Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Related Abstracts

3 The Impact of Psychiatric Symptoms on Return to Work after Occupational Injury

Authors: Kuan-Han Lin, Kuan-Yin Lin, Ka-Chun Siu

Abstract:

The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the impact of post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) symptom or depressive symptoms on return to work (RTW) after occupational injury. The original articles of clinical trials and observational studies from PubMed, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO between January 1980 and November 2016 were retrieved. Two reviewers evaluated the abstracts identified by the search criteria for full-text review. To be included in the final analysis, studies were required to use either intervention or observational study design to examine the association between psychiatric symptoms and RTW. A modified checklist designed by Downs & Black and Crombie was used to assess the methodological quality of included study. A total of 58 articles were identified from the electronic databases after duplicate removed. Seven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were critically reviewed. The rates of RTW in the included studies were reported to be 6% to 63.6% among workers after occupational injuries. This review found that post-traumatic stress symptom and depressive symptoms were negatively associated with RTW. Although the impact of psychiatric symptoms on RTW after occupational injury remains poorly understood, this review brought up the important information that injured workers with psychiatric symptoms had poor RTW outcome. Future work should address the effective management of psychiatric factors affecting RTW among workers.

Keywords: Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, return to work, occupational injury, depressive symptom

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2 Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Problem Alcohol Use in Women: Systematic Analysis

Authors: Neringa Bagdonaitė

Abstract:

Study Aims: The current study aimed to systematically analyse various research done in the area of female post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol abuse, and to critically review these results on the basis of theoretical models as well as answer following questions: (I) What is the reciprocal relationship between PTSD and problem alcohol use among females; (II) What are the moderating/mediating factors of this relationship? Methods: The computer bibliographic databases Ebsco, Scopus, Springer, Web of Science, Medline, Science Direct were used to search for scientific articles. Systematic analyses sample consisted of peer-reviewed, English written articles addressing mixed gender and female PTSD and alcohol abuse issues from Jan 2012 to May 2017. Results: Total of 1011 articles were found in scientific databases related to searched keywords of which 29 met the selection criteria and were analysed. The results of longitudinal studies indicate that (I) various trauma, especially interpersonal trauma exposure in childhood is linked with increased risk of revictimization in later life and problem alcohol use; (II) revictimization in adolescence or adulthood, rather than victimization in childhood has a greater impact on the onset and progression of problematic alcohol use in adulthood. Cross-sectional and epidemiological studies also support significant relationships between female PTSD and problem alcohol use. Regards to the negative impact of alcohol use on PTSD symptoms results are yet controversial; some evidence suggests that alcohol does not exacerbate symptoms of PTSD over time, while others argue that problem alcohol use worsens PTSD symptoms and is linked to chronicity of both disorders, especially among women with previous alcohol use problems. Analysis of moderating/mediating factors of PTSD and problem alcohol use revealed, that higher motives/expectancies, specifically distress coping motives for alcohol use significantly moderates the relationship between PTSD and problematic alcohol use. Whereas negative affective states mediate relationship between symptoms of PTSD and alcohol use, but only among woman with alcohol use problems already developed. Conclusions: Interpersonal trauma experience, especially in childhood and its reappearance in lifetime is linked with PTSD symptoms and problem drinking among women. Moreover, problem alcohol use can be both a cause and a consequence of trauma and PTSD, and if used for coping it, increases the likelihood of chronicity of both disorders. In order to effectively treat both disorders, it’s worthwhile taking into account this dynamic interplay of women's PTSD symptoms and problem drinking.

Keywords: Trauma, Female, Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, problem alcohol use, systemic analysis

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1 Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Exhibited by Secondary School Students Exposed to Conflict in Kano Metropolis: Efficacy of a Brief Intervention

Authors: Valentine Ayo Mebu

Abstract:

The study examined the efficacy of a brief intervention programme in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms exhibited by secondary school students exposed to conflict in Kano metropolis. The study tested three hypotheses that there is no significant difference between post-test re-experiencing, hyper-arousal, and avoidance mean scores of students exposed to the intervention and those who were not exposed to the intervention. The design of the study was an experimental design, specifically the pre-test and post-test control group design. The purposive sampling technique was used to select 60 research participants (male=30, female=30, Mean Age=15.50) for the study. These participants met the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria of PTSD symptoms and were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups, respectively. Instrument for data collection was the University of California Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (UCLA PTSD Index). Findings from the study indicated that there was a significant effect of the intervention on post re-experiencing symptoms scores [ F (1, 57) = 85.97, p=.00, partial eta squared η²=.60], hyper-arousal symptoms scores[ F (1, 57) = 27.81, p=.00, partial eta squared η² =.33], and avoidance symptoms scores [ F (1, 57) = 59.56, p=.00, partial eta squared η² =.51]. The efficacy of this brief psycho-educational intervention as an effective treatment in reducing PTSD symptoms among secondary school students exposed to conflict is supported by the results of this study and this will also add to the existing literature on the effectiveness of psycho-educational intervention in treating PTSD symptoms among students exposed to conflict.

Keywords: Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, psycho-education, avoidance symptoms, hyper-arousal symptoms, re-experiencing symptoms

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