Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

posture Related Abstracts

10 Potential Field Functions for Motion Planning and Posture of the Standard 3-Trailer System

Authors: S. Singh, K. Raghuwaiya, B. Sharma, J. Vanualailai

Abstract:

This paper presents a set of artificial potential field functions that improves upon; in general, the motion planning and posture control, with theoretically guaranteed point and posture stabilities, convergence and collision avoidance properties of 3-trailer systems in a priori known environment. We basically design and inject two new concepts; ghost walls and the Distance Optimization Technique (DOT) to strengthen point and posture stabilities, in the sense of Lyapunov, of our dynamical model. This new combination of techniques emerges as a convenient mechanism for obtaining feasible orientations at the target positions with an overall reduction in the complexity of the navigation laws. The effectiveness of the proposed control laws were demonstrated via simulations of two traffic scenarios.

Keywords: Motion Planning, posture, artificial potential fields, parking and collision, free trajectories

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9 Motion Planning and Posture Control of the General 3-Trailer System

Authors: K. Raghuwaiya, B. Sharma, J. Vanualailai

Abstract:

This paper presents a set of artificial potential field functions that improves upon; in general, the motion planning and posture control, with theoretically guaranteed point and posture stabilities, convergence and collision avoidance properties of the general 3-trailer system in a priori known environment. We basically design and inject two new concepts; ghost walls and the distance optimization technique (DOT) to strengthen point and posture stabilities, in the sense of Lyapunov, of our dynamical model. This new combination of techniques emerges as a convenient mechanism for obtaining feasible orientations at the target positions with an overall reduction in the complexity of the navigation laws. Simulations are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the controls laws.

Keywords: Motion Planning, posture, artificial potential fields

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8 Neuromuscular Control and Performance during Sudden Acceleration in Subjects with and without Unilateral Acute Ankle Sprains

Authors: M. Qorbani

Abstract:

Neuromuscular control of posture as understood through studies of responses to mechanical sudden acceleration automatically has been previously demonstrated in individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI), but the presence of acute condition has not been previously explored specially in a sudden acceleration. The aim of this study was to determine neuromuscular control pattern in those with and without unilateral acute ankle sprains. Design: Case - control. Setting: University research laboratory. The sinker–card protocol with surface translation was be used as a sudden acceleration protocol with study of EMG upon 4 posture stabilizer muscles in two sides of the body in response to sudden acceleration in forward and backward directions. 20 young adult women in two groups (10 LAS; 23.9 ± 2.03 yrs and 10 normal; 26.4 ± 3.2 yrs). The data of EMG were assessed by using multivariate test and one-way repeated measures 2×2×4 ANOVA (P< 0.05). The results showed a significant muscle by direction interaction. Higher TA activity of left and right side in LAS group than normal group in forward direction significantly be showed. Higher MGR activity in normal group than LAS group in backward direction significantly showed. These findings suggest that compared two sides of the body in two directions for 4 muscles EMG activities between and within group for neuromuscular control of posture in avoiding fall. EMG activations of two sides of the body in lateral ankle sprain (LAS) patients were symmetric significantly. Acute ankle instability following once ankle sprains caused to coordinated temporal spatial patterns and strategy selection.

Keywords: posture, neuromuscular response, sEMG, lateral ankle sprain

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7 Realistic Study Discover Some Posture Deformities According to Some Biomechanical Variables for Schoolchildren

Authors: Basman Abdul Jabbar

Abstract:

The researchers aimed to improve the importance of the good posture without any divisions & deformities. The importance of research lied in the discovery posture deformities early so easily treated before its transformation into advanced abnormalities difficult to treat and may need surgical intervention. Research problem was noting that some previous studies were based on the discovery of posture deformities, which was dependent on the (self-evaluation) which this type did not have accuracy to discover deformities. The Samples were (500) schoolchildren aged (9-11 years, males) at Baghdad al Karak. They were students at primary schools. The measure included all posture deformities. The researcher used video camera to analyze the posture deformities according to biomechanical variables by Kinovea software for motion analysis. The researcher recommended the need to use accurate scientific methods for early detection of posture deformities in children which contribute to the prevention and reduction of distortions.

Keywords: Biomechanics, Children, posture, deformities

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6 Effects of a Head Mounted Display Adaptation on Reaching Behaviour: Implications for a Therapeutic Approach in Unilateral Neglect

Authors: Kazu Amimoto, Taku Numao, Tomoko Shimada, Kyohei Ichikawa

Abstract:

Background: Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) is a common syndrome following damage to one hemisphere of the brain (usually the right side), in which a patient fails to report or respond to stimulation from the contralesional side. These symptoms are not due to primary sensory or motor deficits, but instead, reflect an inability to process input from that side of their environment. Prism adaptation (PA) is a therapeutic treatment for USN, wherein a patient’s visual field is artificially shifted laterally, resulting in a sensory-motor adaptation. However, patients with USN also tend to perceive a left-leaning subjective vertical in the frontal plane. The traditional PA cannot be used to correct a tilt in the subjective vertical, because a prism can only polarize, not twist, the surroundings. However, this can be accomplished using a head mounted display (HMD) and a web-camera. Therefore, this study investigated whether an HMD system could be used to correct the spatial perception of USN patients in the frontal as well as the horizontal plane. We recruited healthy subjects in order to collect data for the refinement of USN patient therapy. Methods: Eight healthy subjects sat on a chair wearing a HMD (Oculus rift DK2), with a web-camera (Ovrvision) displaying a 10 degree leftward rotation and a 10 degree counter-clockwise rotation along the frontal plane. Subjects attempted to point a finger at one of four targets, assigned randomly, a total of 48 times. Before and after the intervention, each subject’s body-centre judgment (BCJ) was tested by asking them to point a finger at a touch panel straight in front of their xiphisternum, 10 times sight unseen. Results: Intervention caused the location pointed to during the BCJ to shift 35 ± 17 mm (Ave ± SD) leftward in the horizontal plane, and 46 ± 29 mm downward in the frontal plane. The results in both planes were significant by paired-t-test (p<.01). Conclusions: The results in the horizontal plane are consistent with those observed following PA. Furthermore, the HMD and web-camera were able to elicit 3D effects, including in both the horizontal and frontal planes. Future work will focus on applying this method to patients with and without USN, and investigating whether subject posture is also affected by the HMD system.

Keywords: posture, head mounted display, prism adaptation, unilateral spatial neglect

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5 Model Development for Real-Time Human Sitting Posture Detection Using a Camera

Authors: Jheanel E. Estrada, Larry A. Vea

Abstract:

This study developed model to detect proper/improper sitting posture using the built in web camera which detects the upper body points’ location and distances (chin, manubrium and acromion process). It also established relationships of human body frames and proper sitting posture. The models were developed by training some well-known classifiers such as KNN, SVM, MLP, and Decision Tree using the data collected from 60 students of different body frames. Decision Tree classifier demonstrated the most promising model performance with an accuracy of 95.35% and a kappa of 0.907 for head and shoulder posture. Results also showed that there were relationships between body frame and posture through Body Mass Index.

Keywords: Image Processing, Ergonomics, posture, gyroscope, spinal points

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4 Mechanical Advantages of the ‘KZ Bag’ on Spine and Posture of School Aged Children

Authors: Khulood Zahran

Abstract:

Background and Purpose: The effects of backpack on 'school-age' children (Age 9–12) years, have been a critical subject of discussion throughout the past years. It has been one of the factors that contribute to a bad posture for 40% to 70% of developed countries. A child carrying a heavy backpack for a prolonged period, on a daily base has shown significant changes in the child's spinal posture, foot shape, and gait. The back pain caused by the compensatory posture, or "Backpack syndrome", is also known for its headaches, fatigue, cervical and lumber pain caused by the abnormal body posture. The child tends to balance himself by bending forward to match the heavy backpack, moving his Centre of Gravity forward, resulting in decreased lumber lordosis and increased thoracic kyphosis. Since currently available bags have not addressed the weight distribution issue till now. Therefore, KZ bag is believed to prevent the huge backward shift of COG due to the load, and hence all the symptoms accompanied. This is thought to be possible by combining the design of a normal backpack with a messenger bag. The purpose of this study is to investigate the improvement of the child's spine and to minimize the compensatory posture after using the KZ bag. Materials and Methods: KZ bag would compromise the pros of a messenger bag (keeping the COG in place) by a diagonal load strap and of a backpack (distributing the load on both shoulders) by connecting another load strap parallel to the sagittal plane of the body. The design would be made adjustable to match the child's height, and the bag load kept within limits, (10-15%) of the child's body weight. Measurements of Postural angles (Cervical, shoulders, and Trunk) would be taken after the use of KZ bag for a specified period. Conclusion: KZ bag will prove an improved distribution of weight of the bag on the child's body, and reduce the degree of the compensatory posture, that occurs in the attempt to balance the external weight of the bag.

Keywords: Spine, posture, backpack, backpack syndrome

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3 An Anthropometric and Postural Risk Assessment of Students in Computer Laboratories of a State University

Authors: Sarah Louise Cruz, Jemille Venturina

Abstract:

Ergonomics considers the capabilities and limitations of a person as they interact with tools, equipment, facilities and tasks in their work environment. Workplace is one example of physical work environment, be it a workbench or a desk. In school laboratories, sitting is the most common working posture of the students. Students maintain static sitting posture as they perform different computer-aided activities. The College of Engineering and College of Information and Communication Technology of a State University consist of twenty-two computer laboratories. Normally, students aren’t usually aware of the importance of sustaining proper sitting posture while doing their long hour computer laboratory activities. The study evaluates the perceived discomfort and working postures of students as they are exposed on current workplace design of computer laboratories. The current study utilizes Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), Body Discomfort Chart using Borg’s CR-10 Scale Rating and Quick Exposure Checklist in order to assess the posture and the current working condition. The result of the study may possibly minimize the body discomfort experienced by the students. The researchers redesign the individual workstations which includes working desk, sitting stool and other workplace design components. Also, the economic variability of each alternative was considered given that the study focused on improvement of facilities of a state university.

Keywords: Ergonomics, workplace, students, posture, computer workstation

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2 Adjustment of the Whole-Body Center of Mass during Trunk-Flexed Walking across Uneven Ground

Authors: Soran Aminiaghdam, Christian Rode, Reinhard Blickhan, Astrid Zech

Abstract:

Despite considerable studies on the impact of imposed trunk posture on human walking, less is known about such locomotion while negotiating changes in ground level. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavior of the VBCOM in response to a two-fold expected perturbation, namely alterations in body posture and in ground level. To this end, the kinematic data and ground reaction forces of twelve able participants were collected. We analyzed the vertical position of the body center of mass (VBCOM) from the ground determined by the body segmental analysis method relative to the laboratory coordinate system at touchdown and toe-off instants during walking across uneven ground — characterized by perturbation contact (a 10-cm visible drop) and pre- and post-perturbation contacts — in comparison to unperturbed level contact while maintaining three postures (regular erect, ~30° and ~50° of trunk flexion from the vertical). The VBCOM was normalized to the distance between the greater trochanter marker and the lateral malleoli marker at the instant of TD. Moreover, we calculated the backward rotation during step-down as the difference of the maximum of the trunk angle in the pre-perturbation contact and the minimal trunk angle in the perturbation contact. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs revealed contact-specific effects of posture on the VBCOM at touchdown (F = 5.96, p = 0.00). As indicated by the analysis of simple main effects, during unperturbed level and pre-perturbation contacts, no between-posture differences for the VBCOM at touchdown were found. In the perturbation contact, trunk-flexed gaits showed a significant increase of VBCOM as compared to the pre-perturbation contact. In the post-perturbation contact, the VBCOM demonstrated a significant decrease in all gait postures relative to the preceding corresponding contacts with no between-posture differences. Main effects of posture revealed that the VBCOM at toe-off significantly decreased in trunk-flexed gaits relative to the regular erect gait. For the main effect of contact, the VBCOM at toe-off demonstrated changes across perturbation and post-perturbation contacts as compared to the unperturbed level contact. Furthermore, participants exhibited a backward trunk rotation during step-down possibly to control the angular momentum of their whole body. A more pronounced backward trunk rotation (2- to 3-fold compared with level contacts) in trunk-flexed walking contributed to the observed elevated VBCOM during the step-down which may have facilitated drop negotiation. These results may shed light on the interaction between posture and locomotion in able gait, and specifically on the behavior of the body center of mass during perturbed locomotion.

Keywords: Walking, posture, perturbation, center of mass, uneven ground

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1 A Comparison of Proxemics and Postural Head Movements during Pop Music versus Matched Music Videos

Authors: Harry J. Witchel, James Ackah, Carlos P. Santos, Nachiappan Chockalingam, Carina E. I. Westling

Abstract:

Introduction: Proxemics is the study of how people perceive and use space. It is commonly proposed that when people like or engage with a person/object, they will move slightly closer to it, often quite subtly and subconsciously. Music videos are known to add entertainment value to a pop song. Our hypothesis was that by adding appropriately matched video to a pop song, it would lead to a net approach of the head to the monitor screen compared to simply listening to an audio-only version of the song. Methods: We presented to 27 participants (ages 21.00 ± 2.89, 15 female) seated in front of 47.5 x 27 cm monitor two musical stimuli in a counterbalanced order; all stimuli were based on music videos by the band OK Go: Here It Goes Again (HIGA, boredom ratings (0-100) = 15.00 ± 4.76, mean ± SEM, standard-error-of-the-mean) and Do What You Want (DWYW, boredom ratings = 23.93 ± 5.98), which did not differ in boredom elicited (P = 0.21, rank-sum test). Each participant experienced each song only once, and one song (counterbalanced) as audio-only versus the other song as a music video. The movement was measured by video-tracking using Kinovea 0.8, based on recording from a lateral aspect; before beginning, each participant had a reflective motion tracking marker placed on the outer canthus of the left eye. Analysis of the Kinovea X-Y coordinate output in comma-separated-variables format was performed in Matlab, as were non-parametric statistical tests. Results: We found that the audio-only stimuli (combined for both HIGA and DWYW, mean ± SEM, 35.71 ± 5.36) were significantly more boring than the music video versions (19.46 ± 3.83, P = 0.0066 Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (WSRT), Cohen's d = 0.658, N = 28). We also found that participants' heads moved around twice as much during the audio-only versions (speed = 0.590 ± 0.095 mm/sec) compared to the video versions (0.301 ± 0.063 mm/sec, P = 0.00077, WSRT). However, the participants' mean head-to-screen distances were not detectably smaller (i.e. head closer to the screen) during the music videos (74.4 ± 1.8 cm) compared to the audio-only stimuli (73.9 ± 1.8 cm, P = 0.37, WSRT). If anything, during the audio-only condition, they were slightly closer. Interestingly, the ranges of the head-to-screen distances were smaller during the music video (8.6 ± 1.4 cm) compared to the audio-only (12.9 ± 1.7 cm, P = 0.0057, WSRT), the standard deviations were also smaller (P = 0.0027, WSRT), and their heads were held 7 mm higher (video 116.1 ± 0.8 vs. audio-only 116.8 ± 0.8 cm above floor, P = 0.049, WSRT). Discussion: As predicted, sitting and listening to experimenter-selected pop music was more boring than when the music was accompanied by a matched, professionally-made video. However, we did not find that the proxemics of the situation led to approaching the screen. Instead, adding video led to efforts to control the head to a more central and upright viewing position and to suppress head fidgeting.

Keywords: Engagement, posture, boredom, music videos, proxemics

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