Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

potato Related Abstracts

19 Effect of Hydrocolloid Coatings and Bene Kernel Oil Acrylamide Formation during Potato Deep Frying

Authors: Razieh Niazmand, Dina Sadat Mousavian, Parvin Sharayei

Abstract:

This study investigated the effect of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), tragacanth, and saalab hydrocolloids in two concentrations (0.3%, 0.7%) and different frying media, refined canola oil (RCO), RCO + 1% bene kernel oil (BKO), and RCO + 1 mg/l unsaponifiable matter (USM) of BKO on acrylamide formation in fried potato slices. The hydrocolloid coatings significantly reduced acrylamide formation in potatoes fried in all oils. Increasing the hydrocolloid concentration from 0.3% to 0.7% produced no effective inhibition of acrylamide. The 0.7 % CMC solution was identified as the most promising inhibitor of acrylamide formation in RCO oil, with a 62.9% reduction in acrylamide content. The addition of BKO or USM to RCO led to a noticeable reduction in the acrylamide level in fried potato slices. The findings suggest that a 0.7% CMC solution and RCO+USM are promising inhibitors of acrylamide formation in fried potato products.

Keywords: CMC, frying, potato, saalab, tracaganth

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18 Characteristics of Phytophthora infestans: The Causal Fungus of Potato Late Blight Disease

Authors: A. E. Elkorany, Eman Elsrgawy

Abstract:

Eighty six isolates of Phytophthora infestans dating back to 2006 were recovered from potato tubers that were on sale in Alexandria markets, Egypt. The isolates were characterized for mating type and colony morphology. Both A1 and A2 mating types were detected in the isolate collection, however, the A2 constituted 5.8% of the total isolates made while the A1 mating type isolates constituted 91.9%. The self-fertile phenotype was also detected but at a lower percentage of 2.3% of the total isolates. This indicated that Mexico, the probable origin of the disease, is no longer the only place where A2 mating type ever exists. The lumpy phenotype was the only trait observed linked to the A2 mating type isolates on rye A agar medium. The self-fertile isolates, however, exhibited colonies of a waxy appearance with little aerial hyphae and the culture were backed full with oospores. The A1 mating colonies were of smooth white abundant aerial hyphae. The metalaxyl resistant isolates were also detected among the analyzed isolates and constituted 4.6% of the total (86) isolates investigated. The appearance of the A2 mating type outside Mexico and the variation revealed in the population of Phytophthora infestans investigated supported the hypothesis of a second worldwide migration of the fungus from its origin which could constitute a threat to potato cultivation around the world.

Keywords: Egypt, potato, Phytophthora infestans, fungus

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17 Crop Genotype and Inoculum Density Influences Plant Growth and Endophytic Colonization Potential of Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN

Authors: Muhammad Naveed, Sohail Yousaf, Zahir Ahmad Zahir, Birgit Mitter, Angela Sessitsch

Abstract:

Most bacterial endophytes originate from the soil and enter plants via the roots followed by further spread through the inner tissues. The mechanisms allowing bacteria to colonize plants endophytically are still poorly understood for most bacterial and plant species. Specific bacterial functions are required for plant colonization, but also the plant itself is a determining factor as bacterial ability to establish endophytic populations is very often dependent on the plant genotype (cultivar) and inoculums density. The effect of inoculum density (107, 108, 109 CFU mL-1) of Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN was evaluated on growth and endophytic colonization of different maize and potato cultivars under axenic and natural soil conditions. PsJN inoculation significantly increased maize seedling growth and tuber yield of potato at all inoculum density compared to uninoculated control. Under axenic condition, PsJN inoculation (108 CFU mL-1) significantly improved the germination, root/shoot length and biomass up to 62, 115, 98 and 135% of maize seedling compared to uninoculated control. In case of potato, PsJN inoculation (109 CFU mL-1) showed maximum response and significantly increased root/shoot biomass and tuber yield under natural soil condition. We confirmed that PsJN is able to colonize the rhizosphere, roots and shoots of maize and potato cultivars. The endophytic colonization increased linearly with increasing inoculum density (within a range of 8 x 104 – 3 x 107 CFU mL-1) and were highest for maize (Morignon) and potato (Romina) as compared to other cultivars. Efficient colonization of cv. Morignon and Romina by strain PsJN indicates the specific cultivar colonizing capacity of the bacteria. The findings of the study indicate the non-significant relationship between colonization and plant growth promotion in maize under axenic conditions. However, the inoculum level (109 CFU mL-1) that promoted colonization of rhizosphere and plant interior (endophytic) also best promoted growth and tuber yield of potato under natural soil conditions.

Keywords: Growth, colonization, potato, crop genotype, inoculum density, Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN

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16 A Novel PfkB Gene Cloning and Characterization for Expression in Potato Plants

Authors: Arfan Ali, Idrees Ahmad Nasir

Abstract:

Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is an important cash crop and popular vegetable in Pakistan and throughout the world. Cold storage of potatoes accelerates the conversion of starch into reduced sugars (glucose and fructose). This process causes dry mass and bitter taste in the potatoes that are not acceptable to end consumers. In the current study, the phosphofructokinase B gene was cloned into the pET-30 vector for protein expression and the pCambia-1301 vector for plant expression. Amplification of a 930bp product from an E. coli strain determined the successful isolation of the phosphofructokinase B gene. Restriction digestion using NcoI and BglII along with the amplification of the 930bp product using gene specific primers confirmed the successful cloning of the PfkB gene in both vectors. The protein was expressed as a His-PfkB fusion protein. Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of the 35 Kda PfkB protein when hybridized with anti-His antibodies. The construct Fani-01 was evaluated transiently using a histochemical gus assay. The appearance of blue color in the agroinfiltrated area of potato leaves confirmed the successful expression of construct Fani-01. Further, the area displaying gus expression was evaluated for PfkB expression using ELISA. Moreover, PfkB gene expression evaluated through transient expression determined successful gene expression and highlighted its potential utilization for stable expression in potato to reduce sweetening due to long-term storage.

Keywords: Transformation, potato, Solanum tuberosum, PfkB, anti-sweetening

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15 Effect of Three Sand Types on Potato Vegetative Growth and Yield

Authors: Shatha A. Yousif, Qasim M. Zamil, Hasan Y. Al Muhi, Jamal A. Al Shammari

Abstract:

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the major vegetable crops that are grown world wide because of its economic importance. This experiment investigated the effect of local sands (River Base, Al-Ekader and Karbala) on number and total weight of mini tubers. Statistical analysis revealed that there were no significant differences among sand cultures in number of stem/plant, chlorophyll index and tubers dry weight. River Base sand had the highest plant height (74.9 cm), leaf number/plant number (39.3), leaf area (84.4 dcm2⁄plant), dry weight/plant (26.31), tubers number/plant (8.5), tubers weight/plant (635.53 gm) and potato tuber yields/trove (28.60 kg), whereas the Karbala sand had lower performance. All the characters had positive and significant correlation with yields except the traits number of stem and tuber dry weight.

Keywords: correlation, Yield, potato, sand culture

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14 Potato Production under Brakish Water and Compost Use

Authors: Samih Abubaker, Amjad Abuserhan, Ghandi Anfoka

Abstract:

Potato yield reduction and soil salt accumulation are the main obstacles of using brackish water in irrigation. This study was carried out at Al- Balqa` Applied University research station, to investigate the impact of compost use on potato production and salt accumulation in the soil under brackish water, during 2014 growing season. Whole tubers of three imported potato cultivars (Spunta, Faluka and Ammbetion) were planted in pots with different soil and compost percentages (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100%) and were irrigated with three water salinity levels (1.25, 5 and 10 ds/cm). A split-split plot design was used, where potato cultivars were arranged in the main plots, the brackish water treatments were in the sub-main and the soil amended treatments were in the sub-sub plots. Potato yield was generally decreased only when pots were irrigated by water of 10 ds/cm salinity compared with 1.25 and 5 ds/cm. Drainage water salinity, however, was increased as compost percentage increased. Nevertheless, salt accumulation in the growing media was decreased as the compost percentage level increased. Therefore, it can be concluded that brackish water, up to 5 ds/cm can be used to irrigate potato especially, when organic amendments were added to the soil to promote plant growth, yield and reduce salt accumulation.

Keywords: compost, potato, brackish water, salt accumulation

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13 Monitoring of Potato Rot Nematode (Ditylenchus destructor Thorne, 1945) in Southern Georgia Nematode Fauna Diversity of Rhizosphere

Authors: E. Tskitishvili, I. Eliava, T. Tskitishvili, N. Bagathuria, M. Gigolashvili, L. Jgenti

Abstract:

The nematode fauna of 20 agrocenosis (soil, tuber of potato, green parts of plant, roots) was studied in four regions in South Georgia (Akhaltsikhe, Aspindza, Akhalkalaki, Ninotsminda). In all, there were registered 173 forms of free-living and Phyto-parasitic nematodes, including 132 forms which were specified according to their species. A few exemplars of potato root nematode (Ditylenchus destructor) were identified in soil samples taken in Ninotsminda, Akhalkalaki and Aspinda stations, i.e. invasion is weak. Based on our data, potato Ditylenchus was not found in any of the researched tubers, while based on the data of previous years the most of tubers were infested. The cysts of 'golden nematodes' were not found during inspection of material for detection of Globoderosis

Keywords: monitoring, potato, ditylenchus, nematoda

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12 An Investigation of Current Potato Nitrogen Fertility Programs' Contribution to Ground Water Contamination

Authors: Brian H. Marsh

Abstract:

Nitrogen fertility is an important component for optimum potato yield and quality. Best management practices are necessary in regards to N applications to achieve these goals without applying excess N with may contribute to ground water contamination. Eight potato fields in the Southern San Joaquin Valley were sampled for nitrogen inputs and uptake, tuber and vine dry matter and residual soil nitrate-N. The fields had substantial soil nitrate-N prior to the potato crop. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied prior to planting and in irrigation water as needed based on in-season petiole sampling in accordance with published recommendations. Average total nitrogen uptake was 237 kg ha-1 on 63.5 Mg ha-1 tuber yield and nitrogen use efficiency was very good at 81 percent. Sixty-nine percent of the plant nitrogen was removed in tubers. Soil nitrate-N increased 14 percent from pre-plant to post-harvest averaged across all fields and was generally situated in the upper soil profile. Irrigation timing and amount applied did not move water into the lower profile except for a single location where nitrate also moved into the lower soil profile. Pre-plant soil analysis is important information to be used. Rotation crops having deeper rooting growth would be able to utilize nitrogen that remained in the soil profile.

Keywords: Irrigation Management, potato, nitrogen fertilization, leaching potential

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11 The Occurrence of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus on Potato in South Sulawesi, Indonesia

Authors: Baharuddin Patandjengi, A. Pabborong, T. Kuswinanti

Abstract:

Bacterial ring rot caused by a gram-positive Coryneform bacterium Corynebacterium michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus is an important disease on potato crops in the world. The disease still belongs to an A1 quarantine pathogen in Indonesia, although it was found in West Java since 2013. The objective of this study was to know the presence of bacterial ring rot in four potato district areas in South Sulawesi. Infected samples were collected from potato fields and storage warehouses in Enrekang, Gowa, Jeneponto and Bantaeng districts. Potato tuber samples were cut and observed their vasiculer vessels and the bacterial ooze was used for isolation on Nutrient Agar and Nutrient Broth–Yeast extract medium. Bacterial isolates were then morphologically and physiologically characterized. A patogenicity test on eggplant and molecular characterization using PCR with specific primer for Cms (50F and Cms 50 R) was revealed for further identification. The results showed that Cms has become widespread in four districts of South Sulawesi. The bacterial ringrot disease incidence in these districts was reached above 30 %. All of 14 bacterial isolates that identified before using standard methods of EPPO, showed DNA band in size of 224 bp in PCR test, which indicated positively belong to C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus.

Keywords: potato, PCR, bacterial ring rot, clavibacter michiganensis pv. sepedonicus

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10 Exploring the Physicochemical and Quality Attributes of Potato Cultivars during Subsequent Storage

Authors: Muhammad Nadeem, Muhammad Atif Randhawa, Adnan Amjad

Abstract:

Potato (Solanum tuberosum) popularly known as ‘the king of vegetables’, has emerged as fourth most important food crop after rice, wheat and maize. Potato contains carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins and antioxidants. The antioxidants of potatoes especially vitamin C helps in reducing cancer, cardiovascular diseases and high blood pressure by binding free radicals. Physical characteristics and some major chemical properties of potato tubers at fresh and stored stages were investigated. Two varieties of potatoes, Sante (V1) having white colour and Lal moti (V2) with red colour were stored for 3 months and analysis were performed after each month interval. Physical and chemical attributes including weight loss, sprouting, specific gravity, pH, total sugars (reducing and non-reducing sugars) and vitamin C were analyzed before and after storage. Value of weight loss at zero day was null but it increased to 6.45% after 90 days on average in both cultivars and sprouting increased gradually at the end of 90 days. Moreover total sugars were 3.10% at zero day but increased to 9.30% after 90 days. Ascorbic acid was decreased during storage from 17.49(mg/100g) to 3.79. Both varieties of potato were stored at 60C and 120C temperatures with 85% relative humidity in order to prolong their acceptability in the market. The storage conditions influence the potatoes quality and consequently their acceptability to consumer. The data was analyzed statistically and clarifies that total sugars, weight loss, sprouting and specific gravity increase during the storage period while ascorbic acid (Vit-C) and pH decreased. Among both varieties that were stored at 60C and 120C, Sante (V1) was better than Lal moti (V2) due to less physicochemical and quality changes at 60C as compared to store at 120C.

Keywords: Storage, physicochemical, potato, quality attributes

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9 Screening of Different Exotic Varieties of Potato through Adaptability Trial for Local Cultivation

Authors: Arslan Shehroz, Muhammad Amjad Ali, Amjad Abbas, Imran Ramzan, Muhammad Zunair Latif

Abstract:

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is the 4th most important food crop of the world after wheat, rice and maize. It is the staple food in many European countries. Being rich in starch (one of the main three food ingredients) and having the highest productivity per unit area, has great potential to address the challenge of the food security. Processed potato is also used as chips and crisps etc as ‘fast food’. There are many biotic and abiotic factors which check the production of potato and become hurdle in achievement production potential of potato. 20 new varieties along with two checks were evaluated. Plant to plant and row to row distances were maintained as 20 cm and 75 cm, respectively. The trial was conducted according to the randomized complete block design with three replications. Normal agronomic and plant protection measures were carried out in the crop. It is revealed from the experiment that exotic variety 171 gave the highest yield of 35.5 t/ha followed by Masai with 31.0 t/ha tuber yield. The check variety Simply Red 24.2 t/ha yield, while the lowest tuber yield (1.5 t/ha) was produced by the exotic variety KWS-06-125. The maximum emergence was shown by the Variety Red Sun (89.7 %). The lowest emergence was shown by the variety Camel (71.7%). Regarding tuber grades, it was noted that the maximum Ration size tubers were produced by the exotic variety Compass (3.7%), whereas 11 varieties did not produce ration size tubers at all. The variety Red Sun produced lowest percentage of small size tubers (12.7%) whereas maximum small size tubers (93.0%) were produced by the variety Jitka. Regarding disease infestation, it was noted that the maximum scab incidence (4.0%) was recorded on the variety Masai, maximum rhizoctonia attack (60.0%) was recorded on the variety Camel and maximum tuber cracking (0.7%) was noted on the variety Vendulla.

Keywords: trial, potato, check variety, potential and yield

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8 The Influence of Colloidal Metal Nanoparticles on Growth and Proliferation of in Vitro Cultures of Potato

Authors: Przewodowski Włodzimierz, Przewodowska Agnieszka, Sekrecka Danuta, Michałowska Dorota

Abstract:

Colloidal metal nanoparticles are widely applied in various areas and have great potential in different biotechnological applications. Their particular properties associated with both the antiseptic, antioxidant and anti aging properties as well as ability to penetrate most of the biological barriers, synergy in the absorption of nutrients and nontoxic to plants. The properties make them potentially useful in the fast and safe production of healthy, certified starting material in the production of plants exposed to many pathogenic microorganisms causing serious diseases, significantly affecting yield and causing the economic losses. In this case it is crucial to provide appropriate conditions for the production, storage and distribution of the plant material. Therefore, the aim of the proposed research was to develop and identify the influence of four colloidal metal nanoparticles on growth and proliferation of in vitro cultures of potato (Solanum tuberosum) - one of the most economically important strategic crops in the world. The research on different varieties of potato was performed by placing the explants of the in vitro cultures on sterile Murashige and Skoog (MS) type medium. The influence of the nanocolloids was evaluated using the MS medium impregnated with the examinated nanoparticles. The vigour of growth and the rate of proliferation was examinated for 6-8 weeks with both night/day-length and temperature over the ranges 8/16 h and 20–22 °C respectively. The results of our preliminary work confirmed high usefulness of the nanocolloids in the safe production of the examinated in vitro cultures.

Keywords: propagation, potato, colloidal metal nanoparticles, in vitro cultures

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7 Impact of Microwave and Air Velocity on Drying Kinetics and Rehydration of Potato Slices

Authors: Caiyun Liu, A. Hernandez-Manas, N. Grimi, E. Vorobiev

Abstract:

Drying is one of the most used methods for food preservation, which extend shelf life of food and makes their transportation, storage and packaging easier and more economic. The commonly dried method is hot air drying. However, its disadvantages are low energy efficiency and long drying times. Because of the high temperature during the hot air drying, the undesirable changes in pigments, vitamins and flavoring agents occur which result in degradation of the quality parameters of the product. Drying process can also cause shrinkage, case hardening, dark color, browning, loss of nutrients and others. Recently, new processes were developed in order to avoid these problems. For example, the application of pulsed electric field provokes cell membrane permeabilisation, which increases the drying kinetics and moisture diffusion coefficient. Microwave drying technology has also several advantages over conventional hot air drying, such as higher drying rates and thermal efficiency, shorter drying time, significantly improved product quality and nutritional value. Rehydration kinetics of dried product is a very important characteristic of dried products. Current research has indicated that the rehydration ratio and the coefficient of rehydration are dependent on the processing conditions of drying. The present study compares the efficiency of two processes (1: room temperature air drying, 2: microwave/air drying) in terms of drying rate, product quality and rehydration ratio. In this work, potato slices (≈2.2g) with a thickness of 2 mm and diameter of 33mm were placed in the microwave chamber and dried. Drying kinetics and drying rates of different methods were determined. The process parameters included inlet air velocity (1 m/s, 1.5 m/s, 2 m/s) and microwave power (50 W, 100 W, 200 W and 250 W) were studied. The evolution of temperature during microwave drying was measured. The drying power had a strong effect on drying rate, and the microwave-air drying resulted in 93% decrease in the drying time when the air velocity was 2 m/s and the power of microwave was 250 W. Based on Lewis model, drying rate constants (kDR) were determined. It was observed an increase from kDR=0.0002 s-1 to kDR=0.0032 s-1 of air velocity of 2 m/s and microwave/air (at 2m/s and 250W) respectively. The effective moisture diffusivity was calculated by using Fick's law. The results show an increase of effective moisture diffusivity from 7.52×10-11 to 2.64×10-9 m2.s-1 for air velocity of 2 m/s and microwave/air (at 2m/s and 250W) respectively. The temperature of the potato slices increased for higher microwaves power, but decreased for higher air velocity. The rehydration ratio, defined as the weight of the the sample after rehydration per the weight of dried sample, was determined at different water temperatures (25℃, 50℃, 75℃). The rehydration ratio increased with the water temperature and reached its maximum at the following conditions: 200 W for the microwave power, 2 m/s for the air velocity and 75°C for the water temperature. The present study shows the interest of microwave drying for the food preservation.

Keywords: Microwave, Drying, potato, rehydration

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6 Salt Tolerance of Potato: Genetically Engineered with Atriplex canescens BADH Gene Driven by 3 Copies of CAMV35s Promoter

Authors: Arfan Ali, Idrees Ahmad Nasir, Muhammad Shahzad Iqbal

Abstract:

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is ranked among the top leading staple foods in the world. Salinity adversely affects potato crop yield and quality. Therefore, increased level of salt tolerance is a key factor to ensure high yield. The present study focused on the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Atriplex canescens betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) gene, using single, double and triple CAMV35s promoter to improve salt tolerance in potato. Detection of seven potato lines harboring BADH gene, followed by identification of T-DNA insertions, determination of transgenes copies no through Southern Hybridization and quantification of BADH protein through Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay were considered in this study. The results clearly depict that the salt tolerance of potato was found to be promoter-dependent, as the potato transgenic lines with triple promoter showed 4.4 times more glycine betaine production which consequently leads towards high resistance to salt stress as compared to transgenic potato lines with single and double promoters having least production of glycine betaine. Moreover, triple promoter transgenic potato lines have also shown lower levels of H2O2, malondialdehyde (MDA), relative electrical conductivity, high proline and chlorophyll content as compared other two lines having a single and double promoter. Insilco analysis also confirmed that Atriplex canescens BADH has the tendency to interact with sodium ions and water molecules. Taken together these facts it can be concluded that over-expression of BADH under triple CAMV35s promoter with more glycine betaine, chlorophyll & MDA contents, high relative quantities of other metabolites results in an enhanced level of salt tolerance in potato.

Keywords: potato, Atriplex canescens, BADH, CAMV35s promotor, Solanum tubersum

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5 Fungicidal Evaluation of Essential Oils of Medicinal Plants for the Management of Early Blight Pathogen (Alternaria solani) in Pakistan

Authors: Sehrish Iftikhar, Kiran Nawaz, Ahmad A. Shahid, Waheed Anwar, Muhammad S. Haider

Abstract:

Early blight caused by Alternaria solani Sorauer is one of the most serious foliage diseases of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). This disease causes huge crop losses and has major economic importance worldwide. The antifungal activity for three medicinal plants (Foeniculum vulgare, Syzygium aromaticum, and Eucalyptus citriodora) against Alternaria solani has been evaluated. The inhibitory potential of selected essential oils on the radial mycelial growth and germination of spore was measured in vitro at various concentrations (5%, 2.5%. 1.25%, 0.625%, and 0.312%) using agar well diffusion assay. Essential oil of E. citriodora was most effective causing 85% inhibition of mycelial growth and 88% inhibition of spore germination at 0.625% and 1.25% concentrations. Essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare also caused 80% and 82% inhibition of the above mentioned parameters but at double the concentrations 1.25% and 2.5%. While essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum was least effective in controlling the mycelial growth and spore germination with 76% and 77% inhibition at 1.25% and 2.5%. All the selected essential oils, especially E. citriodora, showed marked antimicrobial activity significant at higher concentration. These results suggest that the use of essential oils for the control of A. solani can reduce environmental risks related with commercial fungicides, lower cost for control, and the chances for resistance development. Additional studies are essential to evaluate the potential of essential oils as natural treatments for this disease.

Keywords: essential oils, potato, clove, fennel

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4 Serological and Molecular Detection of Alfalfa Mosaic Virus in the Major Potato Growing Areas of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Khalid Alhudaib

Abstract:

Potato is considered as one of the most important and potential vegetable crops in Saudi Arabia. Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), genus Alfamovirus, family Bromoviridae is among the broad spread of viruses in potato. During spring and fall growing seasons of potato in 2015 and 2016, several field visits were conducted in the four major growing areas of potato cultivation (Riyadh-Qaseem-Hail-Hard). The presence of AMV was detected in samples using ELISA, dot blot hybridization and/or RT-PCR. The highest occurrence of AMV was observed as 18.6% in Qaseem followed by Riyadh with 15.2% while; the lowest infection rates were recorded in Hard and Hail, 8.3 and 10.4%, respectively. The sequences of seven isolates of AMV obtained in this study were determined and the sequences were aligned with the other sequences available in the GenBank database. Analyses confirmed the low variability among AMV isolated in this study, which means that all AMV isolates may originate from the same source. Due to high incidence of AMV, other economic susceptible crops may become affected by high incidence of this virus in potato crops. This requires accurate examination of potato seed tubers to prevent the spread of the virus in Saudi Arabia. The obtained results indicated that the hybridization and ELISA are suitable techniques in the routine detection of AMV in a large number of samples while RT-PCR is more sensitive and essential for molecular characterization of AMV.

Keywords: potato, PCR, Alfamovirus, AMV, Alfalfa mosaic virus

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3 Effect of Organic Manure on Production of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

Authors: R. Behrooz, D. Jahanfar, D. Reza

Abstract:

Organic farming is a fundamental principle in sustainable agriculture. Preventing excessive contamination of water and soil with pesticides and chemical fertilizers is important in order to produce healthy food. For this purpose, two potato cultivars (Sante and Marfona) and seven levels of fertilizer (non-fertilizer, chemical fertilizer, granulated chicken manure, common manure, compost, vermicompost and tea compost) were evaluated by factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. According to the results, the effect of different manure was significant on number of tubers per plant, tuber weight per plant and tuber yield. The highest value of these traits was obtained by using of chicken manure which was significantly superior to other treatments. However, there was no significant difference between the two varieties. According to the results, the use of chicken manure has produced the highest potato yield even in comparison with the use of chemical fertilizer.

Keywords: Organic Farming, potato, organic manure, tuber yield

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2 Survey of Potato Viral Infection Using Das-Elisa Method in Georgia

Authors: Iveta Megrelishvili, Maia Kukhaleishvili, Ekaterine Bulauri, Tamar Shamatava, Tamar Chipashvili

Abstract:

Plant viruses can cause loss of yield and quality in a lot of important crops. Symptoms of pathogens are variable depending on the cultivars and virus strain. Selection of resistant potato varieties would reduce the risk of virus transmission and significant economic impact. Other way to avoid reduced harvest yields is regular potato seed production sampling and testing for viral infection. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence and distribution of viral diseases according potato cultivars for further selection of virus-free material in Georgia. During the summer 2015- 2016, 5 potato cultivars (Sante, Laura, Jelly, Red Sonia, Anushka) at 5 different farms located in Akhalkalaki were tested for 6 different potato viruses: Potato virus A (PVA), Potato virus M (PVM), Potato virus S (PVS), Potato virus X (PVX), Potato virus Y (PVY) and potato leaf roll virus (PLRV). A serological method, Double Antibody Sandwich-Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay (DASELISA) was used at the laboratory to analyze the results. The result showed that PVY (21.4%) and PLRV (19.7%) virus presence in collected samples was relatively high compared to others. Researched potato cultivars except Jelly and Laura were infected by PVY with different concentrations. PLRV was found only in three potato cultivars (Sante, Jelly, Red Sonia) and PVM virus (3.12%) was characterized with low prevalence. PVX, PVA and PVS virus infection was not reported. It would be noted that 7.9% of samples were containing PVY/PLRV mix infection. Based on the results it can be concluded that PVY and PLRV infections are dominant in all research cultivars. Therefore significant yield losses are expected. Systematic, long-term control of potato viral infection, especially seed-potatoes, must be regarded as the most important factor to increase seed productivity.

Keywords: Diseases, Infection, Virus, potato

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1 Scaling up Potato Economic Opportunities: Evaluation of Youths Participation in Potato Value Chain in Nigeria

Authors: Chigozirim N. Onwusiribe, Jude A. Mbanasor

Abstract:

The potato value chain when harnessed can engage numerous youths and aid in the fight against poverty, malnutrition and unemployment. This study seeks to evaluate the level of youth participation in the potato value chain in Nigeria. Specifically, this study will examine the extent of youth participation in potato value chain, analyze the cost, benefits and sustainability of youth participation in the potato value chain, identify the factors that can propel or hinder youth participation in the potato value chain and make recommendations that will result in the increase in youth employment in the potato value chain. This study was conducted in the North Central and South East geopolitical zones of Nigeria. A multi stage sampling procedure was used to select 540 youths from the study areas. Focused group discussions and survey approach was used to elicit the required data. The data were analyzed using statistical and econometric tools. The study revealed that the potato value chain is very profitable.

Keywords: Enterprise, Youth, Value, potato, chain

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