartheid Development Approach in South Africa

Authors: P. Mbecke


Developmental social welfare implemented through developmental social work is being applauded internationally as an approach that facilitates social development theory and practice. However, twenty-two years into democracy, there are no tangible evidences that the much-desired developmental social welfare approach has assisted the post-apartheid macroeconomic policy frameworks in addressing poverty and inequality, thus, the derailment of the post-apartheid development approach in South Africa. Based on the implementation research theory, and the literature review technique, this paper recognizes social work as a principal role-player in social development. It recommends the redesign and implementation of an effective developmental social welfare approach with specific strategies, programs, activities and sufficient resources aligned to and appropriate in delivering on the promises of the government’s macroeconomic policy frameworks. Such approach should be implemented by skilled and dedicated developmental social workers in order to achieve transformation in South Africa.

Keywords: Social Development, Inequality, Poverty Alleviation, South Africa, apartheid, developmental social welfare, developmental social work

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5 Correlates of Tourism and Power Alleviation: A Case Study of Osun Osogbo

Authors: Mohood A. Bamidele, Fadairo O. Olokesunsi, Muhammed A. Yunus


This research work focuses on tourism and poverty alleviation in Osun State, it delves in the tourism resources of the state and strategic framework that has been put in place to manage the cultural base tourism that is most prominent in the state. The major instrument used for data collection was questionnaire which was designed for the area and data collected were analyzed using statistical table and chi-square analysis. The result revealed that tourism is under development in Osun State and the tourism potential of the state is yet to be exploited, this is due to lack of appropriate policy to master the development and management of tourism resources, poor publicity, awareness, and lack of adequate basic infrastructure. The research work, therefore, recommended, that, there should be proper and appropriate policy, and that the government should take a leading step to develop tourism in Osun State by creating a workable environment to the private sector and given a substantial budgetary allocation to the tourism in the state.

Keywords: Poverty Alleviation, appropriate policy, poor publicity, substantial budgetary allocation

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4 Role of Indigenous Women in Securing Sustainable Livelihoods in Western Himalayan Region, India

Authors: Haresh Sharma, Jaimini Luharia


The ecology in the Western Himalayan region transforms with the change in altitude. This change is observed in terms of topography, species of flora and fauna and the quality of the soil. The current study focuses on women of indigenous communities of Pangi Valley, which is located in the state of Himachal Pradesh, India. The valley is bifurcated into three different areas –Saichu, Hudan Bhatori, and Sural Bhatori valleys. It is one of the most remote, rugged and difficult to access tribal regions of Chamba district. The altitude of the valley ranges from 2,000 m to 6,000 m above sea level. The Pangi valley is inhabited by ‘Pangwals’ and ‘Bhots’ tribes of the Himalayas who speak their local tribal language called’ Pangwali’. The valley is cut-off from the mainland due to heavy snow and lack of proper roads during peak winters. Due to difficult geographical location, the daily lives of the people are constantly challenged, and they are most of the times deprived of benefits targeted through government programs. However, the indigenous communities earn their livelihood through livestock and forest-based produce while some of them migrate to nearby places for better work. The current study involves snowball sampling methodology for data collection along with in-depth interviews of women members of Self-Help Groups and women farmers. The findings reveal that the lives of these indigenous communities largely depend on forest-based products. So, it creates all the more significance of enhancing, maintaining, and consuming natural resources sustainably. Under such circumstances, the women of the community play a significant role of guardians in conservation and protection of the forests. They are the custodians of traditional knowledge of environment conservation practices that have been followed for many years in the region. The present study also sought to establish a relationship between some of the development initiatives undertaken by the women in the valley that stimulate sustainable mountain economy and conservation practices. These initiatives include cultivation of products like hazelnut, ‘Gucchi’ rare quality mushroom, medicinal plants exclusively found in the region, thereby promoting long term sustainable conservation of agro-biodiversity of the Western Himalayan region. The measures taken by the community women are commendable as they ensure access and distribution of natural resources as well as manage them for future generations. Apart from this, the tribal women have actively formed Self-Help Groups promoting financial inclusion through various activities that augment ownership and accountability towards the overall development of the communities. But, the results also suggest that there’s not enough recognition given to women’s role in forests conservation practices due to several local socio-political reasons. There are not enough research studies done on communities of Pangi Valley due to inaccessibility created out of lack of proper roads and other resources. Also, there emerged a need to concretize indigenous and traditional knowledge of conservation practices followed by women in the community.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Forest conservation, Poverty Alleviation, Western Himalayas, indigenous community women, sustainable livelihoods

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3 Innovative Food Production and Food Consumption Entrepreneurship: a Recipe for Delivering Global Sustainable Goals in South Africa

Authors: Faith Samkange, Juliet Chipumuro, Henry Wanyama


Business development and entrepreneurship constitute a major part of economic and human development for many countries within the Southern Africa Development Communities (SADC). While a marked increase in entrepreneurship activity has been registered, more than 70% of these business enterprises are still failing particularly in their conceptual years. One of the major reasons for this failure is that project process trends have tended to be fragmented and linear in approach while focusing primarily on isolated articulation of development aspects such as marketing, operations, accounting and human resources management with limited integration. Given the complexity of environmental, economic and human development issues in the SADC region, a multi-disciplinary, transformative, systematic and coordinated approach towards entrepreneurship development may be a more useful approach. This paper develops a proposed conceptual framework for an innovative and sustainable food production and food consumption Agritech entrepreneurship project in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa based on a systematic review of existing literature. A thematic analysis of the literature reviewed is applied to develop this theoretical contribution to knowledge. The conceptual framework will be tested in a research driven intervention project designed to improve the quality of life for marginalized indigenous African communities by addressing poverty alleviation, unemployment and gender inequality as stipulated in the global sustainable development goals by the United Nations in 2018.

Keywords: Sustainability, Poverty Alleviation, innovative entrepreneurship, marginalised communities, food production and consumption

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2 The Relationship Between Policy Design and Poverty Reduction: The Case of Ghana

Authors: Joseph Kwame Sarfo-Adu


Social protection programs have been rolled out by successive governments in the quest of bridging the inequality gap in Ghana. Despite notable positive impacts of these programs across the country, there still remains worrying experience of the exclusion of the poor and vulnerable especially in rural Ghana Notwithstanding the rhetoric of participation within the discussion of social protection programs, less attention has been given to the design of these programs. In view of this, the study seeks to address how social protection programs are designed to address the needs of the poor. This study focused on five selected social protection programs in Ghana because they are programs with nationwide coverage. Qualitative thematic analysis was applied to analyze our data with the use of the Nvivo 12 version. We found out that there is a strong link between policy design and poverty alleviation. Our findings revealed that a well-designed program can significantly alleviate poverty, a poorly designed program can create more damage.

Keywords: Social Protection, Poverty Alleviation, policy design, effective outcome

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1 Impacts of Sociological Dynamics on Entomophagy Practice and Food Security in Nigeria

Authors: O. B. Oriolowo, O. J. John


Empirical findings have shown insects to be nutritious and good source of food for man. However, human food preferences are not only determined by nutritional values of food consumed but, more importantly, by sociology and economic pressure. This study examined the interrelation between science and sociology in sustaining the acceptance of entomophagy among college students to combat food insecurity. A twenty items five Likert scale, College Students Entomophagy Questionnaire (CSEQ), was used to elucidate information from the respondents. The reliability coefficient was obtained to be 0.91 using Spearman-Brown Prophecy formula. Three research questions and three hypotheses were raised. Also, quantitative nutritional analysis of few insects and some established conventional protein sources were undertaking in order to compare their nutritional status. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics of percentages and inferential statistics of correlation and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The results obtained showed that entomophagy has cultural heritage among different tribes in Nigeria and is an acceptable practice; it cuts across every social stratum and is practiced among both major religions. Moreover, insects compared favourably in term of nutrient contents when compared with the conventional animal protein sources analyzed. However, there is a gradual decline in the practice of entomophagy among students, which may be attributed to the influence of western civilization. This study, therefore, recommended an intensification of research and enlightenment of people on the usefulness of entomophagy so as to preserve its cultural heritage as well as boost human food security.

Keywords: Sociology, Food Security, Malnutrition, Entomophagy, Poverty Alleviation

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